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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228960, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045454

RESUMEN

In this study, we aimed to compare developmental changes in nonsymbolic and symbolic magnitude representations across the elementary school years. For this aim, we used a four-wave longitudinal study with a one-year interval in schoolchildren in grades 1-4 in Russia and Kyrgyzstan (N = 490, mean age was 7.65 years at grade 1). The results of mixed-effects growth models revealed that growth in the precision of symbolic representation was larger than in the nonsymbolic representation. Moreover, growth in nonsymbolic representation was fully explained by growth in fluid intelligence (FI), visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and processing speed (PS). The analysis demonstrated that growth in nonsymbolic magnitude representation was significant only for pupils with a high level of FI and PS, whereas growth in precision of symbolic representation did not significantly vary across pupils with different levels of FI or VSWM.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Inteligencia/fisiología , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Kirguistán , Lógica , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Conceptos Matemáticos , Memoria , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología , Federación de Rusia , Instituciones Académicas , Simbolismo
3.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(9): 1595-1614, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368761

RESUMEN

Sound symbolism has typically been demonstrated as an association between certain phonemes and perceptual dimensions (e.g., size or shape). For instance, the maluma-takete effect is the sound symbolic association between sonorant and voiceless stop phonemes and round and sharp visual shapes, respectively. Here we explored a novel association between phonemes and a more abstract dimension: personality. Further, although sound symbolism has often been examined using nonwords, here we studied it in the context of existing first names. In Experiments 1 and 2, we presented first names containing sonorant versus voiceless stop consonants and found that participants associated these with different personality factors from the HEXACO model of personality. In general, names with sonorant phonemes (e.g., Mona, Owen) were associated with high Emotionality, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, whereas names with voiceless stop phonemes (e.g., Katie, Curtis) were associated with high Extraversion. In Experiment 3, we examined whether the associations of a person's name predict their personality. A sample of 1,071 individuals provided their names and completed a HEXACO personality inventory. We found no real-world evidence of the associations we observed in the lab. In Experiment 4, we used invented names and tested participants in the lab once again, finding evidence of the same associations as in Experiment 1 and 2. This suggests that phonemes, and not just existing knowledge of individuals with particular names, are key to the associations observed. Finally, in Experiment 5, we found that these effects are not mediated by likability. We discuss potential mechanisms for the observed associations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Nombres , Personalidad , Fonética , Simbolismo , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Masculino , Sonido , Adulto Joven
4.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 48(5): 1217-1240, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312955

RESUMEN

We explored the topic of irony comprehension by preschoolers. Two hundred and thirty-one children (77 four-year-olds, 89 five-year-olds, and 65 six-year-olds) were tested with the Irony Comprehension Task (ICT, Banasik and Bokus, in: Poster presented at the psycholinguistics conference in Flanders, Berg en Dal, 2012). Participants were asked questions checking comprehension of the intended meaning behind an ironic comment. Four conditions were used for the ironic utterances: targeted (ironic comment was a reference to the addressee's behavior), non-targeted (ironic comment was not a reference to the addressee's behavior), with symmetric dyads (a child said the ironic comment to another child), and asymmetric dyads (an adult said the ironic comment to a child). All groups achieved high irony comprehension scores. The results show a significant difference in accuracy between the 4-year-olds and the 6-year-olds only. The youngest group more accurately understood ironic utterances that referred to the addressee's action than those that did not, while older children did not show these differences. The aspect of who is speaking to whom was also significant only for the youngest children. These results provide important new insights into factors potentially influencing figurative language comprehension. Components such as participant structure and irony type require acknowledgement in the discussion on irony difficulty.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Comprensión/fisiología , Psicolingüística , Simbolismo , Niño , Lenguaje Infantil , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Polonia
5.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218707, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291274

RESUMEN

This paper demonstrates a new quantitative approach to examine cross-linguistically shared and language-specific sound symbolism in languages. Unlike most previous studies taking a hypothesis-testing approach, we employed a data mining approach to uncover unknown sound-symbolic correspondences in the domain of locomotion, without limiting ourselves to pre-determined sound-meaning correspondences. In the experiment, we presented 70 locomotion videos to Japanese and English speakers and asked them to create a sound symbolically matching word for each action. Participants also rated each action on five meaning variables. Multivariate analyses revealed cross-linguistically shared and language-specific sound-meaning correspondences within a single semantic domain. The present research also established that a substantial number of sound-symbolic links emerge from conventionalized form-meaning mappings in the native languages of the speakers.


