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Child Abuse Negl ; 74: 10-22, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100668


This article provides an overview and critical analysis of inquiries into historical institutional child abuse and examines their multiple functions and complex effects. The article takes a broadly international view but focuses primarily on Australia, the UK and Ireland, jurisdictions in which there have been major national inquiries. Drawing on sociological and other social science literature, it begins by considering the forms, functions, and purposes of inquiries. An overview of emergent concerns with institutional abuse in the 1980s and 1990s is then provided, followed by an examination of the response of many governments since that time in establishing inquiries. Key findings and recommendations are considered. The final sections of the article explore the evaluation of inquiries, both during their operation and in their aftermath. Policy change and legislative reform are discussed but the focus is on aspects often underplayed or overlooked, including an inquiry's credibility, its role in processes of knowledge production, and the part it plays in producing social and cultural shifts. In the context of growing numbers of inquiries across Western democracies, including the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, it is argued that grasping the complexity of the inquiry mechanism, with its inherent tensions and its multiple effects, is crucial to evaluating inquiry outcomes.

Abuso Sexual Infantil/historia , Abuso Sexual Infantil/legislación & jurisprudencia , Servicios de Protección Infantil/historia , Servicios de Protección Infantil/legislación & jurisprudencia , Niño Institucionalizado/historia , Niño Institucionalizado/legislación & jurisprudencia , Orfanatos/historia , Orfanatos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Australia , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/prevención & control , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Protección Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño Institucionalizado/estadística & datos numéricos , Comparación Transcultural , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Irlanda , Orfanatos/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación , Reino Unido
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 23(2): 321-40, 2016 01 26.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27276039


This article analyzes the root causes of the shortage of social support for the relatives of people with leprosy, especially their children, in the state of Goiás, Central West region of Brazil, between 1920 and 1962. It focuses on the constitution of discourses that defined the medical and philanthropic care for the children of people isolated in leper colonies as a problem, and how this process resulted in the organization of the Society for the Welfare of Lepers and Defense Against Leprosy, and the construction of Afrânio de Azevedo children's home in Goiânia, the state capital. These elements are directly associated with the construction of a new approach in the regional history and social and medical policies for leprosy.

Servicios de Protección Infantil/historia , Lepra/historia , Bienestar Social/historia , Brasil , Niño , Bienestar del Niño/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Colonias de Leprosos/historia , Lepra/terapia
Oral Dis ; 22(7): 605-8, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27027280


Dental teams have been involved with child protection for over 40 years. This brief review summarises their involvement in the detection of various types of child abuse and goes on to discuss the gap between the proportions of dental professionals who suspect child abuse or neglect in their paediatric patients and those who refer such cases on. Potential reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, and a glimpse of the future is given as to where further research may be necessary to tackle this existing gap.

Servicios de Protección Infantil/historia , Servicios de Protección Infantil/tendencias , Odontología/tendencias , Historia de la Odontología , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/historia , Maltrato a los Niños/legislación & jurisprudencia , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
Child Abuse Negl ; 41: 3-18, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25700778


Created by amendments in 1988 to the Child Abuse Treatment and Prevention Act of 1974 and first convened in 1989, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect issued a series of passion- and research-laden reports that articulated a new neighborhood-based strategy for child protection in the United States. In so doing, the Board went far beyond the vision of its congressional creators, the most relevant federal agencies, and the field itself. The dedication, daring, collegiality, and public spirit of the drafters and ultimately the moral and intellectual power of the reports themselves were awe-inspiring, as was the level of public attention given to the Board's initial declaration of a national emergency. However, the specific effects on policy were quite limited. Possible reasons for the enormous gap between the strength of the Board's vision and the weakness of its implementation are reviewed. In the end, the history of the Board may be a case study of a single but notable step in a long process toward redemptive cultural change in the status and safety of children.

Comités Consultivos/historia , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Servicios de Protección Infantil/historia , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/historia , Política de Salud/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Estados Unidos