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1.
Behav Brain Sci ; 47: e55, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311453

RESUMEN

We comment on the limits of relying on prior literature when constructing the design space for an integrative experiment; the adaptive nature of social and behavioral phenomena and the implications for the use of theory and modeling when constructing the design space; and on the challenges of measuring random errors and lab-related biases in measurement without replication.


Asunto(s)
Conducta , Sesgo , Humanos
2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 190(2): E1-E3, 2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300746

RESUMEN

For many statistical methods that are commonly used in medical research, it is assumed that observations are independent. However, when this assumption is violated, alternative methods may be needed. In this paper, we describe why an analysis that ignores the dependencies within the data may provide biased results and outline possible alternatives. This paper aims to create awareness among researchers, readers, and reviewers for this possible source of bias in medical research.


Asunto(s)
Proyectos de Investigación , Humanos , Sesgo
3.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296383, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330018

RESUMEN

The widely observed positive bias on self-evaluation is mainly explained by the self-enhancement motivation which minimizes negative feedbacks and emphasizes positive ones. Recent agent based simulations suggest that a positive bias also emerges if the sensitivity to feedbacks decreases when the self-evaluation increases. This paper proposes a simple mathematical model in which these different biases are integrated. Moreover, it describes an experiment (N = 1509) confirming that the sensitivity to feedbacks tends to decrease when self-evaluation increases and that a directly related positive bias is detected.


Asunto(s)
Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Autoevaluación (Psicología) , Sesgo , Motivación
4.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 24(1): 30, 2024 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331732

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rapidly developing tests for emerging diseases is critical for early disease monitoring. In the early stages of an epidemic, when low prevalences are expected, high specificity tests are desired to avoid numerous false positives. Selecting a cutoff to classify positive and negative test results that has the desired operating characteristics, such as specificity, is challenging for new tests because of limited validation data with known disease status. While there is ample statistical literature on estimating quantiles of a distribution, there is limited evidence on estimating extreme quantiles from limited validation data and the resulting test characteristics in the disease testing context. METHODS: We propose using extreme value theory to select a cutoff with predetermined specificity by fitting a Pareto distribution to the upper tail of the negative controls. We compared this method to five previously proposed cutoff selection methods in a data analysis and simulation study. We analyzed COVID-19 enzyme linked immunosorbent assay antibody test results from long-term care facilities and skilled nursing staff in Colorado between May and December of 2020. RESULTS: We found the extreme value approach had minimal bias when targeting a specificity of 0.995. Using the empirical quantile of the negative controls performed well when targeting a specificity of 0.95. The higher target specificity is preferred for overall test accuracy when prevalence is low, whereas the lower target specificity is preferred when prevalence is higher and resulted in less variable prevalence estimation. DISCUSSION: While commonly used, the normal based methods showed considerable bias compared to the empirical and extreme value theory-based methods. CONCLUSIONS: When determining disease testing cutoffs from small training data samples, we recommend using the extreme value based-methods when targeting a high specificity and the empirical quantile when targeting a lower specificity.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Humanos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Sesgo
5.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 178, 2024 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351283

RESUMEN

To interact successfully with objects, it is crucial to accurately perceive their spatial extent, an enclosed region they occupy in space. Although the topographic representation of space in the early visual cortex (EVC) has been favored as a neural correlate of spatial extent perception, its exact nature and contribution to perception remain unclear. Here, we inspect the topographic representations of human individuals' EVC and perception in terms of how much their anisotropy is influenced by the orientation (co-axiality) and radial position (radiality) of stimuli. We report that while the anisotropy is influenced by both factors, its direction is primarily determined by radiality in EVC but by co-axiality in perception. Despite this mismatch, the individual differences in both radial and co-axial anisotropy are substantially shared between EVC and perception. Our findings suggest that spatial extent perception builds on EVC's spatial representation but requires an additional mechanism to transform its topographic bias.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Visual , Humanos , Anisotropía , Percepción Espacial , Sesgo
6.
Ind Health ; 62(1): 1, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346766
8.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0282212, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358994

RESUMEN

Researchers often claim that sibling analysis can be used to separate causal genetic effects from the assortment of biases that contaminate most downstream genetic studies (e.g. polygenic score predictors). Indeed, typical results from sibling analysis show large (>50%) attenuations in the associations between polygenic scores and phenotypes compared to non-sibling analysis, consistent with researchers' expectations about bias reduction. This paper explores these expectations by using family (quad) data and simulations that include indirect genetic effect processes and evaluates the ability of sibling analysis to uncover direct genetic effects of polygenic scores. We find that sibling analysis, in general, fail to uncover direct genetic effects; indeed, these models have both upward and downward biases that are difficult to sign in typical data. When genetic nurture effects exist, sibling analysis creates "measurement error" that attenuates associations between polygenic scores and phenotypes. As the correlation between direct and indirect effect changes, this bias can increase or decrease. Our findings suggest that interpreting results from sibling analysis aimed at uncovering direct genetic effects should be treated with caution.


