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3.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e160-e170, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005515

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women make up an increasing proportion of the physician workforce in anaesthesia, but they are consistently under-represented in leadership and governance. METHODS: We performed an internet-based survey to investigate career opportunities in leadership and research amongst anaesthesiologists. We also explored gender bias attributable to workplace attitudes and economic factors. The survey instrument was piloted, translated into seven languages, and uploaded to the SurveyMonkey® platform. We aimed to collect between 7800 and 13 700 responses from at least 100 countries. Participant consent and ethical approval were obtained. A quantitative analysis was done with χ2 and Cramer's V as a measure of strength of associations. We used an inductive approach and a thematic content analysis for qualitative data on current barriers to leadership and research. RESULTS: The 11 746 respondents, 51.3% women and 48.7% men, represented 148 countries; 35 respondents identified their gender as non-binary. Women were less driven to achieve leadership positions (P<0.001; Cramer's V: 0.11). Being a woman was reported as a disadvantage for leadership and research (P<0.001 for both; Cramer's V: 0.47 and 0.34, respectively). Women were also more likely to be mistreated in the workplace (odds ratio: 10.6; 95% confidence interval: 9.4-11.9; P<0.001), most commonly by surgeons. Several personal, departmental, institutional, and societal barriers in leadership and research were identified, and strategies to overcome them were suggested. Lower-income countries were associated with a significantly smaller gender gap (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Whilst certain trends suggest improvements in the workplace, barriers to promotion of women in key leadership and research positions continue within anaesthesiology internationally.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiólogos , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Investigación Biomédica , Liderazgo , Sexismo , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
4.
Am Surg ; 86(2): 152-157, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106909

RESUMEN

The professional use of social media is increasingly prevalent today, particularly in medicine and surgery. Several recent movements have highlighted the strengths of this forum for networking and mentorship for females in surgery who otherwise may lack mentors locally. We sought to describe modern uses for and strengths of social media for women in surgery globally via a systematic review of the literature. Multiple efforts and avenues have promoted gender equality in surgery, while also uniting female surgeons in a collaborative virtual network of colleagues. In particular, movements on Twitter, such as #ILookLikeASurgeon and #NYerORCoverChallenge, as well as other collaborative virtual fora have brought visibility to female surgeons, while drawing the young population of students and trainees toward surgical careers. Social media provides a unique opportunity for female trainees and established surgeons alike to network and establish mentorship relationships, which may aid in fostering interest in surgery and closing the gender gap in our field.


Asunto(s)
Tutoría , Médicos Mujeres , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Cirujanos , Selección de Profesión , Femenino , Humanos , Tutoría/métodos , Mentores/estadística & datos numéricos , Médicos Mujeres/organización & administración , Médicos Mujeres/provisión & distribución , Salarios y Beneficios/estadística & datos numéricos , Sexismo , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/organización & administración , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Cirujanos/organización & administración , Cirujanos/provisión & distribución
5.
Instr Course Lect ; 69: 245-254, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017731

RESUMEN

Women comprise approximately 50% of medical students; however, only 14% of current orthopaedic residents are women. There are many factors that contribute to the reluctance of female medical students to enter the field including limited exposure to musculoskeletal medicine during medical school, negative perception of the field, lack of female mentors, barriers to promotion, and acceptance by senior faculty. Diversity in orthopaedics is critical to provide culturally competent care. Two pipeline programs, the Perry Initiative and Nth Dimensions, have successful track records in increasing female and underrepresented minorities in orthopaedic surgery residency training. Recognizing and combating implicit bias in orthopaedics will improve recruitment, retention, promotion, and compensation of female orthopaedic surgeons. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the current status of women in orthopaedics, describe ways to improve diversity in the field, and make surgeons aware of how implicit bias can contribute to discrepancies seen in orthopaedic surgery, including pay scale inequities and women in leadership positions.


Asunto(s)
Ortopedia , Médicos Mujeres , Sexismo , Selección de Profesión , Femenino , Humanos , Internado y Residencia , Procedimientos Ortopédicos
6.
J Vis Commun Med ; 43(1): 1, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914362

Asunto(s)
Sexismo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e171-e177, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980158

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have confirmed gender imbalance in anaesthesia leadership. Whether women anaesthesiologists aspire to career advancement has not been reported. This European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) survey explored anaesthesiologists' motivation to advance their careers into leadership positions, and to identify reported barriers to advancement. METHODS: ESA members (n=10 033, 5245 men, 3759 women, 1029 undefined) were invited to complete a 25-item, Internet-based survey, and responses were analysed thematically. RESULTS: In total, 3048 ESA members (1706 women, 1342 men, 30% of all members) responded to the survey. The majority were specialists, married or with a partner, and have children; 47% of women and 48% of men wish to pursue a leadership career. Barriers to career promotion noted by women were primarily attributed to work-private time considerations (extra workload and less personal time [84%], responsibility for care of family [65%], lack of part-time work opportunities [67%]), and the shift away from clinical work [59%]). Men respondents indicated the same barriers although the proportions were significantly lower. Considerations related to the partner (lack of support, career development of partner) were last on the list of variables reported by women as barriers. Importantly, many women noted deficiencies in leadership (68%) and research education (55%), and women role models (41%) and self-confidence (44%). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest survey to date of women anaesthesiologists' view on career advancement. Despite the many barriers noted by women, they are as eager as men to assume leadership positions. The survey results help in identifying possible areas for intervention to assist in career development.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiólogos , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Liderazgo , Médicos Mujeres , Adulto , Movilidad Laboral , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Sexismo
8.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e134-e147, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983412

