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2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1670, 2019 Dec 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830926

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) and self-regulation skills are important for their later health. Few preschool-based interventions aiming to promote preschoolers' EBRBs and self-regulation skills, simultaneously reducing differences in EBRBs, due to children's socio-economic status (SES) background, have been conducted. This study will present the Increased Health and Wellbeing in Preschools (DAGIS) intervention development process applying the Intervention Mapping (IM) framework. METHODS: The development of the DAGIS intervention study, a preschool level clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT), was based on the IM framework. The protocol in IM guides the development process of an intervention through six steps: needs assessment and logic model of the problem, programme outcomes and objectives, design of the programme, production, implementation plan, and evaluation plan. RESULTS: The needs assessment, part of the step 1 in IM, yielded the base for the DAGIS logic model of change. The model includes objectives related to changes in children's EBRBs, self-regulation skills, and in psychosocial and physical environment that is determined by parents and early educators. A 22-week programme was developed, and materials for preschools and families were produced. A feasibility study of the recruitment processes, acceptability of the materials and methods, and implementation was conducted. The DAGIS intervention study was conducted September 2017-May 2018 as a clustered RCT including a comprehensive effectiveness and process evaluation. The process evaluation was run throughout the intervention targeting preschools and families. CONCLUSION: A preschool-based family-involving programme was developed in the DAGIS intervention study by applying the IM protocol. It was a time- and resource-consuming process. However, the systematic planning, development, and running of the programme have reinforced a comprehensive evaluation, which is a strength in the intervention. The results from the evaluation will enhance the knowledge of how to promote EBRBs and self-regulation skills among preschoolers, and diminish SES differences in them. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN57165350 (Prospectively registered January the 8th, 2015).


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil/psicología , Metabolismo Energético , Familia/psicología , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Autocontrol/psicología , Preescolar , Humanos , Desarrollo de Programa
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1680, 2019 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842809

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Access to usable water, sanitation and hygiene provision in schools is included within indicators in the Sustainable Development Goals. Progress towards these indicators is dependent on developing an understanding of which intervention components are most effective to operate and maintain usable services. This study aimed to determine the impact of a school toilet operation and management intervention in the Philippines on toilet usability and student and teacher satisfaction, adjusted for clustering at school level. METHODS: In a non-blinded cluster randomised controlled trial, we compared improvements in usability and cleanliness of school toilets among those schools receiving a low-cost, replicable intervention. Toilet usability was measured based on Sustainable Development Goal indicators related to school sanitation defined by the UNICEF/WHO Joint Monitoring Programme for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Intervention schools received consumables, support kits, and structured tools designed to facilitate operation and maintenance of sanitation facilities. The primary outcome, toilet usability and cleanliness, was compared through a difference-in-difference analysis of toilet usability. Secondary outcomes of student and teacher satisfaction were measured through a survey at endline. All outcomes were adjusted for clustering at school level. RESULTS: 20 eligible schools in the Batangas region of the Philippines were randomly selected and allocated to either control or intervention group. We found that non-classroom toilets were 48% more likely to meet quality benchmarks in intervention schools, but this was not statistically significant. When including in-classroom toilets in the analysis, there were no significant differences in toilet usability - defined as accessible, functional, private and of high quality - between intervention and control schools. When stratified by toilet location, children in the intervention group clusters expressed a minor, but statistically significant increase in overall satisfaction with sanitation facilities (p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in schools focusing on operation and maintenance showed potential to improve toilet usability, but universal achievement of SDG targets may require additional efforts addressing toilet infrastructure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03204175, June 2017 prior to participant enrolment.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Cuartos de Baño/normas , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Masculino , Satisfacción Personal , Filipinas , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Saneamiento/normas , Maestros/psicología , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1455, 2019 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694590