Asunto(s)
Fonética , Semántica , Simbolismo , Vocabulario , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Locomoción/fisiología , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Patrones de Reconocimiento Fisiológico/fisiología , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos/fisiología , Carrera/fisiología , Sonido , Habla/fisiología , Reino Unido , Grabación en Video , Caminata/fisiología
6.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(4): 313-314, jul. 2019. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-183006

RESUMEN

The woodcuts in Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica reflect both philosophical and theological ideas. A previously unrecognized Hebrew symbol in De humani is the écorché in the second muscle tableau. Its pose is evocative of an Aleph, the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The Aleph is a symbol of the brain and represents the highest level of knowledge and wisdom beneath that of god himself. With arms pointing to heaven and earth, the second écorché appears to anthropomorphize this ancient Hebrew symbol and may be a Humanist re-imagination of Old Testament imagery to demonstrate the famous Latin aphorism, nosce te ipsum, and the importance of anatomic dissection for the understanding of the human condition


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Disección/historia , Disección/métodos , Simbolismo , Manuscritos Médicos como Asunto/historia , Cerebro
7.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(8): 2902-2916, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165452

RESUMEN

The perception of quantities has been suggested to rely on shared, magnitude-based representational systems that preserve metric properties. As such, different quantifiable dimensions that can characterize any given stimulus (e.g., size, speed, or numerosity) have been shown to modulate the perceived duration of these stimuli-a finding that has been attributed to cross-modal interaction among the quantity representations. However, these results are typically based on the isolated effects of a single stimulus dimension, leaving their potential combined effects uncharted. In the present study we aimed to investigate the joint effects of numerical magnitude and physical size on perceived time. In four complementary experiments, participants categorized six durations as "short" or "long," which were presented through combinations of Hindu-Arabic numerals in three font sizes, as well as with simple shapes (rectangles) and unfamiliar symbols (Klingon letters), the sizes of which corresponded to the font sizes of the Hindu-Arabic numerals. Our results showed temporal underestimation for the smallest numeral in the set (3), with no effects of font size on perceived duration. The perceived durations were longest for the physically smallest geometric stimuli (i.e., a rectangle), and the font size of symbol-like stimuli (i.e., Klingon letters) was not found to have an effect on perceived time. Finally, presenting only one numeral (6) instead of the rectangle once again eliminated the relationship between physical size and perceived time, suggesting an overshadowing of physical-size-based influences on temporal choice behavior, presumably by perceived symbolism. Our results point at the complex nature of the interaction between different magnitude representations.


Asunto(s)
Ilusiones/fisiología , Ilusiones/psicología , Conceptos Matemáticos , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Simbolismo , Percepción del Tiempo/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
8.
Infez Med ; 27(2): 198-211, 2019 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205047

RESUMEN

In past centuries, epidemics, the scourge of humankind, caused pain, anger, uncertainty of the future, social as well as economic disorder and a significant impact on their victims, involving also their spiritual sphere. The latter effect led to undoubted effects on participation in the religious and social life of communities. The custom of preparing artistic votive expressions has been lost in the mists of time and evidence of ex voto gifts, offered by believers to pagan gods, has been found in prehistoric archaeological sites. Furthermore, several finds from the Ancient Greek and Roman worlds may be observed in our museums. These remains are generally ceramic and metal artifacts, reproducing limbs and other body parts which had been healed. These elements, according to the belief of those making the offerings, had benefited from the miraculous intervention of a thaumaturgical deity. With the advent of Christianity, some pre-existing religious practices were endorsed by the new religion. Believers continued to demonstrate their gratitude in different ways either to miracle-working saints or to the Virgin Mary, because they thought that, thanks to an act of faith, their own health or that of a family member would benefit from the direct intervention of the divine entities to whom they had prayed. In the Ancient Greek world, it was believed that the god Asclepius could directly influence human events, as testified by the popularity of shrines and temples to the god, especially at Epidaurus. In the Christian world as well, particular places have been detected, often solitary and secluded in the countryside or in the mountains, where, according to tradition, direct contact was established between the faithful and Saints or the Virgin Mary Herself. Manifestations occurred by means of miracles and apparitions, thereby creating a direct link between the supernatural world and believers. Religious communities, in these extraordinary places, responded to the call through the building of shrines and promotion of the cult. Over time, the faithful reached these places of mystery, performing pilgrimages with the aim of strengthening their religious faith, but also with the purpose of seeking intercession and grace. In this case, the request for clemency assumed spiritual characteristics and also became a profession of faith. Accordingly, the shrines in the Christian world are places where supernatural events may occur. In these environments the believer resorted to faith, when medicine showed its limits in a tangible way. For the above reasons, while epidemics were occurring, the requests for clemency were numerous and such petitions were both individual and collective. In particular, by means of votive offerings (ex voto) the believers, both individually and collectively, gave the evidence of the received grace to the thaumaturgical Saint. Through the votive act, a perpetual link between the believer and the Saints or Holy Virgin was forged and a strong request for communion was transmitted. The aim of the present study is to describe the role played by votive tablets (ex voto) in the last 500-600 years, as visible evidence of human suffering. From this perspective, these votive expressions may assume the role of markers because, in accordance with the expressions of popular faith, they allow us to follow the most important outbreaks that have caused distress to Christian communities.


