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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e24389, 2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530234

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews (SRs) or meta-analysis of trastuzumab-based therapy for breast cancer. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of science, Cochrane library, international prospective register of systematic reviews, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, Wan Fang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP database for SRs or meta-analysis. The methodological quality of included literatures was appraised by risk of bias in systematic review (ROBIS) tool. RESULTS: Twenty three eligible systematic reviews or meta-analysis were included. Only 2 systematic reviews provided protocol. The most frequently searched databases were PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane. The two-reviewers model described in the screening for eligible original articles, data extraction, and methodological quality evaluation had 30%, 61%, and 26%, respectively. In methodological quality assessment, 52% SRs or meta-analysis used the Jadad scoring or Cochrane reviewer' handbook. Research question were well matched to all SRs or meta-analysis in phase 1 and 35% of them evaluated "high" risk bias in study eligibility criteria. The "high" risk of bias in all non-Cochrane SRs or meta-analyses, which involve methods used to identify and/or select studies. And more than half SRs or meta-analysis had a high risk of bias in data collection and study appraisal. More than two-third of SRs or meta-analysis were accomplished with high risk of bias in the synthesis and findings. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated poor methodological and reporting quality of SRs/meta-analysis assessing trastuzumab-based therapy for breast cancer. Registration or publishing the protocol and the reporting followed the PRISMA checklist are recommended in future research.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto/normas , Trastuzumab/uso terapéutico , Sesgo , Femenino , Humanos , Proyectos de Investigación/normas
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3081, 2021 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542329

RESUMEN

Clinic-based estimates of SARS-CoV-2 may considerably underestimate the total number of infections. Access to testing in the US has been heterogeneous and symptoms vary widely in infected persons. Public health surveillance efforts and metrics are therefore hampered by underreporting. We set out to provide a minimally biased estimate of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among adults for a large and diverse county (Orange County, CA, population 3.2 million). We implemented a surveillance study that minimizes response bias by recruiting adults to answer a survey without knowledge of later being offered SARS-CoV-2 test. Several methodologies were used to retrieve a population-representative sample. Participants (n = 2979) visited one of 11 drive-thru test sites from July 10th to August 16th, 2020 (or received an in-home visit) to provide a finger pin-prick sample. We applied a robust SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Microarray technology, which has superior measurement validity relative to FDA-approved tests. Participants include a broad age, gender, racial/ethnic, and income representation. Adjusted seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 11.5% (95% CI: 10.5-12.4%). Formal bias analyses produced similar results. Prevalence was elevated among Hispanics (vs. other non-Hispanic: prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.47, 95% CI 1.22-1.78) and household income < $50,000 (vs. > $100,000: PR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.79). Results from a diverse population using a highly specific and sensitive microarray indicate a SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of ~ 12 percent. This population-based seroprevalence is seven-fold greater than that using official County statistics. In this region, SARS-CoV-2 also disproportionately affects Hispanic and low-income adults.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/análisis , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Sesgo , /epidemiología , California/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/análisis , Inmunoglobulina M/análisis , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven
3.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(2): 288, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587881
5.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 11, 2021 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413154

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The disease burden of SARS-CoV-2 as measured by tests from various localities, and at different time points present varying estimates of infection and fatality rates. Models based on these acquired data may suffer from systematic errors and large estimation variances due to the biases associated with testing. An unbiased randomized testing to estimate the true fatality rate is still missing. METHODS: Here, we characterize the effect of incidental sampling bias in the estimation of epidemic dynamics. Towards this, we explicitly modeled for sampling bias in an augmented compartment model to predict epidemic dynamics. We further calculate the bias from differences in disease prediction from biased, and randomized sampling, proposing a strategy to obtain unbiased estimates. RESULTS: Our simulations demonstrate that sampling biases in favor of patients with higher disease manifestation could significantly affect direct estimates of infection and fatality rates calculated from the numbers of confirmed cases and deaths, and serological testing can partially mitigate these biased estimates. CONCLUSIONS: The augmented compartmental model allows the explicit modeling of different testing policies and their effects on disease estimates. Our calculations for the dependence of expected confidence on a randomized sample sizes, show that relatively small sample sizes can provide statistically significant estimates for SARS-CoV-2 related death rates.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Sesgo , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Muestreo
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD007654, 2021 01 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454957

