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2.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(2): 187-194, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795052

RESUMEN

The presence of women in genitourinary (GU) specialty training and practice has lagged significantly behind other fields. Current challenges include maternity leave, sexual harassment, and pay disparities. Despite these obstacles, the prevalence of women in GU specialty training has risen rapidly. One consequence of retiring male providers and higher numbers of female graduates will be a notable demographic shift in the percentage of GU care provided by these younger women. It will be essential to anticipate and acknowledge the unique concerns of this workforce, particularly in light of the concomitant aging of the US population and the associated increase in demand for GU care.


Asunto(s)
Médicos Mujeres , Urólogos , Adulto , Selección de Profesión , Movilidad Laboral , Femenino , Humanos , Permiso Parental , Embarazo , Salarios y Beneficios , Sexismo
3.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(4): 460-465, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885346

RESUMEN

Considerable evidence has demonstrated that gender influences interactions during in-person meetings, most commonly, negatively impacting women and persons of color. Pervasive gender stereotypes about roles that were (and are) occupied by men and women lead to implicit assumptions about competency in said roles. For example, women may receive more negative verbal interruptions or nonverbal cues that undermine their authority as a leader, a stereotypically male-typed role. The coronavirus pandemic has led to the rapid rise in videoconferencing in professional interactions; however, little is known about videoconferencing etiquette and how gender bias permeates to this new setting. Although there are many benefits to the use of this technology, it has the potential to reinforce gender bias rooted in cultural and societal norms, gender stereotypes, and traditional gender roles. The well-documented implicit biases that have been shown to favor men over women during in-person meetings may translate to further gender gaps in leadership during virtual meetings. It is also possible that videoconferencing could be used to reduce gender bias, but until we have research to shine a light on this topic, this article provides 10 tips for promoting gender equity during virtual meetings.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Equidad de Género , Sexismo , Comunicación por Videocoferencia/ética , Femenino , Humanos , Liderazgo , Masculino
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(736): 850-853, 2021 Apr 28.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908723

RESUMEN

Sexism and gender inequalities are well-known issues in medical community and hospitals are also concerned. The Swiss Junior Doctors Association, local branch (canton of Vaud) conducted a survey about this topic. 44% of participants (67-186 junior doctors answered the survey) have been victims or witnessed sexist remarks. 76% heard hostiles speeches about pregnancy. 62% of pregnant women did not benefit from measures provided by Swiss law. 82 % of mothers experienced pregnancy as a career-limiting event. Human resources and management have responsibility for reporting discriminatory behavior and taking appropriate actions. Having children should be valued and pregnant women protected according to Swiss law, which should be enforced without conditions.


Asunto(s)
Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales , Sexismo , Niño , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Embarazo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Suiza
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671350

RESUMEN

This research aimed to explore the interplay of sexism and moral disengagement (MD) in the explanation of psychological and physical dating aggression. The sample comprised 1113 Spanish adolescents (49.2% girls, n = 552) between the ages of 12 to 17 (M = 14.44). A latent profile analysis conducted with sub-sample of 432 adolescents with sentimental experience identified four configurations: (1) benevolent; (2) less disengaged and sexist; (3) highly disengaged and sexist; and (4) moderately disengaged and sexist. Regarding gender and age, boys were more present than girls in the moderately disengaged and sexist group, as well as in the highly disengaged and sexist profile. The highly disengaged and sexist and benevolent groups were the youngest. Regarding dating aggression, the highly disengaged and sexist group had the highest engagement in physical and psychological aggression. However, the others three profiles showed a similar engagement in aggression. These findings confirmed the moderating role of MD on the relationship between sexism and dating aggression and suggested that the association between MD, sexism, and dating aggression was exponential; that is, the risk appeared when adolescents were extremely hostile and disengaged. The results have implications for the design of tailored dating aggression prevention programmes.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Principios Morales , Adolescente , Actitud , Niño , Femenino , Hostilidad , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Sexismo
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672240

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Within the context of the widespread use of technologies by adolescents, the objectives of this study were to identify the perpetrators of intimate partner cyberstalking (IPCS) in adolescents; to analyze the relationship between IPCS and gender, age, sexting behaviors, pornography consumption, and ambivalent sexism; and to investigate the influence of the study variables as predictors of IPCS and determine their moderating role. METHODS: Participants were 993 Spanish students of Secondary Education, 535 girls and 458 boys with mean age 15.75 (SD = 1.47). Of the total sample, 70.3% (n = 696) had or had had a partner. RESULTS: Boys perform more sexting, consume more pornographic content, and have more hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes than girls. However, girls perpetrate more IPCS than boys. The results of the hierarchical multiple regression indicate that hostile sexism is a predictor of IPCS, as well as the combined effect of Gender × Pornography and Benevolent Sexism × Sexting. CONCLUSIONS: it is essential to implement sexual affective education programs in schools in which Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are incorporated so that boys and girls can experience their relationships, both offline and online, in an egalitarian and violence-free way.


