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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 212-218, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130064

RESUMEN

As the use of machine learning algorithms in health care continues to expand, there are growing concerns about equity, fairness, and bias in the ways in which machine learning models are developed and used in clinical and business decisions. We present a guide to the data ecosystem used by health insurers to highlight where bias can arise along machine learning pipelines. We suggest mechanisms for identifying and dealing with bias and discuss challenges and opportunities to increase fairness through analytics in the health insurance industry.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Aseguradoras , Algoritmos , Sesgo , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1974): 20212708, 2022 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538778

RESUMEN

As our inventory of Earth's biodiversity progresses, the number of species given a Latin binomial name is also growing. While the coining of species names is bound by rules, the sources of inspiration used by taxonomists are an eclectic mix. We investigated naming trends for nearly 2900 new species of parasitic helminths described in the past two decades. Our analysis indicates that the likelihood of new species being given names that convey some information about them (name derived from morphology, host or locality of origin) or not (named after an eminent scientist, or for something else) depends on the higher taxonomic group to which the parasite or its host belongs. We also found a consistent gender bias among species named after eminent scientists, with male scientists being immortalized disproportionately more frequently than female scientists. Finally, we found that the tendency for taxonomists to name new species after a family member or close friend has increased over the past 20 years. We end by offering suggestions for future species naming, aimed at honouring the scientific community's diversity and avoiding etymological nepotism and cronyism, while still allowing for creativity in crafting new Latin species names.


Asunto(s)
Helmintos , Parásitos , Animales , Sesgo , Biodiversidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo
3.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(6): 575-580, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594408

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The development of high-quality research is desired in all healthcare fields. Experimental and nonexperimental designs are used to investigate the effect or association of an intervention and clinical or surrogate outcome. The aims of these methods are to improve knowledge and to develop new strategies to manage a disease or condition. Randomized clinical trials are considered one of the standard methods to test the efficacy of a new drug or intervention; however, they are costly, have reduced generalizability, and cannot be feasible in all scenarios. Well-designed observational studies can provide valuable information regarding exposure factor and the event under investigation. In physical and rehabilitation medicine, where complex procedures and multiple risk factors can be involved in the same disease, the use of observational study must be planned in detail and a priori to avoid overestimations. In this article, we will give an overview of the methods used for observational design studies in physical and rehabilitation medicine using clinical examples to illustrate each method. We will describe when it is appropriate and how to use the observational studies in different scenarios explaining how to deal with potential bias and confounders using the adequate design and statistical plan for the situation.


Asunto(s)
Medicina , Medicina Física y Rehabilitación , Médicos , Sesgo , Humanos , Proyectos de Investigación
4.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 145, 2022 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35596136

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) is frequently used to assess the level of smokers' nicotine dependence; however, it is unclear how to manage missing items. The aim of this study was to investigate different methods for managing missing items in the FTND. METHODS: We performed a simulation study using data from the Arizona Smokers' Helpline. We randomly sampled with replacement from the complete data to simulate 1000 datasets for each parameter combination of sample size, proportion of missing data, and type of missing data (missing at random and missing not at random). Then for six methods for managing missing items on the FTND (two involving no imputation and four involving single imputation), we assessed the accuracy (via bias) and precision (via bias of standard error) of the total FTND score itself and of the regression coefficient for the total FTND score regressed on a covariate. RESULTS: When using the total FTND score as a descriptive statistic or in analysis for both types of missing data and for all levels of missing data, proration performed the best in terms of accuracy and precision. Proration's accuracy decreased with the amount of missing data; for example, at 9% missing data proration's maximum bias for the mean FTND was only - 0.3%, but at 35% missing data its maximum bias for the mean FTND increased to - 6%. CONCLUSIONS: For managing missing items on the FTND, we recommend proration, because it was found to be accurate and precise, and it is easy to implement. However, because proration becomes less accurate with more missing data, if more than ~ 10% of data are missing, we recommend performing a sensitivity analysis with a different method of managing missing data.