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This is the third update of this review, first published in July 2009. All major guidelines on treatment of hypertension recommend weight loss; anti-obesity drugs may be able to help in this respect. OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives: To assess the long-term effects of pharmacologically-induced reduction in body weight in adults with essential hypertension on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, and adverse events (including total serious adverse events, withdrawal due to adverse events, and total non-serious adverse events).. Secondary objectives: To assess the long-term effects of pharmacologically-induced reduction in body weight in adults with essential hypertension on change from baseline in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and on body weight reduction. SEARCH METHODS: For this updated review, the Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomised controlled trials up to March 2020: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The searches had no language restrictions. We contacted authors of relevant papers about further published and unpublished work. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of at least 24 weeks' duration in adults with hypertension that compared approved long-term weight-loss medications to placebo.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risks of bias, and extracted data. Where appropriate and in the absence of significant heterogeneity between studies (P > 0.1), we pooled studies using a fixed-effect meta-analysis. When heterogeneity was present, we used the random-effects method and investigated the cause of the heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: This third update of the review added one new trial, investigating the combination of naltrexone/bupropion versus placebo. Two medications, which were included in the previous versions of this review (rimonabant and sibutramine) are no longer considered relevant for this update, since their marketing approval was withdrawn in 2010 and 2009, respectively. The number of included studies in this review update is therefore six (12,724 participants in total): four RCTs comparing orlistat to placebo, involving a total of 3132 participants with high blood pressure and a mean age of 46 to 55 years; one trial comparing phentermine/topiramate to placebo, involving 1305 participants with high blood pressure and a mean age of 53 years; and one trial comparing naltrexone/bupropion to placebo, involving 8283 participants with hypertension and a mean age of 62 years. We judged the risks of bias to be unclear for the trials investigating orlistat or naltrexone/bupropion. and low for the trial investigating phentermine/topiramate. Only the study of naltrexone/bupropion included cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as predefined outcomes. There were no differences in the rates of all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events, or serious adverse events between naltrexone/bupropion and placebo. The incidence of overall adverse events was significantly higher in participants treated with naltrexone/bupropion. For orlistat, the incidence of gastrointestinal side effects was consistently higher compared to placebo. The most frequent side effects with phentermine/topiramate were dry mouth and paraesthesia. After six to 12 months, orlistat reduced systolic blood pressure compared to placebo by mean difference (MD) -2.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI) -3.8 to -1.4 mm Hg; 4 trials, 2058 participants) and diastolic blood pressure by MD -2.0 mm Hg (95% CI -2.7 to -1.2 mm Hg; 4 trials, 2058 participants). After 13 months of follow-up, phentermine/topiramate decreased systolic blood pressure compared to placebo by -2.0 to -4.2 mm Hg (1 trial, 1030 participants) (depending on drug dosage), and diastolic blood pressure by -1.3 to -1.9 mm Hg (1 trial, 1030 participants) (depending on drug dosage). There was no difference in the change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between naltrexone/bupropion and placebo (1 trial, 8283 participants). We identified no relevant studies investigating liraglutide or lorcaserin in people with hypertension. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In people with elevated blood pressure, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate and naltrexone/bupropion reduced body weight; the magnitude of the effect was greatest with phentermine/topiramate. In the same trials, orlistat and phentermine/topiramate, but not naltrexone/bupropion, reduced blood pressure. One RCT of naltrexone/bupropion versus placebo showed no differences in all-cause mortality or cardiovascular mortality or morbidity after two years. The European Medicines Agency refused marketing authorisation for phentermine/topiramate due to safety concerns, while for lorcaserin the application for European marketing authorisation was withdrawn due to a negative overall benefit/risk balance. In 2020 lorcaserin was also withdrawn from the US market. Two other medications (rimonabant and sibutramine) had already been withdrawn from the market in 2009 and 2010, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Antiobesidad/efectos adversos , Depresores del Apetito/efectos adversos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Antiobesidad/uso terapéutico , Depresores del Apetito/uso terapéutico , Sesgo , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Bupropión/efectos adversos , Bupropión/uso terapéutico , Dieta Reductora , Combinación de Medicamentos , Femenino , Fructosa/efectos adversos , Fructosa/análogos & derivados , Fructosa/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Hipertensión/mortalidad , Lactonas/efectos adversos , Lactonas/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Naltrexona/efectos adversos , Naltrexona/uso terapéutico , Orlistat/efectos adversos , Orlistat/uso terapéutico , Fentermina/efectos adversos , Fentermina/uso terapéutico , Piperidinas/efectos adversos , Piperidinas/uso terapéutico , Pirazoles/efectos adversos , Pirazoles/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Retirada de Medicamento por Seguridad , Tiempo , Topiramato/efectos adversos , Topiramato/uso terapéutico
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD000022, 2021 01 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481250