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The development of school-based programs for preventing adolescent sexual harassment often lacks an evidence-based approach and use of proper theories. Appropriate stakeholders are often not involved in the development process. To help improve this process, we used the Intervention Mapping framework to retrospectively evaluate the development of two school-based programs, Benzies & Batchies and Boys, each of which was intended to prevent sexual harassment among adolescent students of a lower educational level in the Netherlands. The two interventions were among the first school-based programs targeting sexual harassment, and were implemented in Dutch secondary schools. METHODS: As well as doing desk research into the context and content of the interventions, we used semi-structured focused interviews with the initial developers to gather their opinions on and experiences with the development process, whereby the topics were based on the six steps of the IM framework. To better suit the needs of the respondents, we had adapted the language of our topics and had used open-ended questions The data we had gathered from the desk research and face-to-face consultations were checked against a planning tool that was based on 19 tasks within the six steps of IM. RESULTS: Although both programs had been developed in practice and lacked a thorough theoretical foundation, the methods and materials used represented aspects of behavior-change theories. The developers of Benzies & Batchies completed slightly more planning criteria within the six steps of the planning process, and used more change methods than the developers of Boys did. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that parents should also be involved in the development of sex and relationship education programs, and should be allowed to participate in the program itself. To meet the needs of intervention developers, greater insight is needed into the importance of the individual steps in the Intervention Mapping framework. In our view, the development of practice-based interventions will improve if future intervention developers combine evidence-based theories with their practice-based experience. This will increase the success and effectiveness of their interventions.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista/métodos , Implementación de Plan de Salud/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Acoso Sexual/prevención & control , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Bajos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudiantes/psicología
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1406, 2019 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664976

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cost is an important determinant of health program implementation. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the implementation strategy of Mozambique's school-based HPV vaccine demonstration project. We sought to estimate the total costs for the program, cost per fully immunized girl (FIG), and compute projections for the total cost of implementing a similar national level vaccination program. METHODS: We collected primary data through document review, participatory observation, and key informant interviews at all levels of the national health system and Ministry of Education. We used a combination of micro-costing methods-identification and measurement of resource quantities and valuation by application of unit costs, and gross costing-for consideration of resource bundles as they apply to the number of vaccinated girls. We extrapolated the cost per FIG to the HPV-vaccine-eligible population of Mozambique, to demonstrate the projected total annual cost for two scenarios of a similarly executed HPV vaccine program. RESULTS: The total cost of the Mozambique HPV vaccine demonstration project was $523,602. The mean cost per FIG was $72 (Credibility Intervals (CI): $62 - $83) in year one, $38 (CI: $37 - $40) in year two, and $54 CI: $49 - $61) for years one and two. The mean cost per FIG with the third HPV vaccine dose excluded from consideration was $60 (CI: $50 - $72) in year one, $38 (CI: $31 - $46) in year two, and $48 (CI: $42 - $55) for years one and two. The mean cost per FIG when only one HPV vaccine dose is considered was $30 (CI: $27 - $33)) in year one, $19 (CI: $15-$23) in year two, and $24 (CI: $22-$27) for both years. The projected annual cost of a two-and one-dose vaccine program targeting all 10-year-old girls in the country was $18.2 m (CI: $15.9 m - $20.7 m) and $9 m (CI: $8 m - $10 m) respectively. CONCLUSION: National adaptation and scale-up of Mozambique's school-based HPV vaccine strategy may result in substantial costs depending on dosing. For sustainability, stakeholders will need to negotiate vaccine price and achieve higher efficiency in startup activities and demand creation.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/administración & dosificación , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/economía , Servicios de Salud Escolar/economía , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Niño , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Femenino , Humanos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Mozambique/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1203, 2019 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477088