Asunto(s)
Tabaquismo , Sesgo , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Fumar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tabaquismo/diagnóstico
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD004381, 2022 05 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532041

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social interaction and social communication are among the central areas of difficulty for autistic people. Music therapy uses music experiences and the relationships that develop through them to enable communication and expression, thus attempting to address some of the core problems of autistic people. Music therapy has been applied in autism since the early 1950s, but its availability to autistic individuals varies across countries and settings. The application of music therapy requires specialised academic and clinical training which enables therapists to tailor the intervention to the specific needs of the individual. The present version of this review on music therapy for autistic people is an update of the previous Cochrane review update published in 2014 (following the original Cochrane review published in 2006). OBJECTIVES: To review the effects of music therapy, or music therapy added to standard care, for autistic people. SEARCH METHODS: In  August 2021, we searched  CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, eleven other databases and two trials registers. We also ran citation searches, checked reference lists, and contacted study authors to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised trials and controlled clinical trials comparing music therapy (or music therapy alongside standard care) to 'placebo' therapy, no treatment, or standard care for people with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were considered for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Four authors independently selected studies and extracted data from all included studies. We synthesised the results of included studies in meta-analyses. Four authors independently assessed risk of bias (RoB) of each included study using the original RoB tool as well as the certainty of evidence using GRADE.   MAIN RESULTS: We included 16 new studies in this update which brought the total number of included studies to 26 (1165 participants). These studies examined the short- and medium-term effect of music therapy (intervention duration: three days to eight months) for autistic people in individual or group settings. More than half of the studies were conducted in North America or Asia. Twenty-one studies included children aged from two to 12 years. Five studies included children and adolescents, and/or young adults. Severity levels, language skills, and cognition were widely variable across studies. Measured immediately post-intervention, music therapy compared with 'placebo' therapy or standard care was more likely to positively effect global improvement (risk ratio (RR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 1.40; 8 studies, 583 participants; moderate-certainty evidence; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) = 11 for low-risk population, 95% CI 6 to 39; NNTB = 6 for high-risk population, 95% CI 3 to 21) and to slightly increase quality of life (SMD 0.28, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.49; 3 RCTs, 340 participants; moderate-certainty evidence, small to medium effect size). In addition, music therapy probably results in a large reduction in total autism symptom severity (SMD -0.83, 95% CI -1.41 to -0.24; 9 studies, 575 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). No clear evidence of a difference between music therapy and comparison groups at immediately post-intervention was found for social interaction (SMD 0.26, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.57, 12 studies, 603 participants; low-certainty evidence); non-verbal communication (SMD 0.26, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.55; 7 RCTs, 192 participants; low-certainty evidence); and verbal communication (SMD 0.30, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.78; 8 studies, 276 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Two studies investigated adverse events with one (36 participants) reporting no adverse events; the other study found no differences between music therapy and standard care immediately post-intervention (RR 1.52, 95% CI 0.39 to 5.94; 1 study, 290 participants; moderate-certainty evidence).  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this updated review provide evidence that music therapy is probably associated with an increased chance of global improvement for autistic people, likely helps them to improve total autism severity and quality of life, and probably does not increase adverse events immediately after the intervention. The certainty of the evidence was rated as 'moderate' for these four outcomes, meaning that we are moderately confident in the effect estimate. No clear evidence of a difference was found for social interaction, non-verbal communication, and verbal communication measured immediately post-intervention. For these outcomes, the certainty of the evidence was rated as 'low' or 'very low', meaning that the true effect may be substantially different from these results. Compared with earlier versions of this review, the new studies included in this update helped to increase the certainty and applicability of this review's findings through larger sample sizes, extended age groups, longer periods of intervention and inclusion of follow-up assessments, and by predominantly using validated scales measuring generalised behaviour (i.e. behaviour outside of the therapy context). This new evidence is important for autistic individuals and their families as well as for policymakers, service providers and clinicians, to help in decisions around the types and amount of intervention that should be provided and in the planning of resources. The applicability of the findings is still limited to the age groups included in the studies, and no direct conclusions can be drawn about music therapy in autistic individuals above the young adult age. More research using rigorous designs, relevant outcome measures, and longer-term follow-up periods is needed to corroborate these findings and to examine whether the effects of music therapy are enduring.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico , Musicoterapia , Adolescente , Trastorno Autístico/terapia , Sesgo , Niño , Humanos , Oportunidad Relativa , Calidad de Vida
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD012576, 2022 05 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532044