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients treated with mechanical ventilation in intensive care units (ICUs) have a high risk of developing respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has been estimated to affect 5% to 40% of patients treated with mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. The attributable mortality rate of VAP has been estimated at about 9%. Selective digestive decontamination (SDD), which consists of the topical application of non-absorbable antimicrobial agents to the oropharynx and gastroenteric tract during the whole period of mechanical ventilation, is often used to reduce the risk of VAP. A related treatment is selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD), in which topical antibiotics are applied to the oropharynx only. This is an update of a review first published in 1997 and updated in 2002, 2004, and 2009. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of topical antibiotic regimens (SDD and SOD), given alone or in combination with systemic antibiotics, to prevent mortality and respiratory infections in patients receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours in ICUs. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Group's Specialised Register, PubMed, and Embase on 5 February 2020. We also searched the WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing and unpublished studies on 5 February 2020. All searches included non-English language literature. We handsearched references of topic-related systematic reviews and the included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs assessing the efficacy and safety of topical prophylactic antibiotic regimens in adults receiving intensive care and mechanical ventilation. The included studies compared topical plus systemic antibiotics versus placebo or no treatment; topical antibiotics versus no treatment; and topical plus systemic antibiotics versus systemic antibiotics. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included a total of 41 trials involving 11,004 participants (five new studies were added in this update). The minimum duration of mechanical ventilation ranged from 2 (19 studies) to 6 days (one study). Thirteen studies reported the mean length of ICU stay, ranging from 11 to 33 days. The percentage of immunocompromised patients ranged from 0% (10 studies) to 22% (1 study). The reporting quality of the majority of included studies was very poor, so we judged more than 40% of the studies as at unclear risk of selection bias. We judged all studies to be at low risk of performance bias, though 47.6% were open-label, because hospitals usually have standardised infection control programmes, and possible subjective decisions on who should be tested for the presence or absence of RTIs are unlikely in an ICU setting. Regarding detection bias, we judged all included studies as at low risk for the outcome mortality. For the outcome RTIs, we judged all double-blind studies as at low risk of detection bias. We judged five open-label studies as at high risk of detection bias, as the diagnosis of RTI was not based on microbiological exams; we judged the remaining open-label studies as at low risk of detection bias, as a standardised set of diagnostic criteria, including results of microbiological exams, were used. Topical plus systemic antibiotic prophylaxis reduces overall mortality compared with placebo or no treatment (risk ratio (RR) 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 to 0.96; 18 studies; 5290 participants; high-certainty evidence). Based on an illustrative risk of 303 deaths in 1000 people this equates to 48 (95% CI 15 to 79) fewer deaths with topical plus systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. Topical plus systemic antibiotic prophylaxis probably reduces RTIs (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.53; 17 studies; 2951 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on an illustrative risk of 417 RTIs in 1000 people this equates to 238 (95% CI 196 to 271) fewer RTIs with topical plus systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. Topical antibiotic prophylaxis probably reduces overall mortality compared with no topical antibiotic prophylaxis (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.05; 22 studies, 4213 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on an illustrative risk of 290 deaths in 1000 people this equates to 19 (95% CI 37 fewer to 15 more) fewer deaths with topical antibiotic prophylaxis. Topical antibiotic prophylaxis may reduce RTIs (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.74; 19 studies, 2698 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on an illustrative risk of 318 RTIs in 1000 people this equates to 137 (95% CI 83 to 178) fewer RTIs with topical antibiotic prophylaxis. Sixteen studies reported adverse events and dropouts due to adverse events, which were poorly reported with sparse data. The certainty of the evidence ranged from low to very low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Treatments based on topical prophylaxis probably reduce respiratory infections, but not mortality, in adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours, whereas a combination of topical and systemic prophylactic antibiotics reduces both overall mortality and RTIs. However, we cannot rule out that the systemic component of the combined treatment provides a relevant contribution in the observed reduction of mortality. No conclusion can be drawn about adverse events as they were poorly reported with sparse data.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Profilaxis Antibiótica/métodos , Neumonía Asociada al Ventilador/prevención & control , Respiración Artificial/efectos adversos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Administración Tópica , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Profilaxis Antibiótica/efectos adversos , Sesgo , Cuidados Críticos , Infección Hospitalaria/mortalidad , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Neumonía Asociada al Ventilador/mortalidad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/mortalidad
8.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 36: 100401, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509436