Asunto(s)
Herencia Multifactorial , Hermanos , Humanos , Fenotipo , Herencia Multifactorial/genética , Sesgo
9.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 24(1): 36, 2024 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360543

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Surveys have been used worldwide to provide information on the COVID-19 pandemic impact so as to prepare and deliver an effective Public Health response. Overlapping panel surveys allow longitudinal estimates and more accurate cross-sectional estimates to be obtained thanks to the larger sample size. However, the problem of non-response is particularly aggravated in the case of panel surveys due to population fatigue with repeated surveys. OBJECTIVE: To develop a new reweighting method for overlapping panel surveys affected by non-response. METHODS: We chose the Healthcare and Social Survey which has an overlapping panel survey design with measurements throughout 2020 and 2021, and random samplings stratified by province and degree of urbanization. Each measurement comprises two samples: a longitudinal sample taken from previous measurements and a new sample taken at each measurement. RESULTS: Our reweighting methodological approach is the result of a two-step process: the original sampling design weights are corrected by modelling non-response with respect to the longitudinal sample obtained in a previous measurement using machine learning techniques, followed by calibration using the auxiliary information available at the population level. It is applied to the estimation of totals, proportions, ratios, and differences between measurements, and to gender gaps in the variable of self-perceived general health. CONCLUSION: The proposed method produces suitable estimators for both cross-sectional and longitudinal samples. For addressing future health crises such as COVID-19, it is therefore necessary to reduce potential coverage and non-response biases in surveys by means of utilizing reweighting techniques as proposed in this study.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Calibración , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Sesgo , Atención a la Salud
10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1407, 2024 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360884
11.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297763, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363741

RESUMEN

Coping capacity is a key aspect of driver-vehicle interaction when drivers observe and make decisions, and is of great importance for drivers. However, different drivers have different self-cognition and assess their driving abilities differently, especially for novice drivers. Based on questionnaire data, this study has investigated the coping capacities of drivers in both static environments and dynamic environments. With the ANOVA analysis method and the structural equation model (SEM), this study has verified the effects of gender and driving factors (driving years, driving frequency, driving time) on drivers' coping capacities based on drivers' self-assessment scores and mutual assessment scores. Drivers' self-assessment scores show significant effects of all factors on drivers' coping capacities, and drivers' mutual assessment scores show significant effects of all factors, excluding driving time, on drivers' coping capacities. Also, it has been found that all drivers in the driving year group have cognitive biases. It seems that first-year drivers are always overconfident with their driving skills, while drivers with a driving experience of more than three years usually score driving skills of themselves and other drivers most conservatively. With increased exposure to various traffic conditions, experienced drivers are more aware of their limitations in dealing with complex traffic situations, while novice drivers do not know their lack of capability to properly respond to any unexpected situation they could encounter.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Conducción de Automóvil , Cognición , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Sesgo , Adaptación Psicológica
12.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0299139, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363785

RESUMEN

Belief perseverance bias refers to individuals' tendency to persevere in biased opinions even after the misinformation that initially shaped those opinions has been retracted. This study contributes to research on reducing the negative impact of misinformation by mitigating the belief perseverance bias. The study explores the previously proposed awareness-training and counter-speech debiasing techniques, further developing them by introducing new variants and combining them. We investigate their effectiveness in mitigating the belief perseverance bias after the retraction of misinformation related to a real-life issue in an experiment involving N = 876 individuals, of whom 364 exhibit belief perseverance bias. The effectiveness of the debiasing techniques is assessed by measuring the difference between the baseline opinions before exposure to misinformation and the opinions after exposure to a debiasing technique. Our study confirmed the effectiveness of the awareness-training and counter-speech debiasing techniques in mitigating the belief perseverance bias, finding no discernible differences in the effectiveness between the previously proposed and the new variants. Moreover, we observed that the combination of awareness training and counter-speech is more effective in mitigating the belief perseverance bias than the single debiasing techniques.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Habla , Humanos , Actitud , Sesgo
13.
Nat Med ; 30(2): 356-357, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317022

