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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-11-06.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52998

RESUMEN

Las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT), también conocidas como enfermedades crónicas, suelen ser de larga duración y son el resultado de una combinación de factores genéticos, fisiológicos, ambientales y del comportamiento. Cada año mueren 41 millones de personas a causa de estas enfermedades, lo que equivale al 71% de todas las muertes en el mundo. Esta versión del Conjunto de intervenciones esenciales de la OMS contra las enfermedades no transmisibles para la atención primaria de salud se ha elaborado con el objetivo de integrar las ENT en la atención primaria de salud y de servir de apoyo a las reformas que deben trascender los elementos básicos del sistema nacional de salud. Proporciona protocolos y herramientas para las enfermedades crónicas que fortalecen la capacidad nacional de integrar y ampliar a mayor escala la atención de estas enfermedades en la atención primaria de salud. El conjunto de intervenciones esenciales de la OMS contra las ENT ayudará a mejorar la cobertura de los servicios adecuados para las personas que los necesitan en entornos de atención primaria.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Salud Mental , Factores de Riesgo , Servicios de Salud , Atención a la Salud , Atención Primaria de Salud
2.
Georgian Med News ; (306): 178-183, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130669

RESUMEN

The development of medicine, raising the standards of living and education of the population, along with the increasing level of democratization of society, contribute to the increase of demands on medical practitioners, and the fact that people have legal knowledge, including knowledge related to obtaining medical services, causes an increase in the number of cases of holding medical practitioners liable for their offences. Therefore, this research paper deals with the explanation of human rights, as well as the description of a person's right to health care in the context of the general rights stipulated by the Constitution. In addition, the degree of coverage of the chosen topic of research by domestic scholars and the necessity of its further consideration was determined. At the same time, an insight into the history is provided, where the first cases of holding doctors liable are stated and their punishment is determined. The next step in the study is to determine the nature of legal liability and adapt general definition to the needs of the medical industry. The paper also describes the components of the concepts of medical staff, and identifies two areas of their liability: legal and moral. Continuing the line of research, the types of legal liability are considered: criminal, civil law and administrative, as well as moral liability in the form of disciplinary liability. The peculiarities of holding criminally liable are outlined, the structure of crimes which are committed under this category, the number of criminal cases against medical practitioners initiated in 2019 are analysed, and the possible types of liability for their commission are indicated. In addition, the nature and extent of liability for civil and administrative crimes are revealed, as well as the nature of disciplinary liability and the possibility of holding medical practitioners liable. The prospects of reforming the medical sector in terms of the establishment of medical self-government bodies have been identified, which, among other things provided by the legislation, are planned to be assigned the function of resolving cases of offences in the medical sphere. Based on the results of the study, sound conclusions were drawn.


Asunto(s)
Responsabilidad Legal , Mala Praxis , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Ucrania
3.
Intellect Dev Disabil ; 58(5): 355-360, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032314

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 epidemic caused disruption and dislocation in the lives of people with disabilities, their families, and providers. What we have learned during this period regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the service system for people with disabilities should provide a roadmap for building a more robust and agile system going forward. Based on a canvas of leaders in our field, I propose a way of outlining a reimagined system.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/rehabilitación , Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Discapacidad Intelectual/rehabilitación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/epidemiología , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/psicología , Humanos , Discapacidad Intelectual/epidemiología , Discapacidad Intelectual/psicología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología
4.
Official Document;359
Monografía en Francés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52954