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder (SUD) is the continued use of one or more psychoactive substances, including alcohol, despite negative effects on health, functioning, and social relations. Problematic drug use has increased by 10% globally since 2013, and harmful use of alcohol is associated with 5.3% of all deaths. Direct effects of music therapy (MT) on problematic substance use are not known, but it may be helpful in alleviating associated psychological symptoms and decreasing substance craving. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of music therapy (MT) in addition to standard care versus standard care alone, or to standard care plus an active control intervention, on psychological symptoms, substance craving, motivation for treatment, and motivation to stay clean/sober. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases (from inception to 1 February 2021): the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Specialised Register; CENTRAL; MEDLINE (PubMed); eight other databases, and two trials registries. We handsearched reference lists of all retrieved studies and relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials comparing MT plus standard care to standard care alone, or MT plus standard care to active intervention plus standard care for people with SUD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS: We included 21 trials involving 1984 people. We found moderate-certainty evidence of a medium effect favouring MT plus standard care over standard care alone for substance craving (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.23 to -0.10; 3 studies, 254 participants), with significant subgroup differences indicating greater reduction in craving for MT intervention lasting one to three months; and small-to-medium effect favouring MT for motivation for treatment/change (SMD 0.41, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.61; 5 studies, 408 participants). We found no clear evidence of a beneficial effect on depression (SMD -0.33, 95% CI -0.72 to 0.07; 3 studies, 100 participants), or motivation to stay sober/clean (SMD 0.22, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.47; 3 studies, 269 participants), though effect sizes ranged from large favourable effect to no effect, and we are uncertain about the result. There was no evidence of beneficial effect on anxiety (mean difference (MD) -0.17, 95% CI -4.39 to 4.05; 1 study, 60 participants), though we are uncertain about the result. There was no meaningful effect for retention in treatment for participants receiving MT plus standard care as compared to standard care alone (risk ratio (RR) 0.99, 95% 0.93 to 1.05; 6 studies, 199 participants). There was a moderate effect on motivation for treatment/change when comparing MT plus standard care to another active intervention plus standard care (SMD 0.46, 95% CI -0.00 to 0.93; 5 studies, 411 participants), and certainty in the result was moderate. We found no clear evidence of an effect of MT on motivation to stay sober/clean when compared to active intervention, though effect sizes ranged from large favourable effect to no effect, and we are uncertain about the result (MD 0.34, 95% CI -0.11 to 0.78; 3 studies, 258 participants). There was no clear evidence of effect on substance craving (SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.56 to 0.48; 3 studies, 232 participants), depression (MD -1.49, 95% CI -4.98 to 2.00; 1 study, 110 participants), or substance use (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.29; 1 study, 140 participants) at one-month follow-up when comparing MT plus standard care to active intervention plus standard care. There were no data on adverse effects. Unclear risk of selection bias applied to most studies due to incomplete description of processes of randomisation and allocation concealment. All studies were at unclear risk of detection bias due to lack of blinding of outcome assessors for subjective outcomes (mostly self-report). We judged that bias arising from such lack of blinding would not differ between groups. Similarly, it is not possible to blind participants and providers to MT. We consider knowledge of receiving this type of therapy as part of the therapeutic effect itself, and thus all studies were at low risk of performance bias for subjective outcomes.  We downgraded all outcomes one level for imprecision due to optimal information size not being met, and two levels for outcomes with very low sample size.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Results from this review suggest that MT as 'add on' treatment to standard care can lead to moderate reductions in substance craving and can increase motivation for treatment/change for people with SUDs receiving treatment in detoxification and short-term rehabilitation settings. Greater reduction in craving is associated with MT lasting longer than a single session. We have moderate-to-low confidence in our findings as the included studies were downgraded in certainty due to imprecision, and most included studies were conducted by the same researcher in the same detoxification unit, which considerably impacts the transferability of findings.