Asunto(s)
Literatura Erótica , Violencia de Pareja , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Educación Sexual , Sexismo , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales
7.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 4: 14-23, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682097

RESUMEN

In the UK, the proportion of female medical students has remained static over the last decade, at around 55%; however, at consultant level, only 36.6% of doctors are women. The reasons for this drop in numbers are not clear. Given the increase in number of female doctors in training, the proportion of female doctors at consultant level is lower than might be expected. This article discusses issues affecting the female medical workforce in anaesthesia, intensive care and pain medicine. It explores how gender stereotypes and implicit gender bias can affect the way women are perceived in the workplace, especially in leadership positions, and discusses health issues particular to the female medical workforce. While the issues in this article may not affect all women, the cumulative effect of being subject to gender stereotypes within a workplace not designed to accommodate the health needs of women may contribute to a work environment that may promote the attrition of women from our specialties.


Asunto(s)
Recursos Humanos , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Infertilidad/patología , Trastornos de la Menstruación/patología , Permiso Parental , Sexismo , Estereotipo
8.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 4: 32-38, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682100

RESUMEN

Despite increasing numbers of women entering anaesthesia, they remain persistently under-represented within academic anaesthesia and research. Gender discordance is seen across multiple aspects of research, including authorship, editorship, peer review, grant receipt, speaking and leading. Women are also under-represented at higher faculty ranks and in department chair positions. These inequities are further magnified for women with intersectional identities, such as those who identify as Black, indigenous and women of colour. Several barriers to participation in research have been identified to date, including a disproportionate amount of family responsibilities, a disproportionate burden of clinical service, gender bias, sexual harassment and the gender pay gap. Several strategies to improve gender equity have been proposed. Increasing access to formal mentorship of women in academic medicine is frequently cited and has been used by healthcare institutions and medical societies. Senior faculty and leaders must also be conscious of including women in sponsorship and networking opportunities. Institutions should provide support for parents of all genders, including supportive parental leave policies and flexible work models. Women should also be materially supported to attend formal educational conferences targeted for women, aimed at improving networking, peer support and professional development. Finally, leaders must display a clear intolerance for sexual harassment and discrimination to drive culture change. Peers and leaders alike, of all genders, can act as upstanders and speak up on behalf of targets of discrimination, both in the moment or after the fact. Gender inequities have persisted for far too long and can no longer be ignored. Diversifying the anaesthesia research community is essential to the future of the field.


Asunto(s)
Equidad de Género , Investigación , Anestesiología , Autoria , Humanos , Liderazgo , Revisión de la Investigación por Pares , Sexismo , Red Social , Apoyo Social
9.
PLoS Biol ; 19(3): e3001100, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690708

RESUMEN

The issues facing academic mothers have been discussed for decades. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is further exposing these inequalities as womxn scientists who are parenting while also engaging in a combination of academic related duties are falling behind. These inequities can be solved by investing strategically in solutions. Here we describe strategies that would ensure a more equitable academy for working mothers now and in the future. While the data are clear that mothers are being disproportionately impacted by COVID-19, many groups could benefit from these strategies. Rather than rebuilding what we once knew, let us be the architects of a new world.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Enseñanza/estadística & datos numéricos , /economía , Femenino , Humanos , Madres/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/tendencias , Sexismo/psicología , Sexismo/tendencias
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1303: 107-127, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788190

RESUMEN

In addition to studies focused on estrogen mediation of sex-different regulation of systemic circulations, there is now increasing clinical relevance and research interests in the pulmonary circulation, in terms of sex differences in the morbidity and mortality of lung diseases such as inherent-, allergic- and inflammatory-based events. Thus, female predisposition to pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is an inevitable topic. To better understand the nature of sexual differentiation in the pulmonary circulation, and how heritable factors, in vivo- and/or in vitro-altered estrogen circumstances and changes in the live environment work in concert to discern the sex bias, this chapter reviews pulmonary events characterized by sex-different features, concomitant with exploration of how alterations of genetic expression and estrogen metabolisms trigger the female-predominant pathological signaling. We address the following: PAH (Sect.7.2) is characterized as an estrogenic promotion of its incidence (Sect. 7.2.2), as a function of specific germline mutations, and as an estrogen-elicited protection of its prognosis (Sect.7.2.1). More detail is provided to introduce a less recognized gene of Ephx2 that encodes soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to degrade epoxyeicosatrienic acids (EETs). As a susceptible target of estrogen, Ephx2/sEH expression is downregulated by an estrogen-dependent epigenetic mechanism. Increases in pulmonary EETs then evoke a potentiation of PAH generation, but mitigation of its progression, a phenomenon similar to the estrogen-paradox regulation of PAH. Additionally, the female susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (Sect. 7.3) and asthma (Sect.7.4), but less preference to COVID-19 (Sect. 7.5), and roles of estrogen in their pathogeneses are briefly discussed.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión Pulmonar , Enfermedades Pulmonares , Estrógenos , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Humanos , Enfermedades Pulmonares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Prevalencia , Sexismo
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037640, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606033