Asunto(s)
Sesgo
14.
J Vis ; 24(2): 5, 2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381426

RESUMEN

Our perception does not depend exclusively on the immediate sensory input. It is also influenced by our internal predictions derived from prior observations and the temporal regularities of the environment, which can result in choice history biases. However, it is unclear how this flexible use of prior information to predict the future influences perceptual decisions. Prior information may bias decisions independently of the current sensory input, or it may modulate the weight of current sensory input based on its consistency with the expectation. To address this question, we used a visual decision-making task and manipulated the transitional probabilities between successive noisy grating stimuli. Using a reverse correlation analysis, we evaluated the contribution of stimulus-independent decision bias and stimulus-dependent sensitivity modulations to choice history biases. We found that both effects coexist, whereby there was increased bias to respond in line with the predicted orientation alongside modulations in perceptual sensitivity to favor perceptual information consistent with the prediction, akin to selective attention. Furthermore, at the individual differences level, we investigated the relationship between autistic-like traits and the adaptation of choice history biases to the sequential statistics of the environment. Over two studies, we found no convincing evidence of reduced adaptation to sequential regularities in individuals with high autistic-like traits. In sum, we present robust evidence for both perceptual confirmation bias and decision bias supporting adaptation to sequential regularities in the environment.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico , Humanos , Sesgo , Individualidad , Probabilidad
15.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297184, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394190

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Two accepted designs exist for parallel-group cluster-randomised trials (CRTs). Closed-cohort designs follow the same individuals over time with a single recruitment period before randomisation, but face challenges in settings with high attrition. (Repeated) cross-sectional designs recruit at one or more timepoints before and/or after randomisation, collecting data from different individuals present in the cluster at these timepoints, but are unsuitable for assessment of individual change over time. An 'open-cohort' design allows individual follow-up with recruitment before and after cluster-randomisation, but little literature exists on acceptability to inform their use in CRTs. AIM: To document the views and experiences of expert trialists to identify: a) Design and conduct challenges with established parallel-group CRT designs,b) Perceptions of potential benefits and barriers to implementation of open-cohort CRTs,c) Methods for minimising, and investigating the impact of, bias in open-cohort CRTs. METHODS: Qualitative consultation via two expert workshops including triallists (n = 24) who had worked on CRTs over a range of settings. Workshop transcripts were analysed using Descriptive Thematic Analysis utilising inductive and deductive coding. RESULTS: Two central organising concepts were developed. Design and conduct challenges with established CRT designs confirmed that current CRT designs are unable to deal with many of the complex research and intervention circumstances found in some trial settings (e.g. care homes). Perceptions of potential benefits and barriers of open cohort designs included themes on: approaches to recruitment; data collection; analysis; minimising/investigating the impact of bias; and how open-cohort designs might address or present CRT design challenges. Open-cohort designs were felt to provide a solution for some of the challenges current CRT designs present in some settings. CONCLUSIONS: Open-cohort CRT designs hold promise for addressing the challenges associated with standard CRT designs. Research is needed to provide clarity around definition and guidance on application.


Asunto(s)
Proyectos de Investigación , Investigadores , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Conducta Compulsiva , Sesgo
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4383, 2024 02 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388835

RESUMEN

Each population may have its own specific characteristics and cultural differences, which can affect perceptions of one's body, obesity, and the development of weight-related biases. The goal of our study is to (I) examine weight biases among incoming nursing students from two distinct cultures; (II) determine whether the cultural differences may be reflected in the levels of fat phobia, attitudes, and behaviors related to overweight and obesity; (III) adapt the Fat Phobia Scale and translate it into Polish. The study includes 119 Nigerian students and 120 Polish students. The following tools are used-ORK-10, ATOP, BAOP, BES and FPh. The results indicates that Nigerian students have significantly (p < 0.01) less knowledge about the risks associated with overweight and obesity. In contrast, they have a significantly (p < 0.01) more positive body image than the Polish students. Among Nigerian students, men have more positive body image in comparison to women (p = 0.01). An inverse relationship is observed in the group of Polish students, among whom women had a more positive body image than men did (p = 0.01). There are no statistically significant differences in fatphobic attitudes among the studied groups. It has been observed, that culture may be related to weight biases.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Enfermería , Prejuicio de Peso , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Sobrepeso , Polonia/epidemiología , Imagen Corporal , Nigeria/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sesgo , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal
17.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 34(2): e14573, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389140