Asunto(s)
Musicoterapia , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Ansiedad/terapia , Sesgo , Ansia , Humanos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia
7.
Clin J Pain ; 38(6): 424-441, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537072

RESUMEN

Previous reviews have reported virtual reality (VR) to be an effective method to treat pain. This scoping review examines the state of the science for VR and pain both generally and by pain type (acute and chronic) related to types of mechanisms, dosage, effectiveness, and adverse events (AEs). We searched online databases PubMed, Web of Science, PsychInfo, and CINAHL from 2010 to 2020 and included studies from peer reviewed journals that examined people with pain, (excluding pain-free participants) with a primary outcome measuring pain. We assessed studies for risk of bias using PEDro criteria. We described data through counts and percentages. Significant results were determined through P-values. We found 70 studies representing 4105 people; 46 acute pain studies (65.7%), 22 chronic pain studies (31.4%), and 2 (2.9%) "both." The most common VR mechanism was distraction (78.6%) then embodiment (17.1%). However, distraction was the mechanism for 97.8% acute pain studies while embodiment was more common for chronic pain (54.5%). Dosage of VR was inconsistently reported and varied considerably. VR treatment groups showed significant improvements in pain, particularly for intensity of pain (72.1%) and quality of pain (75.0%). Few studies examined AEs. Limitations of this review include only examining last 10 years of articles and that many studies were missing data. VR appears to be an effective intervention to address both acute and chronic pain. Research evaluating VR mechanisms, dosage, and AEs is warranted, as is further work in under-served populations (children for chronic pain and older adults) as the current evidence is largely limited to adult populations with pain.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Agudo , Dolor Crónico , Realidad Virtual , Dolor Agudo/terapia , Anciano , Sesgo , Niño , Dolor Crónico/terapia , Humanos , Manejo del Dolor/métodos
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7344, 2022 05 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513424

RESUMEN

Polarization and extremism are often viewed as the product of psychological biases or social influences, yet they still occur in the absence of any bias or irrational thinking. We show that individual decision-makers implementing optimal dynamic decision strategies will become polarized, forming extreme views relative to the true information in their environment by virtue of how they sample new information. Extreme evidence enables decision makers to stop considering new information, whereas weak or moderate evidence is unlikely to trigger a decision and is thus under-sampled. We show that this information polarization effect arises empirically across choice domains including politically-charged, affect-rich and affect-poor, and simple perceptual decisions. However, this effect can be disincentivized by asking participants to make a judgment about the difference between two options (estimation) rather than deciding. We experimentally test this intervention by manipulating participants' inference goals (decision vs inference) in an information sampling task. We show that participants in the estimation condition collect more information, hold less extreme views, and are less polarized than those in the decision condition. Estimation goals therefore offer a theoretically-motivated intervention that could be used to alleviate polarization and extremism in situations where people traditionally intend to decide.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Juicio , Sesgo , Humanos
9.
J Vis ; 22(6): 1, 2022 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503507

RESUMEN

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), or autism, is characterized by social and non-social symptoms, including sensory hyper- and hyposensitivities. A suggestion has been put forward that some of these symptoms could be explained by differences in how sensory information is integrated with its context, including a lower tendency to leverage the past in the processing of new perceptual input. At least two history-dependent effects of opposite directions have been described in the visual perception literature: a repulsive adaptation effect, where perception of a stimulus is biased away from an adaptor stimulus, and an attractive serial choice bias, where perceptual choices are biased toward the previous choice. In this study, we investigated whether autistic participants differed in either bias from typically developing controls (TDs). Sixty-four adolescent participants (31 with ASD, 33 TDs) were asked to categorize oriented line stimuli in two tasks that were designed so that we would induce either adaptation or serial choice bias. Although our tasks successfully induced both biases, in comparing the two groups we found no differences in the magnitude of adaptation nor in the modulation of perceptual choices by the previous choice. In conclusion, we find no evidence of a decreased integration of the past in visual perception of low-level stimulus features in autistic adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico , Adolescente , Sesgo , Humanos , Percepción Visual
10.
J Exp Med ; 219(6)2022 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510952