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few adolescent girls engage in enough physical activity (PA) to meet recommendations and there is a need for new interventions to increase girls PA. We have previously published the results of the PLAN-A cluster randomised feasibility trial which was a peer-led school-based PA intervention, showing that the intervention was feasible and held promise to increase the PA of girls aged 12-13 years. In PLAN-A, pupils nominated by their peers as influential attend training to teach them how to influence, promote and normalise physical activity amongst their peer-group. This paper reports the results of the process evaluation of the PLAN-A feasibility study, specifically focussing on acceptability to key stakeholders, intervention fidelity, receipt/experiences and perceived effect and suggested intervention refinements before proceeding to a definitive RCT. METHODS: A mixed-methods process evaluation triangulated data from qualitative focus groups and interviews with peer-supporter and non peer-supporter pupils (N = 52), parents (N = 12), teachers (N = 6) and intervention training deliverers (N = 5), quantitative questionnaires, and observations of intervention delivery. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively, and qualitative data were analysed with the Framework Method. RESULTS: The duration, timings, content and delivery of the peer-supporter training were acceptable. There was good fidelity to the intervention manual and its underpinning theory including high fulfilment of session objectives and use of an autonomy-supportive motivational style. Peer-supporters engaged with and enjoyed the training and retained key peer-supporter messages (what counts as PA, encouragement, empathy and subtlety). Parents and teachers were supportive of the intervention and reported perceived effects including increased PA and awareness of it, improved peer relationships, and confidence. Suggested intervention refinements included increasing participatory learning, reducing technical jargon, and providing more support to overcome challenges to giving peer support. CONCLUSIONS: PLAN-A can be delivered as planned, is well-received, and appears to be effective in empowering adolescent girls to support their peer group to become more active. The refinements identified can be made within the original intervention structure, before proceeding to a definitive trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISCTRN, ISRCTN12543546 , Registered on 28/7/2015.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio/psicología , Influencia de los Compañeros , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1239, 2019 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500603

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Primary schools are valuable settings to implement healthy lifestyle (healthy eating and physical activity) interventions, aimed at targeting childhood obesity. This study explored school staff perceptions of factors that hinder and enable successful implementation and sustainability of healthy lifestyle interventions in primary schools. Qualitative data was pooled and analysed from two evaluations carried out in primary schools in North England: a feasibility study of a nutrition and physical activity educational programme (PhunkyFoods Feasibility Study), and an evaluation of a healthy eating programme (The Food Dudes Evaluation). METHODS: Sixty-five qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with head teachers, teachers, catering managers, designated school-based programme coordinators and programme staff supporting schools with programme delivery, at 14 schools involved in both evaluations. Thematic analysis was undertaken and emergent themes categorised using a framework for successful implementation by Durlak and Dupre (2008). RESULTS: Overall, all schools were delivering a range of healthy lifestyle programmes, often with overlapping content. Perceived challenges to implementation of individual programmes included: limited time, timing of implementation, limited training and support, insufficient resources, capacity and facilities, staff perceptions of intervention and perceived skill-proficiency (for cooking and physical activities). Short-term funding, lack of external and internal support were perceived to hinder sustainability. Staff recommendations for successful implementation of future programmes included: extended training and planning time, sufficient capacity, external support for delivery, good resources (interactive, practical and adaptable), and facilities for cooking, healthy eating, gardening and physical activities. Head teachers need to prioritise delivery of a few key healthy lifestyle programmes, in an overcrowded curriculum. Schools need to employ strategies to engage participation of staff, pupils and parents long term. CONCLUSIONS: Effective implementation of school-based healthy lifestyle programmes was thought to be aided by flexible and adaptable programmes, enabling good contextual fit, well-resourced programmes and effective leadership at multiple levels, pupil (pupils support delivery) and parent involvement. To facilitate sustainability, it was perceived that programmes need to be integrated within the curriculum and school policies long term, with sustained support from head teachers and staff. These findings are relevant to programme developers, policy makers and those involved in delivering interventions.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Maestros/psicología , Instituciones Académicas/organización & administración , Niño , Inglaterra , Ejercicio , Humanos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1111, 2019 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412818