RESUMEN

Le Plan stratégique de l’Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé (OPS) (« le plan ») définit l’orientation stratégique de l’Organisation, fondée sur les priorités collectives de ses États Membres, et précise les résultats de santé publique à atteindre au cours de la période 2020-2025. Le plan définit l’engagement conjoint des États Membres de l’OPS et du Bureau sanitaire panaméricain (BSP ou « le Bureau ») pour les six prochaines années. Les États Membres de l’OPS ont clairement indiqué que le Plan stratégique est un instrument fondamental pour la mise en œuvre du Programme d’action sanitaire durable pour les Amériques 2018-2030 (PASDA2030) et donc pour la réalisation des objectifs de développement durable (ODD) liés à la santé dans la Région des Amériques. Les 11 objectifs du PASDA2030 constituent les objectifs au niveau des impacts du présent plan. Sous le thème L’équité au cœur de la santé, ce plan vise à catalyser les efforts déployés dans les États Membres pour réduire les iniquités en matière de santé au sein des pays et territoires et entre eux, afin d’améliorer les résultats en matière de santé. Le plan définit des mesures spécifiques pour lutter contre l’inégalité dans le domaine de la santé, notamment celles recommandées par la Commission sur l’équité et les inégalités en matière de santé dans les Amériques, en tenant compte des orientations de la Commission de haut niveau pour la santé universelle. Quatre thématiques transversales (CCT) sont au cœur de l’approche de ce plan pour traiter des déterminants de la santé : l’équité, le genre, l’origine ethnique et les droits de l’homme. Ce plan met l’accent sur une approche multisectorielle intégrée, mais applique en outre des stratégies de santé publique fondées sur des données probantes, comme la promotion de la santé, l’approche des soins de santé primaires et la protection sociale dans la santé, pour tenir compte des déterminants sociaux.


Asunto(s)
Organización Panamericana de la Salud , Planes y Programas de Salud , Prioridades en Salud , Acceso Universal a los Servicios de Salud , Equidad en Salud , Desarrollo Sostenible , Servicios de Salud , Agenda de Prioridades en Salud , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Factores de Riesgo , Medio Ambiente y Salud Pública , Políticas y Cooperación en Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación , Cooperación Técnica , Cooperación Sur-Sur , Enfermedad Crónica
5.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-16.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52852

RESUMEN

To the Member States: In accordance with the Constitution of the Pan American Health Organization, I have the honor to present the 2020 annual report on the work of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization. This report highlights the technical cooperation undertaken by the Bureau during the period July 2019 through June 2020, within the framework of the 2014–2019 Strategic Plan of the Pan American Health Organization, defined by its Governing Bodies and amended by the Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2017, and the 2020–2025 Strategic Plan of the Pan American Health Organization, defined and approved by the Governing Bodies. This report is complemented by the Financial Report of the Director and the Report of the External Auditor for the year 2019. Carissa F. Etienne - Director, Pan American Health Organization.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Técnica , Cooperación Internacional , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Urgencias Médicas , Servicios de Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Prioridades en Salud , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Uso de la Información Científica en la Toma de Decisiones en Salud , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Américas
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-01.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52784

RESUMEN

[Resumen]. En este manual práctico sobre se aborda la planificación e implantación de servicios de cuidados paliativos, integrados en los servicios de atención de salud existentes, a nivel nacional o subnacional. Está dirigido principalmente a los directores de programa de salud de los niveles nacional, provincial o distrital, responsables de programas relacionados con enfermedades no transmisibles, enfermedades infecciosas, servicios de salud u otras áreas técnicas en las que los cuidados paliativos son importantes. En él se procura describir una gama de opciones y puntos de partida para establecer y fortalecer servicios de cuidados paliativos. En cada apartado, y en la medida de lo posible, se esboza un enfoque progresivo, con énfasis en abordajes factibles para entornos de ingresos bajos y medianos. Este documento debe contribuir al acceso equitativo a buenos cuidados paliativos en el contexto de la cobertura universal de salud y debe ayudar a los países a fortalecer los programas de cuidados paliativos, especialmente en el nivel de la atención primaria de salud y para todos los grupos de enfermedades. El enfoque se basa en estrategias centradas en la persona y busca abordar las necesidades y expectativas de los pacientes.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Neoplasias , Servicios de Salud , Cuidados Paliativos al Final de la Vida , Cuidados Paliativos , Sistemas de Salud
8.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 150, 2020 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109262