RESUMEN

Reporting the distribution and inclusion of both males and females in immunology and infectious diseases research is improving, but rigorous analyses of differential outcomes between males and females, including mechanistic inquiries into the causes of sex differences, still lags behind.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Sesgo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuales , Factores Sexuales
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 391, 2022 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597975

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Increased awareness and mitigation of one's unconscious bias is a critical strategy in diversifying the Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Medicine (STEMM) disciplines and workforce. Greater management of unconscious bias can enhance diverse recruitment, persistence, retention, and engagement of trainees. The purpose of this study was to describe the implementation of an asynchronous course on unconscious bias for people in STEMM. Specifically, we explored who engaged with the course and reflections from participation. METHOD: A five-part, asynchronous Unconscious Bias Course was developed and was hosted on a national mentoring platform starting in July 2020. To examine course engagement, we assessed the demographics of course participants and completion. Participant responses to reflection questions after each module were also synthesized using qualitative methods. RESULTS: Overall, 977 people registered for the course and 42% completed all modules. In the reflection responses, participants reflected on their unconscious biases in their lived experiences and how it relates to actions, judgements, external factors, stereotypes, and un-intentionality. Participants also reflected on microaggressions, their impact on the recipients and others, and the relationship between microaggressions and unconscious bias. Participants reported four key strategies used by allies against unconscious bias: immediately acting (83%), reflection (46%), improving the organizational culture (30%), and individual-level ally-ship (44%). Strategies for self-awareness included: reflection, pausing/breathing, and self-observation. CONCLUSION: The assessment of the Unconscious Bias Course implementation revealed the course reached a wide cross-section of people in STEMM and demonstrated that participants were able to reflect on the underpinnings of the course. This course, and its suite of offerings, support a nationwide effort to mitigate bias and prepare individuals to be culturally competent in a diverse society in order to foster a STEMM environment that caters to individuals' success and diversification of these fields.


Asunto(s)
Medicina , Tutoría , Sesgo , Humanos , Mentores , Recursos Humanos
12.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 174, 2022 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538478

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies are the most common study design types used to assess the treatment effects of medical interventions. To evaluate the agreement of effect estimates between bodies of evidence (BoE) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies and to identify factors associated with disagreement. METHODS: Systematic reviews were published in the 13 medical journals with the highest impact factor identified through a MEDLINE search. BoE-pairs from RCTs and cohort studies with the same medical research question were included. We rated the similarity of PI/ECO (Population, Intervention/Exposure, Comparison, Outcome) between BoE from RCTs and cohort studies. The agreement of effect estimates across BoE was analyzed by pooling ratio of ratios (RoR) for binary outcomes and difference of mean differences for continuous outcomes. We performed subgroup analyses to explore factors associated with disagreements. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-nine BoE pairs from 64 systematic reviews were included. PI/ECO-similarity degree was moderate: two BoE pairs were rated as "more or less identical"; 90 were rated as "similar but not identical" and 37 as only "broadly similar". For binary outcomes, the pooled RoR was 1.04 (95% CI 0.97-1.11) with considerable statistical heterogeneity. For continuous outcomes, differences were small. In subgroup analyses, degree of PI/ECO-similarity, type of intervention, and type of outcome, the pooled RoR indicated that on average, differences between both BoE were small. Subgroup analysis by degree of PI/ECO-similarity revealed high statistical heterogeneity and wide prediction intervals across PI/ECO-dissimilar BoE pairs. CONCLUSIONS: On average, the pooled effect estimates between RCTs and cohort studies did not differ. Statistical heterogeneity and wide prediction intervals were mainly driven by PI/ECO-dissimilarities (i.e., clinical heterogeneity) and cohort studies. The potential influence of risk of bias and certainty of the evidence on differences of effect estimates between RCTs and cohort studies needs to be explored in upcoming meta-epidemiological studies.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Sesgo , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2432: 73-84, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505208