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Numerous interventions to increase children's physical activity levels are published, yet, few studies report indicators of external validity. Process evaluations are critical for assessing intervention implementation, sustainability and effectiveness. A mixed-methods process evaluation, using the RE-AIM framework, was conducted to evaluate the internal and external validity of Action 3:30R, a revised teaching assistant-led after-school intervention which aimed to increase physical activity in children aged 8-10 years and was underpinned by Self-determination Theory (SDT). METHODS: Data were collected and reported in line with the five components of RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance). Quantitative measures included logbooks, registers and self-reported teaching-efficacy, autonomy support, child enjoyment and perceived exertion questionnaires. Questionnaire data were collected at three points throughout the 15-week intervention. Observations by trained researchers were also conducted to assess fidelity to the intervention manual and its underpinning theory. Post-intervention focus groups with pupils and interviews with teaching assistants (TAs), school staff and external stakeholders explored the implementation and potential sustainability of Action 3:30R from stakeholders' perspectives. RESULTS: Action 3:30R appealed to a broad range of pupils, including girls and less-active pupils. The Action 3:30R TA training was implemented as intended and was perceived as valuable professional development. Releasing staff for training was a barrier in two of the six intervention schools, which were unable to deliver the intervention as a result. Pupils enjoyed the intervention, and the Action 3:30R core principles underpinned by SDT were implemented with high fidelity, as was the intervention itself. Scheduling conflicts with other clubs and lack of parental support were perceived as the main barriers to recruitment and attendance. Lack of space and season were cited as the main barriers affecting the quality of delivery. The study shows evidence of maintenance, as one intervention school decided to continue Action 3:30R beyond the study. Funding and continued TA training were suggested as factors which may affect the maintenance of Action 3:30R. CONCLUSIONS: Action 3:30R is an enjoyable, autonomy-supportive after-school programme, which engages a range of pupils and offers TAs valuable training. RE-AIM provided helpful structure and is recommended for intervention evaluations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN34001941 . Prospectively registered 01/12/2016.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Niño , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Autonomía Personal , Placer , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1187, 2019 Aug 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464592

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Girls Active is a physical activity programme, delivered in UK secondary schools, with the aim of increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in girls aged 11-14 years. This study presents the process evaluation as part of a 14-month cluster randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Girls Active programme and which showed no difference in the primary outcome (MVPA at 14 months) between intervention and control arms. METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from intervention schools over the course of the 14 month trial. Feedback forms and attendance records were completed at the end of all teacher and peer leader training and review days. At 7- and 14-months, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the lead Girls Active teacher in all intervention schools (n = 10) and staff from the intervention provider (n = 4) and hub school (n = 1). At 14 months, separate focus groups with peer leaders (n = 8 schools), girls who participated in the evaluation component of the trial (n = 8 schools), and a sample of boys (n = 6 schools) were conducted. All participants in the intervention schools were asked to complete an exit survey at 14 months. Teachers (intervention and control) completed a school environment questionnaire at baseline, 7- and 14-months. RESULTS: The Girls Active programme, i.e., the training and resources, appeared to be well received by teachers and pupils. Factors that may have contributed to the lack of effectiveness include: some initial uncertainty by teachers as to what to do following the initial training, a predominant focus on support activities (e.g., gathering opinions) rather than actual physical activity provision, and school-level constraints that impeded implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Girls Active and what it was trying to achieve was valued by schools. The programme could be improved by providing greater guidance to teachers throughout, the setting of timelines, and providing formal training to peer leaders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN10688342 . Registered 12 January 2015.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16977, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464944