RESUMEN

AIM: The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the effect of moderate- versus high-intensity aerobic exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in older adults, taking into account the volume of exercise completed. METHODS: The databases MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), and CENTRAL (Cochrane Library) were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two reviewers extracted data and assessed bias. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software calculated overall effect size, intensity differences, and performed meta-regression analyses using pre-to-post intervention or change scores of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak). The review included 23 RCTs with 1332 older adults (intervention group: n = 932; control group: n = 400), divided into moderate-intensity (435 older adults) and high-intensity (476 older adults) groups. RESULTS: Meta-regression analysis showed a moderate, but not significant, relationship between exercise intensity and improvements in V̇O2 peak after accounting for the completed exercise volume (ß = 0.31, 95% CI = [-0.04; 0.67]). Additionally, studies comparing moderate- versus high-intensity revealed a small, but not significant, effect in favor of high-intensity (Hedges' g = 0.20, 95% CI = [-0.02; 0.41]). Finally, no significant differences in V̇O2 peak improvements were found across exercise groups employing various methods, modalities, and intensity monitoring strategies. CONCLUSION: Findings challenge the notion that high-intensity exercise is inherently superior and indicate that regular aerobic exercise, irrespective of the specific approach and intensity, provides the primary benefits to CRF in older adults. Future RCTs should prioritize valid and reliable methodologies for monitoring and reporting exercise volume and adherence among older adults.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular , Humanos , Anciano , Ejercicio Físico , Sesgo
18.
Am J Bot ; 111(2): e16288, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366744

RESUMEN

Functional traits are critical tools in plant ecology for capturing organism-environment interactions based on trade-offs and making links between organismal and ecosystem processes. While broad frameworks for functional traits have been developed for vascular plants, we lack the same for bryophytes, despite an escalation in the number of studies on bryophyte functional trait in the last 45 years and an increased recognition of the ecological roles bryophytes play across ecosystems. In this review, we compiled data from 282 published articles (10,005 records) that focused on functional traits measured in mosses and sought to examine trends in types of traits measured, capture taxonomic and geographic breadth of trait coverage, reveal biases in coverage in the current literature, and develop a bryophyte-function index (BFI) to describe the completeness of current trait coverage and identify global gaps to focus research efforts. The most commonly measured response traits (those related to growth/reproduction in individual organisms) and effect traits (those that directly affect community/ecosystem scale processes) fell into the categories of morphology (e.g., leaf area, shoot height) and nutrient storage/cycling, and our BFI revealed that these data were most commonly collected from temperate and boreal regions of Europe, North America, and East Asia. However, fewer than 10% of known moss species have available functional trait information. Our synthesis revealed a need for research on traits related to ontogeny, sex, and intraspecific plasticity and on co-measurement of traits related to water relations and bryophyte-mediated soil processes.


Asunto(s)
Briófitas , Tracheophyta , Ecosistema , Ecología , Sesgo
19.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 108: 102391, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301343

RESUMEN

Cognitive models of psychosis have stimulated empirical studies on cognitive biases involved in schizophrenia spectrum psychoses and their symptoms. This systematic review aimed to summarize the studies on the role of cognitive biases as assessed in different performance-based tasks in schizophrenia spectrum psychoses and clinical high-risk states. We focused on five cognitive biases linked to psychosis, i.e., aberrant salience, attentional biases, source monitoring biases, jumping to conclusions, and bias against disconfirmatory evidence. We identified N = 324 studies published in N = 308 articles fulfilling inclusion criteria. Most studies have been cross-sectional and confirmed that the schizophrenia spectrum psychoses are related to exaggerated cognitive biases compared to healthy controls. On the contrary, less evidence suggests a higher tendency for cognitive biases in the UHR sample. The only exceptions were source monitoring and jumping to conclusions, which were confirmed to be exaggerated in both clinical groups. Hallucinations and delusions were the most frequent symptoms studied in the context of cognitive biases. Based on the findings, we presented a hypothetical model on the role of interactions between cognitive biases or additive effects of biases in shaping the risk of psychosis. Future research is warranted for further development of cognitive models for psychosis.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Cognición , Sesgo
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