RESUMEN

Surveillance data obtained by public health agencies for COVID-19 are likely inaccurate due to undercounting and misdiagnosing. Using a Bayesian approach, we sought to reduce bias in the estimates of prevalence of COVID-19 in Philadelphia, PA at the ZIP code level. After evaluating various modeling approaches in a simulation study, we estimated true prevalence by ZIP code with and without conditioning on an area deprivation index (ADI). As of June 10, 2020, in Philadelphia, the observed citywide period prevalence was 1.5%. After accounting for bias in the surveillance data, the median posterior citywide true prevalence was 2.3% when accounting for ADI and 2.1% when not. Overall the median posterior surveillance sensitivity and specificity from the models were similar, about 60% and more than 99%, respectively. Surveillance of COVID-19 in Philadelphia tends to understate discrepancies in burden for the more affected areas, potentially misinforming mitigation priorities.


Asunto(s)
Teorema de Bayes , Vigilancia de la Población , Análisis Espacial , Sesgo , Humanos , Philadelphia/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
10.
Am Psychol ; 76(1): 167-168, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475391

RESUMEN

Turner et al. (2021) subtly relapse in conceptualizing the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (Part 2-Skills) exam as a competency evaluation despite Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards' (ASPPB) prior concession that Part 2 measures only the knowledge of skills (not skill competency). They do not address the purpose of redundant evaluation or the other concerns raised in Callahan et al. (2020). Instead, Turner et al. remain narrowly focused on defense of content validity and a reliance on outdated standards that fail to meet contemporary expectations for assessment of health care professionals. The adopted processes and procedures, albeit time consuming and effortful, are known to be methodologically inadequate. ASPPB's methods demonstrably foster linguistic biases and systemic racism that constricts licensure of diverse individuals as psychologists. Specific suggestions are offered, and ASPPB is urged to take drastic corrective action. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Racismo , Sesgo , Humanos , Práctica Profesional
11.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 213: 103250, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450692

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Deception detection is a prevalent problem for security practitioners. With a need for more large-scale approaches, automated methods using machine learning have gained traction. However, detection performance still implies considerable error rates. Findings from different domains suggest that hybrid human-machine integrations could offer a viable path in detection tasks. METHOD: We collected a corpus of truthful and deceptive answers about participants' autobiographical intentions (n = 1640) and tested whether a combination of supervised machine learning and human judgment could improve deception detection accuracy. Human judges were presented with the outcome of the automated credibility judgment of truthful or deceptive statements. They could either fully overrule it (hybrid-overrule condition) or adjust it within a given boundary (hybrid-adjust condition). RESULTS: The data suggest that in neither of the hybrid conditions did the human judgment add a meaningful contribution. Machine learning in isolation identified truth-tellers and liars with an overall accuracy of 69%. Human involvement through hybrid-overrule decisions brought the accuracy back to chance level. The hybrid-adjust condition did not improve deception detection performance. The decision-making strategies of humans suggest that the truth bias - the tendency to assume the other is telling the truth - could explain the detrimental effect. CONCLUSIONS: The current study does not support the notion that humans can meaningfully add the deception detection performance of a machine learning system. All data are available at https://osf.io/45z7e/.