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nutrition is an important modifiable factor in combating overweight and obesity among adolescents. School has been indicated as an effective environment for influencing eating behavior; however, recent reviews assessing school-based interventions specifically for adolescents are scarce. Therefore, we propose the present systematic review with the aim to comprehensively review the quantitative and qualitative literature on the effects of school-based food and nutrition education interventions on adolescent health promotion through healthy eating habits. METHODS: We will search MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, ERIC, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane, LILACS, and ADOLEC. We will include randomized controlled trials (RCT), non-RCT, and controlled before-after studies. Risk of bias will be assessed using the EPOC Risk of Bias Tool for RCT, Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool for non-RCT or controlled before-after, as well as the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) checklist for qualitative studies. We will analyze the overall strength of the evidence for each outcome using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) tool. Two independent researchers will conduct all evaluations and any disagreements will be consulted with a third reviewer. Data analysis and synthesis will be analyzed by the RevMan 5.3 software. We will conduct the study in accordance with the guideline of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses Protocols. RESULT: This review will evaluate the effects of school-based food and nutrition education interventions on adolescent health promotion through healthy eating habits. The primary outcome will be changes in adolescent food consumption. Secondary outcomes will be biological parameters (e.g., body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body composition, etc); biochemical parameters (e.g., glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, etc); qualitative evidences that support or explain the effect of school-based food and nutrition education interventions on adolescent food consumption. CONCLUSION: The findings of this systematic review will summarize the latest evidence of the effects of school-based food and nutrition education interventions on adolescent health promotion. The findings will be an available reference for school-based interventions and other further research. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019116520.


Asunto(s)
/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente , Glucemia , Índice de Masa Corporal , Pesos y Medidas Corporales , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Lípidos/sangre , Proyectos de Investigación
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1167, 2019 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455316

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Existing evidence identifies health benefits for children of additional daily physical activity (PA) on a range of cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. The Daily Mile (TDM) is a popular scheme designed to increase children's PA within the school day. Emerging evidence indicates that participation in TDM can increase children's PA, reduce sedentarism and reduce skinfold measures. However, little is known about the potential effects of TDM as a public health intervention, and the benefits and disbenefits that might flow from wider implementation in 'real world' settings. METHODS: We aimed to identify how TDM is being implemented in a naturalistic setting, and what implications this has for its potential impact on population health. We undertook a rapid ethnographic assessment of uptake and implementation in Lewisham, south London. Data included interviews (n = 22) and focus groups (n = 11) with stakeholders; observations of implementation in 12 classes; and analysis of routine data sources to identify school level factors associated with uptake. RESULTS: Of the 69 primary schools in one borough, 33 (48%) had adopted TDM by September 2018. There were no significant differences between adopters and non-adopters in mean school population size (means 377 vs 397, P = 0.70), mean percentage of children eligible for free school meals (16.2 vs 14.3%, P = 0.39), or mean percentage of children from Black and Minority Ethnic populations (76.3 vs 78.2%, P = 0.41). Addressing obesity was a key incentive for adoption, although a range of health and educational benefits were also hypothesised to accrue from participation. Mapping TDM to the TIDierR-PHP checklist to describe the intervention in practice identified that considerable adaption happened at the level of borough, school, class and pupil. Population health effects are likely to be influenced by the interaction of intervention and context at each of these levels. CONCLUSIONS: Examining TDM in 'real world' settings surfaces adaptions and variations in implementation. This has implications for the likely effects of TDM, and points more broadly to an urgent need for more appropriate methods for evaluating public health impact and implementation in complex contexts.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Antropología Cultural , Niño , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Salud Pública , Investigación Cualitativa
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443294

RESUMEN

The study aimed to develop and evaluate a multicomponent school and home based physical activity (PA) intervention in children in grades 3-7 (aged 8-13 years) and determine the psychological variables that influence PA; 10 × 1 h school-based training sessions, a home-based activity program and 4 × 1 h lifestyle workshops for parents. PA was assessed at an intervention and nearby control school using accelerometers and self-report at 3-time points: baseline, post intervention and 10-week follow-up. Self-efficacy, self-management strategies, enjoyment, perceived barriers to PA, outcome-expectancy and social support were evaluated. The study showed 73% of the children with complete data sets at the intervention school (n = 27) did not increase device measured moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) in the after-school period (3 p.m. to 6 p.m.) or over the whole day or during school break time immediately following the intervention or at follow-up, as compared to 70% of children with complete data sets at the control school (n = 35; p > 0.05 for all). Overall, 59% of boys attained more than double the recommended 120 min of MVPA each day compared to 42% of girls (p = 0.013). At the baseline, children's self-reported PA in the intervention school positively correlated with: outcome expectancy (R = 0.240, p = 0.015), enjoyment (R = 0.339, p < 0.001), self-efficacy (R = 0.399, p < 0.001), self-management (R = 0.617, p < 0.001), social support at home (R = 0.406, p < 0.001), and social support at school (R = 0.407, p < 0.001). Similar relationships were observed after the intervention and at follow-up. Focus groups with the children, parents and interviews with teachers identified areas for improvement of the intervention. In conclusion, while the multifaceted approach to improve PA was ineffective over the time span of the study, important predictors of PA in this sample of disadvantaged children were identified.