RESUMEN

The ongoing pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 has spread rapidly to all countries of the world. Africa is particularly predisposed to an escalation of the pandemic and its negative impact given its weak economy and health systems. In addition, inadequate access to the social determinants of health such as water and sanitation and socio-cultural attributes may constrain the implementation of critical preventive measures such as hand washing and social distancing on the continent.Given these facts, the continent needs to focus on targeted and high impact prevention and control strategies and interventions which could break the chain of transmission quickly. We conclude that the available body of scientific evidence on the coronavirus disease 2019 holds the key to the development of such strategies and interventions.Going forward, we recommend that the African research community should scale up research to provide scientific evidence for a better characterization of the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, prevention and control of the virus on the continent.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , África/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Desinfección de las Manos , Educación en Salud , Planificación en Salud , Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Política Pública , Saneamiento
9.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 24(3): 630-641, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125019

RESUMEN

RESUMEN La satisfacción y la experiencia positiva del paciente distinguen el panorama general de la atención médica cubana. El enfrentamiento al COVID-19 ha puesto a prueba las fortalezas y debilidades del Sistema de Salud Cubano. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la satisfacción de los pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario Clínico Quirúrgico Cmdte. Manuel Fajardo Rivero. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, entre el 12 de marzo y el 30 de abril de 2020. La satisfacción con la atención médica se evaluó según el cuestionario SERVPERF, y se tuvieron en cuenta las dimensiones de: empatía, capacidad de respuesta, fiabilidad y seguridad. La mayoría de los pacientes expresaron sentirse muy satisfechos con la atención médica recibida en el Hospital Universitario Clínico Quirúrgico ‟Cmdte. Manuel Fajardo Rivero" durante su hospitalización por esta afección.


ABSTRACT Patient satisfaction and positive experience distinguish the general panorama of Cuban medical care. The confrontation with COVID-19 has tested the strengths and weaknesses of the Cuban Health System. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the satisfaction of patients seen at ‟ Cmdte. Manuel Fajardo Rivero" Clinico-Surgical University Hospital. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted between March 12 and April 30, 2020. Satisfaction with medical care was evaluated according to the SERVPERF questionnaire, and the dimensions: empathy, responsiveness, reliability and assurance were taken into account. Most of the patients expressed feeling very satisfied with the medical care received at ‟Cmdte. Manuel Fajardo Rivero" Clinico-Surgical University Hospital during their hospitalization due to this condition.


Asunto(s)
Satisfacción del Paciente , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Virus del SRAS , Servicios de Salud
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238018, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866213

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Of all cancer types, healthcare for lung cancer is the third most costly in Australia, but there is little detailed information about these costs. Our aim was to provide detailed population-based estimates of health system costs for lung cancer care, as a benchmark prior to wider availability of targeted therapies/immunotherapy and to inform cost-effectiveness analyses of lung cancer screening and other interventions in Australia. METHODS: Health system costs were estimated for incident lung cancers in the Australian 45 and Up Study cohort, diagnosed between recruitment (2006-2009) and 2013. Costs to June 2016 included services reimbursed via the Medicare Benefits Schedule, medicines reimbursed via the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, inpatient hospitalisations, and emergency department presentations. Costs for cases and matched, cancer-free controls were compared to derive excess costs of care. Costs were disaggregated by patient and tumour characteristics. Data for more recent cases identified in hospital records provided preliminary information on targeted therapy/immunotherapy. RESULTS: 994 eligible cases were diagnosed with lung cancer 2006-2013; 51% and 74% died within one and three years respectively. Excess costs from one-year pre-diagnosis to three years post-diagnosis averaged ~$51,900 per case. Observed costs were higher for cases diagnosed at age 45-59 ($67,700) or 60-69 ($63,500), and lower for cases aged ≥80 ($29,500) and those with unspecified histology ($31,700) or unknown stage ($36,500). Factors associated with lower costs generally related to shorter survival: older age (p<0.0001), smoking (p<0.0001) and unknown stage (p = 0.002). There was no evidence of differences by year of diagnosis or sex (both p>0.50). For 465 cases diagnosed 2014-2015, 29% had subsidised molecular testing for targeted therapy/immunotherapy and 4% had subsidised targeted therapies. CONCLUSIONS: Lung cancer healthcare costs are strongly associated with survival-related factors. Costs appeared stable over the period 2006-2013. This study provides a framework for evaluating the health/economic impact of introducing lung cancer screening and other interventions in Australia.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Servicios de Salud/economía , Neoplasias Pulmonares/economía , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Australia , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Terapia Molecular Dirigida/economía , Cuidado Terminal/economía
12.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 274: 99-107, 2020 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990668