Asunto(s)
Decepción , Detección de Mentiras , Sesgo , Humanos , Intención , Juicio , Probabilidad
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 213: 103248, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453615

RESUMEN

Fractions are crucial, from math and science education to daily activities, but they are hard. A puzzling aspect of fractions is that people over-rely on the numerator when comparing a pair of fractions. Previous work has considered this numerator bias mostly as a reasoning mishap. Still, in a vast amount of pairwise comparisons, across many real-world domains, not just education textbooks, we report a high prior probability that the larger fraction has the larger numerator, and, for a relevant case, we provide formal arguments why. The existence of such a regularity suggests that the numerator bias may reflect a rational adaptation that detects and exploits likely events. In a pair of visual-proportion tasks (discrete and continuous fractions), we confirm that the numerator bias in participants adapts to experimented regularities. Even though weak education and math abilities play a role, adaptation to informative priors outside the classroom poses a challenge to educators, learners, and decision-makers.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Solución de Problemas , Sesgo , Humanos , Matemática
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD006440, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417236

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many people with dementia are cared for at home by unpaid informal caregivers, usually family members. Caregivers may experience a range of physical, emotional, financial and social harms, which are often described collectively as caregiver burden. The degree of burden experienced is associated with characteristics of the caregiver, such as gender, and characteristics of the person with dementia, such as dementia stage, and the presence of behavioural problems or neuropsychiatric disturbances. It is a strong predictor of admission to residential care for people with dementia. Psychoeducational interventions might prevent or reduce caregiver burden. Overall, they are intended to improve caregivers' knowledge about the disease and its care; to increase caregivers' sense of competence and their ability to cope with difficult situations; to relieve feelings of isolation and allow caregivers to attend to their own emotional and physical needs. These interventions are heterogeneous, varying in their theoretical framework, components, and delivery formats. Interventions that are delivered remotely, using printed materials, telephone or video technologies, may be particularly suitable for caregivers who have difficulty accessing face-to-face services because of their own health problems, poor access to transport, or absence of substitute care. During the COVID-19 pandemic, containment measures in many countries required people to be isolated in their homes, including people with dementia and their family carers. In such circumstances, there is no alternative to remote delivery of interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and acceptability of remotely delivered interventions aiming to reduce burden and improve mood and quality of life of informal caregivers of people with dementia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group, MEDLINE, Embase and four other databases, as well as two international trials registries, on 10 April 2020. We also examined the bibliographies of relevant review papers and published trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included only randomised controlled trials that assessed the remote delivery of structured interventions for informal caregivers who were providing care for people with dementia living at home. Caregivers had to be unpaid adults (relatives or members of the person's community). The interventions could be delivered using printed materials, the telephone, the Internet or a mixture of these, but could not involve any face-to-face contact with professionals. We categorised intervention components as information, training or support. Information interventions included two key elements: (i) they provided standardised information, and (ii) the caregiver played a passive role. Support interventions promoted interaction with other people (professionals or peers). Training interventions trained caregivers in practical skills to manage care. We excluded interventions that were primarily individual psychotherapy. Our primary outcomes were caregiver burden, mood, health-related quality of life and dropout for any reason. Secondary outcomes were caregiver knowledge and skills, use of health and social care resources, admission of the person with dementia to institutional care, and quality of life of the person with dementia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Study selection, data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias in included studies were done independently by two review authors. We used the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) to describe the interventions. We conducted meta-analyses using a random-effects model to derive estimates of effect size. We used GRADE methods to describe our degree of certainty about effect estimates. MAIN RESULTS: We included 26 studies in this review (2367 participants). We compared (1) interventions involving training, support or both, with or without information (experimental interventions) with usual treatment, waiting list or attention control (12 studies, 944 participants); and (2) the same experimental interventions with provision of information alone (14 studies, 1423 participants). We downgraded evidence for study limitations and, for some outcomes, for inconsistency between studies. There was a frequent risk of bias from self-rating of subjective outcomes by participants who were not blind to the intervention. Randomisation methods were not always well-reported and there was potential for attrition bias in some studies. Therefore, all evidence was of moderate or low certainty. In the comparison of experimental interventions with usual treatment, waiting list or attention control, we found that the experimental interventions probably have little or no effect on caregiver burden (nine studies, 597 participants; standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.35 to 0.23); depressive symptoms (eight studies, 638 participants; SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.22 to 0.12); or health-related quality of life (two studies, 311 participants; SMD 0.10, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.32). The experimental interventions probably result in little or no difference in dropout for any reason (eight studies, 661 participants; risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.53). In the comparison of experimental interventions with a control condition of information alone, we found that experimental interventions may result in a slight reduction in caregiver burden (nine studies, 650 participants; SMD -0.24, 95% CI -0.51 to 0.04); probably result in a slight improvement in depressive symptoms (11 studies, 1100 participants; SMD -0.25, 95% CI -0.43 to -0.06); may result in little or no difference in caregiver health-related quality of life (two studies, 257 participants; SMD -0.03, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.21); and probably result in an increase in dropouts for any reason (12 studies, 1266 participants; RR 1.51, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.20). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Remotely delivered interventions including support, training or both, with or without information, may slightly reduce caregiver burden and improve caregiver depressive symptoms when compared with provision of information alone, but not when compared with usual treatment, waiting list or attention control. They seem to make little or no difference to health-related quality of life. Caregivers receiving training or support were more likely than those receiving information alone to drop out of the studies, which might limit applicability. The efficacy of these interventions may depend on the nature and availability of usual services in the study settings.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Cuidadores/educación , Demencia/enfermería , Afecto , Sesgo , Cuidadores/psicología , Familia , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Institucionalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Casas de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042584, 2021 01 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472784