Asunto(s)
Niños con Discapacidad/psicología , Ejercicio/psicología , Estado de Salud , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Autoeficacia , Apoyo Social , Poblaciones Vulnerables/psicología , Adolescente , Australia , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 883, 2019 Jul 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272421

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The implementation of interventions at-scale is required to maximise population health benefits. 'Physical Activity 4 Everyone (PA4E1)' was a multi-component school-based program targeting adolescents attending secondary schools in low socio-economic areas. An efficacy trial of the intervention demonstrated an increase in students' mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day and lower weight gain at low incremental cost. This study aims to assess the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a multi-component implementation support intervention to improve implementation, at-scale, of the evidence based school physical activity (PA) practices of the PA4E1 program. Impact on student PA levels and adiposity will also be assessed, in addition to the cost of implementation. METHODS: A cluster randomised controlled trial, utilising an effectiveness-implementation hybrid design, will be conducted in up to 76 secondary schools located in lower socio-economic areas across four health districts in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Schools will be randomly allocated to a usual practice control arm or a multi-component implementation support intervention to embed the seven school PA practices of the PA4E1 program. The implementation support intervention incorporates seven strategies including executive support, in-School Champion, teacher training, resources, prompts, audit and feedback and access to an external Support Officer. The primary trial outcome will be the proportion of schools meeting at least four of the seven physical activity practices of the program, assessed via surveys with Head Physical Education teachers at 12 and 24-months. Secondary outcomes will be assessed via a nested evaluation of student PA and adiposity at 12-months (Grade 8 students) and 24 months (Grade 9 students) undertaken in 30 schools (15 per group). Resource use associated with the implementation intervention will be measured prospectively. Linear mixed effects regression models will assess program effects on the primary outcome at each follow-up period. DISCUSSION: This study is one of few evidence-based multi-component PA programs scaled-up to a large number of secondary schools and evaluated via randomised controlled trial. The use of implementation science theoretical frameworks to implement the evidence-based program and the rigorous evaluation design are strengths of the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12617000681358 registered 12th May 2017. Protocol Version 1.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Ejercicio/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nueva Gales del Sur , Áreas de Pobreza , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Proyectos de Investigación , Servicios de Salud Escolar/economía , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo
15.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219500, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291330

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a serious public health challenge and schools have been identified as an ideal place to implement prevention interventions. The aim of this study was to measure the cost-effectiveness of a multi-faceted school-based obesity prevention intervention targeting children aged 6-7 years when compared to 'usual activities'. METHODS: A cluster randomised controlled trial in 54 schools across the West Midlands (UK) was conducted. The 12-month intervention aimed to increase physical activity by 30 minutes per day and encourage healthy eating. Costs were captured from a public sector perspective and utility-based health related outcomes measured using the CHU-9D. Multiple imputation using chained equations was used to address missing data. The cost effectiveness was measured at 30 months from baseline using a hierarchical net-benefit regression framework, that controlled for clustering and prespecified covariates. Any uncertainty in the results was characterised using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. RESULTS: At 30 months, the total adjusted incremental mean cost of the intervention was £155 (95% confidence interval [CI]: £139, £171), and the incremental mean QALYs gained was 0.006 (95% CI: -0.024, 0.036), per child. The incremental cost-effectiveness at 30 months was £26,815 per QALY and using a standard willingness to pay threshold of £30,000 per QALY, there was a 52% chance that the intervention was cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: The cost-effectiveness of the school-based WAVES intervention was subject to substantial uncertainty. We therefore recommend more research to explore obesity prevention within schools as part of a wider systems approach to obesity prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This paper uses data collected by the WAVES trial: Controlled trials ISRCTN97000586 (registered May 2010).