RESUMEN

Importance: Medical research has not equitably included members of racial/ethnic minority groups or female and older individuals. There are limited data on participant demographic characteristics in vaccine trials despite the importance of these data to current trials aimed at preventing coronavirus disease 2019. Objective: To investigate whether racial/ethnic minority groups and female and older adults are underrepresented among participants in vaccine clinical trials. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study examined data from completed US-based vaccine trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2020. The terms vaccine, vaccination, immunization, and inoculation were used to identify trials. Only those addressing vaccine immunogenicity or efficacy of preventative vaccines were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: The numbers and percentages of racial/ethnic minority, female, and older individuals compared with US census data from 2011 and 2018. Secondary outcome measures were inclusion by trial phase and year of completion. Results: A total of 230 US-based trials with 219 555 participants were included in the study. Most trials were randomized (180 [78.3%]), included viral vaccinations (159 [69.1%]), and represented all trial phases. Every trial reported age and sex; 134 (58.3%) reported race and 79 (34.3%) reported ethnicity. Overall, among adult study participants, White individuals were overrepresented (77.9%; 95% CI, 77.4%-78.4%), and Black or African American individuals (10.6%; 95% CI, 10.2%-11.0%) and American Indian or Alaska Native individuals (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.3%-0.5%) were underrepresented compared with US census data; enrollment of Asian individuals was similar (5.7%; 95% CI, 5.5%-6.0%). Enrollment of Hispanic or Latino individuals (11.6%; 95% CI, 11.1%-12.0%) was also low even among the limited number of adult trials reporting ethnicity. Adult trials were composed of more female participants (75 325 [56.0%]), but among those reporting age as a percentage, enrollment of participants who were aged 65 years or older was low (12.1%; 95% CI, 12.0%-12.3%). Black or African American participants (10.1%; 95% CI, 9.7%-10.6%) and Hispanic or Latino participants (22.5%; 95% CI, 21.6%-23.4%) were also underrepresented in pediatric trials. Among trials reporting race/ethnicity, 65 (48.5%) did not include American Indian or Alaska Native participants and 81 (60.4%) did not include Hawaiian or Pacific Islander participants. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that among US-based vaccine clinical trials, members of racial/ethnic minority groups and older adults were underrepresented, whereas female adults were overrepresented. These findings suggest that diversity enrollment targets should be included for all vaccine trials targeting epidemiologically important infections.


Asunto(s)
Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/normas , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Selección de Paciente , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos de Población Continentales/etnología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica/estadística & datos numéricos , Sexismo/etnología
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2036136, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528552

RESUMEN

Importance: Medical trainee burnout is associated with poor quality care and attrition. Medical students in sexual minority groups report fear of discrimination and increased mistreatment, but the association between sexual orientation, burnout, and mistreatment is unknown. Objective: To evaluate whether medical student burnout differs by sexual orientation and whether this association is mediated by experiences of mistreatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study surveyed US medical students graduating from Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)-accredited US allopathic medical schools who responded to the AAMC graduation questionnaire in 2016 and 2017. Statistical analyses were performed from March 15, 2019, to July 2, 2020, and from November 20 to December 9, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Burnout was measured using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory for Medical Students, and sexual orientation was categorized as either heterosexual or lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB). Logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate the association between sexual orientation and experiencing burnout (defined as being in the top quartile of exhaustion and disengagement burnout dimensions) and to test the mediating association of mistreatment. Results: From 2016 to 2017, 30 651 students completed the AAMC Graduation Questionnaire, and 26 123 responses were analyzed. Most respondents were younger than 30 years (82.9%) and White (60.3%). A total of 13 470 respondents (51.6%) were male, and 5.4% identified as LGB. Compared with heterosexual students, a greater proportion of LGB students reported experiencing mistreatment in all categories, including humiliation (27.0% LGB students vs 20.7% heterosexual students; P < .001), mistreatment not specific to identity (17.0% vs 10.3%; P < .001), and mistreatment specific to gender (27.3% vs 17.9%; P < .001), race/ethnicity (11.9% vs 8.6%; P < .001), and sexual orientation (23.3% vs 1.0%; P < .001). Being LGB was associated with increased odds of burnout (adjusted odds ratio, 1.63 [95% CI, 1.41-1.89]); this association persisted but was attenuated after adjusting for mistreatment (odds ratio, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.16-1.60]). The odds of burnout increased in a dose-response manner with mistreatment intensity. Lesbian, gay, or bisexual students reporting higher mistreatment specific to sexual orientation had and 8-fold higher predicted probability of burnout compared with heterosexual students (19.8% [95% CI, 8.3%-31.4%] vs 2.3% [95% CI, 0.2%-4.5%]; P < .001). Mediation analysis showed that mistreatment accounts for 31% of the total association of LGB sexual orientation with overall burnout (P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that LGB medical students are more likely than their heterosexual peers to experience burnout, an association that is partly mediated by mistreatment. Further work is needed to ensure that medical schools offer safe and inclusive learning environments for LGB medical students.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Heterosexualidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Discriminación Social , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Bisexualidad , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Heterosexualidad/psicología , Homofobia , Homosexualidad , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Racismo , Sexismo , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
16.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(1): ar13, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635127