RESUMEN

Despite an increase in the proportion of women anaesthesiologists over time, women remain under-represented in academic and leadership positions, honour awards, and academic promotion. Current literature has identified several reasons for the observed gender disparity in anaesthesiology leadership and faculty positions, including unsupportive work environments, lack of mentorship, personal choices, childcare responsibilities, and active discrimination against women. A scoping review design was selected to examine the nature and extent of available research. Our review provides an overview of the literature that explores gender issues in anaesthesiology, identifies gaps in the literature, and appraises effective strategies to improve gender equity in anaesthesiology. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE up to July 2019, and included 30 studies for analysis. Most reports used retrospective or survey methodologies. The review shows that women anaesthesiologists face gender biases in the work environment, are under-represented in various positions of leadership or influence, and as authors. Work-life demands may impose a challenge. Motivation and interest in career advancement of women anaesthesiologists have not been well studied. Several strategies have been proposed, ranging from an individual to administrative level, which may help anaesthesiologists achieve equal representation of women in the field.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiólogos , Médicos Mujeres , Autoria , Distinciones y Premios , Femenino , Humanos , Liderazgo , Sexismo
14.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e59-e62, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973829

RESUMEN

The Women in Anaesthesia Research Symposium (Prato, Italy; 4 June, 2019), supported by the British Journal of Anaesthesia in collaboration with Monash University, was organised to discuss challenges facing women in anaesthesia clinical practice and research. We provide an overview of institutional or departmental measures that were proposed during the symposium that may empower women in anaesthesia today.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiología/organización & administración , Investigación Biomédica/organización & administración , Médicos Mujeres , Movilidad Laboral , Femenino , Humanos , Liderazgo , Sexismo/prevención & control , Acoso Sexual/prevención & control , Derechos de la Mujer
15.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e63-e69, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980155

RESUMEN

The under-representation of women in academic leadership roles, including in anaesthesiology, is a well-documented phenomenon that has persisted for decades despite more women attending medical school, participating in anaesthesiology residencies, and joining academic faculties. The percentage of female anaesthesiologists who hold senior academic ranks or leadership roles, such as chair, lags behind the percentage of female anaesthesiologists overall. Trends towards increasing the numbers of women serving in educational leadership roles, specifically residency programme directors, suggest that there are areas in which academic anaesthesiology has been, and can continue, improving gender imbalance. Continued institutional efforts to recruit women into anaesthesiology, reduce gender bias, and promote interventions that foster gender equity in hiring and promotion will continue to benefit women, academic anaesthesiology departments, and the healthcare system overall.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiología/tendencias , Internado y Residencia/tendencias , Médicos Mujeres/tendencias , Sexismo/tendencias , Centros Médicos Académicos/organización & administración , Centros Médicos Académicos/tendencias , Anestesiología/educación , Anestesiología/organización & administración , Selección de Profesión , Movilidad Laboral , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/organización & administración , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Internado y Residencia/organización & administración , Liderazgo , Médicos Mujeres/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Facultades de Medicina/tendencias , Sexismo/prevención & control , Estados Unidos
16.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e70-e76, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982114

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women face gender-based challenges in their medical education and career. Inequitable access to procedural training, a confidence gap, and professional identity deficit have been shown. We made a gender comparison of procedural case volume, confidence for independent practice, perceived gender and ethnic bias, and professional identity in Australasian anaesthesia trainees. METHODS: An online, voluntary, anonymous survey using SurveyMonkey® was delivered to Australasian anaesthesia trainees. Information collected included demographics, experience and confidence in 12 anaesthetic procedures, assessments relating to confidence and professional identity, and perceived gender and ethnic bias. Gender differences were evaluated. RESULTS: Three hundred and fifty-six trainees (22.2%) of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) responded. Male trainees reported a higher number (standard deviation) of procedures performed greater than 10 times (men 4.45 [2.55], women 3.78 [1.95]; P<0.001 adjusted for training level). Men were more likely to rate themselves at a training competency above their actual training level (men 18.6%, women 7.8%; P=0.004) and exaggerate procedural experience to supervisors (men 30.8%, women 11.8%; P<0.001). Final-year male trainees felt significantly more prepared for independent practice (P=0.021, trend across ordered responses). Women reported significantly higher levels of gender bias exhibited by patients (men 1.1%, women 84.5%; P<0.001) and in training overall (men 10.3%, women 55.3%; P<0.001), which was compounded in women with an ethnic minority background. CONCLUSIONS: A discrepancy exists between the number of procedures performed by male and female anaesthesia trainees in Australia and New Zealand. Relative male overconfidence may be a major contributing factor to the gender confidence gap.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiología/educación , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/organización & administración , Médicos Mujeres/psicología , Sexismo , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Australia , Competencia Clínica/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nueva Zelanda , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Autoimagen , Factores Sexuales , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología
17.
Acad Med ; 95(2): 180-183, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577584