Asunto(s)
Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Promoción de la Salud/economía , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Servicios de Salud Escolar/economía , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Ejercicio , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Incertidumbre , Reino Unido
16.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 55(2): 124-130, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264635

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Italy, the National Immunization Prevention Plan recommends for adolescents between ages 11 and 18 several vaccines, however their adherence is below the expected coverage. School-based delivery strategies might represent an alternative to primary care settings. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a school-based intervention aimed to increase the vaccination uptake among Italian secondary class students. METHODS: One of the four schools in which a school-based multicomponent intervention was previously carried out has been matched with a control school in the same geographical area. Students' coverage for mandatory and recommended vaccinations was assessed before and after an 8 months period using the Local Health Authority Immunization Register. RESULTS: Seven hundred and fifty-five resident students in the RM Local Health Authority were included: 265 from the intervention school, 490 from the control school. At baseline, the two schools were comparable for grades and sex distribution; the intervention school had significant higher immunization rates for Meningococcal B, but lower ones for the 4th dose of dTap. After eight months, higher percentage of students received the HPV (30.5% vs 13.8% of females; p = 0.003) Meningococcal C (6.0% vs 2.0%; p = 0.005) and Meningococcal B (14.7% vs 0.3%; p <0.001) vaccines in the intervention school compared with control. The pre-post differences between the two schools in the immunization rates were significantly higher in the intervention school for the HPV, Meningococcal C and B vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that a school-based health promotion project was effective in improving the recommended vaccines uptake among adolescents with potential interesting implication for the national target attainment. Considering the importance of informing and educating, innovative school-based health promotion programs could represent an excellent opportunity for the Local Health Authorities to get in touch with a hard-to-reach target. Performance in offering the vaccination in school facilities should be evaluated.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Inmunización , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente , Niño , Vacunas contra Difteria, Tétanos y Tos Ferina Acelular , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Vacunas Meningococicas , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Utilización de Procedimientos y Técnicas , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estudios Retrospectivos , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vacunación/psicología , Cobertura de Vacunación
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323922

RESUMEN

Background: The current study investigated the moderating role of the school context on the effects of a Dutch health promoting school initiative on children's health and health behaviors. Methods: The study used a mixed-methods design. The school context (n = 4) was assessed by the characteristics of the school population, teacher's health-promoting (HP) practices, implementers' perceived barriers, school's HP elements, and dominating organizational issues. Outcomes included objectively assessed BMI z-scores and physical activity (PA), and parent and child-reported dietary intake. Analyses included linear mixed models (four intervention schools versus four control schools), and qualitative comparisons between intervention schools with similar HP changes. Results: Effects on outcomes varied considerably across schools (e.g., range in effect size on light PA of 0.01-0.26). Potentially moderating contextual aspects were the child's socioeconomic background and baseline health behaviors; practices and perceived barriers of employees; and organizational issues at a school level. Conclusions: Similar HP changes lead to different outcomes across schools due to differences in the school context. The adoption of a complex adaptive systems perspective contributes to a better understanding of the variation in effects and it can provide insight on which contextual aspects to focus on or intervene in to optimize the effects of HP initiatives.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Instituciones Académicas/organización & administración , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Bajos
18.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(9): 1668-1685, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346924