RESUMEN

In the last decades radical changes in the health care market have happened. Customers continuously require a higher level of quality of service and they become more careful and demanding in the decision process, market intelligence is continuously growing, competition and quality of services are dramatically increasing, as well as the external influences of various lobbyists in many parts of the world. Also, it is important to mention the fact that there are many initiatives for change in many branches of health care delivery, as well as many innovative models for providing health services that change the traditional role of healthcare institutions. In these conditions in order to be competitive on the global market and to create satisfied and loyal consumers of health services, health institutions need to introduce a marketing management concept which is completely in accordance with actual trends on the global market as well as needs and demands of services consumers.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud , Comercialización de los Servicios de Salud , Prestación de Atención de Salud
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239699, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966344

RESUMEN

The current outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an unprecedented example of how fast an infectious disease can spread around the globe (especially in urban areas) and the enormous impact it causes on public health and socio-economic activities. Despite the recent surge of investigations about different aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic, we still know little about the effects of city size on the propagation of this disease in urban areas. Here we investigate how the number of cases and deaths by COVID-19 scale with the population of Brazilian cities. Our results indicate small towns are proportionally more affected by COVID-19 during the initial spread of the disease, such that the cumulative numbers of cases and deaths per capita initially decrease with population size. However, during the long-term course of the pandemic, this urban advantage vanishes and large cities start to exhibit higher incidence of cases and deaths, such that every 1% rise in population is associated with a 0.14% increase in the number of fatalities per capita after about four months since the first two daily deaths. We argue that these patterns may be related to the existence of proportionally more health infrastructure in the largest cities and a lower proportion of older adults in large urban areas. We also find the initial growth rate of cases and deaths to be higher in large cities; however, these growth rates tend to decrease in large cities and to increase in small ones over time.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Densidad de Población , Distribución por Edad , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud/provisión & distribución , Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-09-08. (OPAS-W/BRA/COVID-19/20-107).
No convencional en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52643

RESUMEN

A pandemia da COVID-19 afetou desproporcionalmente os idosos, principalmente aqueles que vivem em instituições de longa permanência. Em muitos países, as evidências mostram que mais de 40% das mortes relacionadas à COVID-19 foram ligadas a instituições de longa permanência, chegando a 80% em alguns países de alta renda. Além disso, nas instituições de longa permanência, a taxa de letalidade de residentes com COVID-19 pode ser maior do que na população da mesma idade que vive fora de instituições de longa permanência. Os residentes de instituições de longa permanência frequentemente enfrentam alto risco, baixas medidas preventivas e recursos inadequados para se recuperar da COVID-19, bem como acesso reduzido a serviços essenciais de saúde em um contexto no qual os sistemas de saúde se deparam com restrições durante o surto da COVID-19... Este sumário de políticas fornece 11 objetivos e pontos de ação importantes para prevenir e gerenciar a COVID-19 na assistência de longa permanência. Seu público-alvo é formado por legisladores e autoridades (nacionais, subnacionais e locais) envolvidos na pandemia da COVID-19. O sumário se baseia em evidências atualmente disponíveis referentes a medidas adotadas para prevenção, preparação e resposta à pandemia da COVID-19 e para mitigar seu impacto nos serviços de assistência de longa permanência, incluindo os prestadores de cuidados. Embora este documento contenha opções de políticas e ações relevantes para todos os ambientes de assistência de longa permanência, as instituições de longa permanência são enfatizadas porque apresentaram incidência, morbidade e mortalidade extremamente altas referentes à COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus , Servicios de Salud , Tiempo de Internación , Planificación de Atención al Paciente
16.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-09-24. (OPS/IMS/HSS/COVID-19/20-0032).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52729