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has spread to all states in India. Due to limitations in testing coverage, the true extent of the spread may not be fully reflected in the reported cases. In this study, we obtain time-varying estimates of the fraction of COVID-19 infections reported in the different states. METHODS: Following a methodology developed in prior work, we use a delay-adjusted case fatality ratio to estimate the true fraction of cases reported in different states. We also develop a delay adjusted test positivity estimation method and study the relationship between the estimated test positivity rate for each state and the estimated fraction of cases reported. SETTING: We apply this method of analysis to all Indian states reporting at least 100 deaths as of 10 October 2020. RESULTS: Our analysis suggests that delay-adjusted case fatality ratios observed in different states range from 0.47% to 3.55%. The estimated fraction of cases reported in different states ranges from 39% to 100% for an assumed baseline case fatality ratio of 1.38%, from 18.6% to 100% for an assumed baseline case fatality ratio of 0.66%, and from 2.8% to 19.7% for an assumed baseline case fatality ratio of 0.1%. We also demonstrate a statistically significant negative relationship between the fraction of cases reported in each state and the testing positivity rate. CONCLUSIONS: The estimates provide a means to quantify and compare the trends of reporting and the true level of current infections in different states. This information may be used to guide policies for prioritising testing in different states, and also to analyse the time-varying effects of different quarantine measures adopted in different states.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Mortalidad , Sesgo , Humanos , India/epidemiología , /genética
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 20211, 2021 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436567

RESUMEN

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered numerous genetic variants associated with human behavioural traits. However, behavioural traits are subject to misreports and longitudinal changes (MLC) which can cause biases in GWAS and follow-up analyses. Here, we demonstrate that individuals with higher disease burden in the UK Biobank (n = 455,607) are more likely to misreport or reduce their alcohol consumption levels, and propose a correction procedure to mitigate the MLC-induced biases. The alcohol consumption GWAS signals removed by the MLC corrections are enriched in metabolic/cardiovascular traits. Almost all the previously reported negative estimates of genetic correlations between alcohol consumption and common diseases become positive/non-significant after the MLC corrections. We also observe MLC biases for smoking and physical activities in the UK Biobank. Our findings provide a plausible explanation of the controversy about the effects of alcohol consumption on health outcomes and a caution for future analyses of self-reported behavioural traits in biobank data.