RESUMEN

Given the recent rise in adolescent mental health issues, many researchers have turned to school-based mental health programs as a way to reduce stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among large groups of adolescents. The purpose of the current systematic review and meta-analysis is to identify and evaluate the efficacy of school-based programming aimed at reducing internalizing mental health problems of adolescents. A total of 42 articles, including a total of 7310 adolescents, ages 11-18, met inclusion for the meta-analyses. Meta-analyses were completed for each of the three mental health outcomes (stress, depression, and anxiety) and meta-regression was used to determine the influence of type of program, program dose, sex, race, and age on program effectiveness. Overall, stress interventions did not reduce stress symptoms, although targeted interventions showed greater reductions in stress than universal programs. Overall, anxiety interventions significantly reduced anxiety symptoms, however higher doses may be necessary for universal programs. Lastly, depression interventions significantly reduced depressive symptoms, but this reduction was moderated by a combination of program type, dose, race, and age group. Although, school-based programs aimed at decreasing anxiety and depression were effective, these effects are not long-lasting. Interventions aimed at reducing stress were not effective, however very few programs targeted or included stress as an outcome variable. Implications for practice, policy and research are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/prevención & control , Prevención Primaria/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Ansiedad/prevención & control , Niño , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 784, 2019 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221106

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A community-based approach can be a promising strategy for implementing school-based health promotion aimed at stimulating healthy physical activity and dietary behaviour. Such an approach builds on the community capacity of multiple stakeholders, empowering them to design and implement tailored activities, supported by the whole school community. This paper describes the background and evaluation design of the community-based school intervention 'Fit Lifestyle at School and at Home' (FLASH) in four prevocational schools. FLASH includes four strategies for building the community capacity of students, school personnel and parents: 1) identifying leaders in each stakeholder group, 2) stimulating a school culture of participation, 3) having stakeholders design and implement tailored activities and 4) creating a network of local partners for structural embedding. The objective is to monitor the capacity-building processes of the FLASH intervention and to explore if these processes contribute to changes in community capacity. In addition, we will explore if the FLASH intervention is related to changes in PA, dietary behaviours and BMI of students. METHODS: This study has a mixed methods design and uses a participatory action-oriented approach to monitor and evaluate changes in community capacity, tailored health-promotion activities and implementation processes. Methods include semi-structured interviews, focus groups, journals, document analysis and observational scans of the physical environment. In addition, changes in BMI, physical activity and dietary behaviours of prevocational students will be explored by comparing the four intervention schools to four control schools. Data are collected by questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. DISCUSSION: The main strength of this study is its use of mixed methods to evaluate real-life processes of creating a healthy-school community. This will provide valuable information on capacity-building strategies for the structural embedding of health-promotion activities within school settings. The results could help schools become more empowered to adapt and adopt integral health-promotion interventions in daily practice that suit the needs of their communities, that are expected to be sustainable and that could lead to favourable changes in the PA and dietary behaviour of students. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN67201841 ; date registered: 09-05-2019, retrospectively registered.


Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida Saludable , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Dieta/psicología , Ejercicio/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248082

RESUMEN

Schools have an important role to play in combatting suicide, a significant public health problem that disproportionately affects adolescents and young adults. Schools can work to reduce youth suicidality by adopting policies that align with best practice recommendations pertaining to suicide prevention, intervention, and postvention. This study examined the impact of a one-day training, the Creating Suicide Safety in Schools (CSSS) workshop, on the readiness of school personnel to improve their schools' suicide-related policies and procedures. Participants (N = 562) consisted predominantly of school-based mental health professionals working in communities of low or mixed socioeconomic status in New York State. Survey data were collected according to a one-group pre-test-post-test design with a 3-month follow-up. Workshop participants demonstrated improvements from pre-test to post-test in their attitudes about the importance of school-based suicide prevention, knowledge of best practices, perceptions of administrative support, and feelings of empowerment to work collaboratively to enhance their schools' suicide safety. At follow-up, participants reported barriers to implementing changes, most commonly in the form of insufficient time and stigma surrounding the topic of suicide. The results of this study provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the CSSS workshop as a promising method for improving schools' suicide safety, yet additional research using randomized controlled trials needs to be conducted.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Docentes/educación , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Suicidio/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , New York , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
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