RESUMEN

The use of term limits in politics and business has been proposed as a means to refresh leadership, encourage innovation, and decrease gender and racial disparities in positions of power. Many U.S. states and the executive boards of businesses have incorporated them into their constitutions and bylaws; however, studies in politics and business have shown that implementing term limits has had mixed results. Specifically, research in politics has shown that term limits have had a minimal effect on the number of women and minorities elected to office, while research in business indicates term limits do increase innovation. Additionally, term limits may have unintended negative consequences, including inhibiting individuals from developing deep expertise in a specific area of interest and destabilizing institutions that endure frequent turnover in leaders. Given this conflicting information, it is not surprising that academic medical centers (AMCs) in the United States have not widely incorporated term limits for those holding positions of power, including deans, presidents, provosts, and department heads. Notably, a few AMCs have incorporated such limits for some positions, and faculty have viewed these positively for their ability to shape a more egalitarian and collaborative culture. Drawing on studies from academic medicine, politics, and business, the author examines arguments both for and against instituting term limits at AMCs. The author concludes that despite strong arguments against term limits, they deserve attention in academic medicine, especially given their potential to help address gender and racial disparities and to encourage innovation.


Asunto(s)
Centros Médicos Académicos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Centros Médicos Académicos/organización & administración , Sexismo , Femenino , Humanos , Liderazgo , Masculino , Política , Estados Unidos/etnología
18.
Acad Med ; 95(2): 248-254, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625999

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: National Institutes of Health career development (K) awards mandate specific allocations of effort to research and training. The authors sought to understand pressures perceived by award recipients to change or misrepresent effort, and whether these perceptions differed by gender. METHOD: In 2010-2011 and 2014, the authors surveyed K08 and K23 award recipients. Questions evaluated perceived pressure to change or misrepresent time allocation. Multivariable logistic regression modeling of pressure to misrepresent effort evaluated associations with individual and basic job characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 1,719 faculty in the initial target population, 493 women and 573 men (1,066, 62%) responded at both time points. Most respondents reported feeling pressure to increase time spent on professional activities other than their K award-related research or career development or to decrease time on their K award-related research. The likelihood of perceiving pressure differed significantly by gender: 68% of women vs 55% of men (P < .001). A minority reported perceiving pressure to misrepresent professional time (women, 29%, vs men, 27%, P = .52). Multivariable analysis revealed that pressure to misrepresent professional time was less likely among respondents at institutions with the most extramural funding (P = .02). A significant pairwise interaction between gender and K award type suggested that female K08 awardees had higher odds than male peers of perceiving pressure to misrepresent time. CONCLUSIONS: Most K award recipients reported feeling pressure to do more non-K award-related activities. More than a quarter reported feeling pressure to misrepresent effort. Additional research is needed to evaluate the proportion of academic medical faculty who actually misrepresent professional effort.


Asunto(s)
Distinciones y Premios , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/organización & administración , Investigadores/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Percepción , Investigadores/economía , Sexismo , Estados Unidos/etnología
19.
Acad Med ; 95(2): 216-220, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464733

RESUMEN

PROBLEM: Gender inequity in academic medicine is a pervasive challenge. Recommendations have been implemented to reduce inequities for female faculty. However, there are no well-established guidelines for the recruitment and retention of female residents. APPROACH: To address challenges faced by female physicians and support the recruitment and retention of female residents, female emergency medicine residents and attending physicians at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania formed a professional development group (PDG), #Shemergency, in July 2017. From July 2017 to July 2018, this PDG developed events and initiatives for female residents that addressed methods to improve awareness of and develop skills relevant to well-described gender disparities in mentorship, speakership and conference representation, compensation, evaluations, wellness and service, and award recognition. OUTCOMES: Over its first year (July 2017-July 2018), the PDG created a professional community and enhanced mentorship through a number of events and initiatives. The PDG secured funding for 5 residents to attend a national conference and nominated 5 residents and 2 attending physicians for professional organization awards (4 nominees won). NEXT STEPS: After the first year, the PDG expanded the number of joint activities with both male and female colleagues and organized a citywide event for female residents and faculty representing 5 different residency programs. Future work will focus on sustainability (e.g., holding fundraising events), generalizability (e.g., expanding the gender-disparity areas addressed as well as spreading the model to other programs), developing additional events and initiatives (e.g., expanding the number of joint activities with male colleagues), and outcome assessments (e.g., distributing pre- and postevent surveys).


Asunto(s)
Medicina de Emergencia/organización & administración , Docentes Médicos/organización & administración , Desarrollo de Personal/organización & administración , Competencia Clínica , Femenino , Humanos , Liderazgo , Médicos Mujeres/organización & administración , Sexismo
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