RESUMEN

Understanding metabolic function requires knowledge of the dynamics, interdependence, and regulation of metabolic networks. However, multiple professional societies have recognized that most undergraduate biochemistry students acquire only a surface-level understanding of metabolism. We hypothesized that guiding students through interactive computer simulations of metabolic systems would increase their ability to recognize how individual interactions between components affect the behavior of a system under different conditions. The computer simulations were designed with an interactive activity (i.e., module) that used the predict-observe-explain model of instruction to guide students through a process in which they iteratively predict outcomes, test their predictions, modify the interactions of the system, and then retest the outcomes. We found that biochemistry students using modules performed better on metabolism questions compared with students who did not use the modules. The average learning gain was 8% with modules and 0% without modules, a small to medium effect size. We also confirmed that the modules did not create or reinforce a gender bias. Our modules provide instructors with a dynamic, systems-driven approach to help students learn about metabolic regulation and equip students with important cognitive skills, such as interpreting and analyzing simulation results, and technical skills, such as building and simulating computer-based models.


Asunto(s)
Sexismo , Estudiantes , Bioquímica , Comprensión , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Enseñanza
18.
Aggress Behav ; 47(3): 354-363, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611803

RESUMEN

Despite the efforts of recent decades to reduce gender inequality, sexism is still prevalent among adolescents. The objective of this study was to identify the main socioeconomic characteristics, personal experiences, resources, and competencies associated with sexism in a sample of adolescents from different European countries. Baseline data from the Lights4Violence project included 1555 students ages 12-17 from secondary schools in six European countries (Spain, Italy, Romania, United Kingdom, Portugal, and Poland). Linear regression models were carried out, stratified by sex for benevolent (BS) and hostile (HS) dimensions of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. The average age of the sample was 14.3 years (SD = 1.5), 59.3% were girls. Boys scored higher on the measure of sexism (mean BS = 29.7; HS = 29.1) than girls (BS = 27.5, HS = 23.0; p < .001). Girls whose mothers had a university degree reported lower BS (ß = -0.113; p = .023) (reference: lower education). Girls who had experienced dating violence reported higher HS (ß = .080; p = .010) than those who had never been in an intimate relationship. For both sexes, high aggressiveness was associated with high levels of HS, and high aggressiveness was related to high levels of BS in boys. High assertiveness was associated with high levels of BS in both sexes and with high levels of HS in boys. A high level of problem-solving ability was associated with lower HS in both sexes. The study reinforces the need to invest in school programs aimed at preventing dating violence and promoting positive youth development.


Asunto(s)
Sexismo , Adolescente , Niño , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiología , España , Reino Unido
19.
Am J Med Sci ; 361(2): 151-168, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526213

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Disparity exists between men and women physicians. We aimed to examine changes in gender disparity in the medical profession over the last two decades. The study reviewed publications on gender differences and the measures which have been implemented or suggested to rectify these disparities. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and The Cochrane Library were searched in December 2019 using ("gender disparity" OR "gender gap" OR "pay gap" OR "gender discrimination") from 1998-2019. The sources list of reviewed articles was also used to retrieve more relevant articles. Articles about physicians in the United States were included, and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) was used to evaluate the quality of the articles. RESULTS: In this systematic review that includes 49 studies, there is still disparity and discrimination in research, leadership, and pay between male and female physicians. Women have less leadership roles and progress at a slower rate to associate and full professor. Women publish less articles and have a lower h-index than men. Men earn $20,000 more a year after salary adjustment. More women than men experience negative comments about their gender (36% vs 4%), experience gender discrimination (65% vs 10%) and sexual harassment (30% vs 6%). CONCLUSIONS: Although substantial research exists on this topic, there remains significant room for improvement to achieve gender equality. Institutions and individuals should implement interventions to rectify this disparity .


Asunto(s)
Médicos , Sexismo , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Liderazgo , Masculino , Medicina , Investigación , Acoso Sexual , Estados Unidos
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