Asunto(s)
Conducta , Sesgo , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Carácter Cuantitativo Heredable , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/genética , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Índice de Masa Corporal , Humanos , Análisis de la Aleatorización Mendeliana , Reino Unido
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013630, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428222

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have identified the prognostic relevance of extent of resection in the management of glioma. Different intraoperative technologies have emerged in recent years with unknown comparative efficacy in optimising extent of resection. One previous Cochrane Review provided low- to very low-certainty evidence in single trial analyses and synthesis of results was not possible. The role of intraoperative technology in maximising extent of resection remains uncertain. Due to the multiple complementary technologies available, this research question is amenable to a network meta-analysis methodological approach. OBJECTIVES: To establish the comparative effectiveness and risk profile of specific intraoperative imaging technologies using a network meta-analysis and to identify cost analyses and economic evaluations as part of a brief economic commentary. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (2020, Issue 5), MEDLINE via Ovid to May week 2 2020, and Embase via Ovid to 2020 week 20. We performed backward searching of all identified studies. We handsearched two journals, Neuro-oncology and the Journal of Neuro-oncology from 1990 to 2019 including all conference abstracts. Finally, we contacted recognised experts in neuro-oncology to identify any additional eligible studies and acquire information on ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs). SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs evaluating people of all ages with presumed new or recurrent glial tumours (of any location or histology) from clinical examination and imaging (computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or both). Additional imaging modalities (e.g. positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were not mandatory. Interventions included fluorescence-guided surgery, intraoperative ultrasound, neuronavigation (with or without additional image processing, e.g. tractography), and intraoperative MRI. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the search results for relevance, undertook critical appraisal according to known guidelines, and extracted data using a prespecified pro forma. MAIN RESULTS: We identified four RCTs, using different intraoperative imaging technologies: intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) (2 trials, with 58 and 14 participants); fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) (1 trial, 322 participants); and neuronavigation (1 trial, 45 participants). We identified one ongoing trial assessing iMRI with a planned sample size of 304 participants for which results are expected to be published around winter 2020. We identified no published trials for intraoperative ultrasound. Network meta-analyses or traditional meta-analyses were not appropriate due to absence of homogeneous trials across imaging technologies. Of the included trials, there was notable heterogeneity in tumour location and imaging technologies utilised in control arms. There were significant concerns regarding risk of bias in all the included studies. One trial of iMRI found increased extent of resection (risk ratio (RR) for incomplete resection was 0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02 to 0.96; 49 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and one trial of 5-ALA (RR for incomplete resection was 0.55, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.71; 270 participants; low-certainty evidence). The other trial assessing iMRI was stopped early after an unplanned interim analysis including 14 participants; therefore, the trial provided very low-quality evidence. The trial of neuronavigation provided insufficient data to evaluate the effects on extent of resection. Reporting of adverse events was incomplete and suggestive of significant reporting bias (very low-certainty evidence). Overall, the proportion of reported events was low in most trials and, therefore, issues with power to detect differences in outcomes that may or may not have been present. Survival outcomes were not adequately reported, although one trial reported no evidence of improvement in overall survival with 5-ALA (hazard ratio (HR) 0.82, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.07; 270 participants; low-certainty evidence). Data for quality of life were only available for one study and there was significant attrition bias (very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative imaging technologies, specifically 5-ALA and iMRI, may be of benefit in maximising extent of resection in participants with high-grade glioma. However, this is based on low- to very low-certainty evidence. Therefore, the short- and long-term neurological effects are uncertain. Effects of image-guided surgery on overall survival, progression-free survival, and quality of life are unclear. Network and traditional meta-analyses were not possible due to the identified high risk of bias, heterogeneity, and small trials included in this review. A brief economic commentary found limited economic evidence for the equivocal use of iMRI compared with conventional surgery. In terms of costs, one non-systematic review of economic studies suggested that, compared with standard surgery, use of image-guided surgery has an uncertain effect on costs and that 5-ALA was more costly. Further research, including completion of ongoing trials of ultrasound-guided surgery, is needed.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirugía , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagen , Glioma/cirugía , Ácido Aminolevulínico/administración & dosificación , Sesgo , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatorios , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética Intervencional/estadística & datos numéricos , Metaanálisis en Red , Neuronavegación/métodos , Neuronavegación/estadística & datos numéricos , Imagen Óptica/métodos , Imagen Óptica/estadística & datos numéricos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos
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