RESUMEN

En este documento se presentan consideraciones para apoyar la toma de decisiones y acciones que permitan fortalecer la capacidad resolutiva del primer nivel de atención, basadas en los valores de la Estrategia para el acceso universal a la salud y la cobertura universal de salud (el derecho a la salud, la equidad y la solidaridad), los principios y atributos de la atención primaria de salud y las redes integradas de servicios de salud. Se abordan la discriminación basada en la etnicidad, el género y la identidad de género, la sexualidad, el nivel socioeconómico, la ubicación geográfica o la discapacidad como factores importantes que pueden aumentar el riesgo de infección para las personas de estos grupos, limitar su acceso a los servicios, socavar una respuesta más amplia a la COVID-19 y exacerbar las inequidades subyacentes. Está dirigido a las autoridades de salud, los gestores de redes de servicios de salud, los directores y coordinadores de programas de salud y a los gestores y el personal del primer nivel de atención, con objeto de garantizar su salud y seguridad ocupacional.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Control de Infecciones , Atención a la Salud , Servicios de Salud , Américas
17.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-08. (PAHO/IMS/HSS/COVID-19/20-0031).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52640

RESUMEN

The list of essential medicines for the management of patients admitted to ICUs with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 is a core guidance document that provides assistance to countries’ health systems in prioritizing those essential medicines that should be widely available and affordable for the management of patients in ICUs during health emergencies––in this case, for patients with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of COVID19. This document is targeted to health officials and health system managers in the countries of the Region of the Americas.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Acceso a Medicamentos Esenciales y Tecnologías Sanitarias , Servicios de Salud , Américas
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22067, 2020 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925742

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Coastal areas in Malaysia can have important impacts on the livelihoods and health of local communities. Efforts by Malaysian government to develop and improve the landscape and ecosystem have been planned; however, the progress has been relatively slow because some of the coastal areas are remote and relatively inaccessible. Thus, these coastal communities face various challenges in health, healthcare and quality of life. This paper presents a study protocol to examine the health status, healthcare utilisation, and quality of life among the coastal communities. In addition, the relationship between the community and their coastal environment is examined. METHODOLOGY AND ANALYSIS: The population of interest is the coastal communities residing within the Tun Mustapha Park in Sabah, Malaysia. The data collection is planned for a duration of 6 months and the findings are expected by December 2020. A random cluster sampling will be conducted at three districts of Sabah. This study will collect 600 adult respondents (300 households are estimated to be collected) at age of 18 and above. The project is a cross sectional study via face-to-face interview with administered questionnaires, anthropometrics measurements and observation of the living condition performed by trained interviewers.


Asunto(s)
Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios , Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado de Salud , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Calidad de Vida , Salud Rural , Estudios Transversales , Ecosistema , Programas de Gobierno , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883009

RESUMEN

Risk assessment on a construction site is based on the probability and consequences of the accident. But due to the complexity of the construction processes, this new methodology for the evaluation of occupational risks, called Level of Preventive Action, develops a new parameter for evaluating preventive action based on documentary environment that reflects the complexity of the work units, location and interdependence, construction environment referred to construction and protection systems, and social environment relative to the perception of the environment and the workers' emotional states. The evaluation criteria of the new method are established by developing the William T. Fine methodology and incorporating concepts such as risk tolerance, the importance of work and personal satisfaction, which justify the degree of correction of preventive actions. This methodology determines the amount of preventive action control that is required during the construction process. This research proposes a risk assessment protocol adapted to construction sites based on specialized technical observation with a psychosocial survey on site. Some results of the implementation of the method in real work are shown. In conclusion, the determining parameter towards optimal control of preventive action is the direct and active participation of workers in safety matters.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Trabajo , Industria de la Construcción , Salud Laboral , Medición de Riesgo , Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Proyectos de Investigación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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