RESUMEN

Methylation data, similar to other omics data, is susceptible to various technical issues that are potentially associated with unexplained or unrelated factors. Any difference in the measurement of DNA methylation, such as laboratory operation and sequencing platform, may lead to batch effects. With the accumulation of large-scale omics data, scientists are making joint efforts to generate and analyze omics data to answer various scientific questions. However, batch effects are inevitable in practice, and careful adjustment is needed. Multiple statistical methods for controlling bias and inflation between batches have been developed either by correcting based on known batch factors or by estimating directly from the output data. In this chapter, we will review and demonstrate several popular methods for batch effect correction and make practical recommendations in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS).


Asunto(s)
Epigenoma , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Sesgo , Metilación de ADN , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo/métodos , Análisis de Secuencia
14.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e76, 2022 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549784

RESUMEN

Cesario misrepresents or ignores data on real-world racist and sexist patterns and processes in an attempt to discredit the assumptions of implicit bias experimentation. His position stands in stark contradiction to substantive research across the social sciences recognizing the widespread, systematic, and structuring processes of racism and sexism. We argue for centering the relationship between structural racism and individual bias.


Asunto(s)
Racismo , Sesgo , Humanos , Sexismo
15.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e84, 2022 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550014

RESUMEN

We agree that external validity of social psychological experiments is a concern, we disagree these models are useless. Experiments, reconsidered from a situated cognition perspective and non-linearly combined with other methods (qualitative and simulations) allow grasping decision dynamics beyond bias outcomes. Dynamic (vs. discrete) insights regarding these processes are key to understand missing forces and bias in real-world social groups.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Modelos Psicológicos , Sesgo , Humanos
16.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e95, 2022 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550017

RESUMEN

Cesario misrepresents experimental social psychology. The discipline encompasses significantly more than implicit bias research, including controlled decision making and real-world behavioral observations. Paradoxically, while critiquing popular implicit bias tasks, Cesario also describes task refinements that have significantly advanced their external validity and our contextual understanding of bias. Thus rather than abandonment, a call for "continued improvement" is a far more sensible proposition.


Asunto(s)
Psicología Social , Sesgo , Humanos
17.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e94, 2022 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550026

RESUMEN

Cesario argues that experimental studies of bias tell us little about why group disparities exist. We argue that Cesario's alternative approach implicitly frames understanding of group disparities as a false binary between "bias" and "group differences." This, we suggest, will contribute little to our understanding of the complex dynamics that produce group disparities, and risks inappropriately rationalizing them.


Asunto(s)
Sesgo , Humanos
18.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e67, 2022 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550201

RESUMEN

The flaws in social psychological research pointed out by Cesario have societal costs. These include ignoring crucial base rates thereby degrading the effectiveness of policy decisions, generalizing the conclusions derived from experiments on non-professionals thereby distorting the public's view of professional law enforcement personnel, questionable accusations of racism, and mis-attributions of the causes of racial differences in behavior.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Sesgo , Humanos
19.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e75, 2022 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550207

RESUMEN

Cesario claims that all bias research tells us is that people "end up using the information they have come to learn as being probabilistically accurate in their daily lives" (sect. 5, para. 4). We expose Cesario's flawed assumptions about the relationship between accuracy and bias. Through statistical simulations and empirical work, we show that even probabilistically accurate responses are regularly accompanied by bias.


Asunto(s)
Juicio , Sesgo , Humanos
20.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e85, 2022 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550210

RESUMEN

Ecological validity is key in science and laboratory experiments alone cannot fully explain complex real-world phenomena. Yet the three flaws Cesario proposes do not characterize the field and are not "methodological trickery," (sect. 5, para. 5) designed to intentionally mislead practitioners. In school discipline alone, these alleged flaws are indeed addressed and laboratory experimentation has contributed to mitigation of a real-world problem.


Asunto(s)
Proyectos de Investigación , Sesgo , Humanos
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