Asunto(s)
Curación por la Fe/historia , Medicina en las Artes/historia , Pinturas/historia , Peste/historia , Religión y Medicina , Cristianismo/historia , Mundo Griego/historia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Mundo Romano/historia , Simbolismo
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(3): 142-142, jun. 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1001184
11.
Am J Psychoanal ; 79(2): 174-195, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092883

RESUMEN

Psychoanalysis is a transformational process through which meanings become visible and foreclosed identity may be further constituted. Winnicott (1971) marks the crucial developmental function of the relationship that is good enough to tolerate the separateness of the other. The analyst's ability to "take the transference" enables the patient to locate himself in relation to another mind and being in ways that did not happen sufficiently in childhood. This process requires the signification of personal meanings that can become consensual without subverting one's own becoming in the process. The dream provides idiosyncratic images that can demarcate conceptual space in ways that can enable the individual to move from the sign to the symbol; from what Kleinians term the symbolic equation, to the symbol proper, the domain of language and consensual meanings. I describe a case in which one young man used his dreams as a way of moving from a universe in which meanings could not be made into one in which he could build meanings in relation to his own experience and ideas.


Asunto(s)
Creatividad , Sueños , Interpretación Psicoanalítica , Humanos , Individualismo , Masculino , Teoría Psicoanalítica , Terapia Psicoanalítica , Ajuste Social , Simbolismo , Adulto Joven
12.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(4): 1174-1194, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140126

RESUMEN

We present a critical review of computational models of generalization of simple grammar-like rules, such as ABA and ABB. In particular, we focus on models attempting to account for the empirical results of Marcus et al. (Science, 283(5398), 77-80 1999). In that study, evidence is reported of generalization behavior by 7-month-old infants, using an Artificial Language Learning paradigm. The authors fail to replicate this behavior in neural network simulations, and claim that this failure reveals inherent limitations of a whole class of neural networks: those that do not incorporate symbolic operations. A great number of computational models were proposed in follow-up studies, fuelling a heated debate about what is required for a model to generalize. Twenty years later, this debate is still not settled. In this paper, we review a large number of the proposed models. We present a critical analysis of those models, in terms of how they contribute to answer the most relevant questions raised by the experiment. After identifying which aspects require further research, we propose a list of desiderata for advancing our understanding on generalization.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje , Modelos Psicológicos , Simbolismo , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Lactante , Desarrollo del Lenguaje
13.
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; 71(4): 156-167, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947227

RESUMEN

Individuals with complex communication needs have benefited greatly from technological innovations over the past two decades, as well as from social movements that have shifted focus from disability to functioning and participation in society. Three strands of technological innovation are reviewed in this paper: (1) innovations in the tools that have become available, specifically tablet technologies; (2) innovations in access methods (eye gaze technologies and brain-computer interfaces); and (3) innovations in output, specifically speech technologies. The opportunities these innovations offer are explored, as are some of the challenges that they imply, not only for individuals with complex communication needs, but also for families, professionals, and researchers.


Asunto(s)
Equipos de Comunicación para Personas con Discapacidad , Recursos Audiovisuales , Interfaces Cerebro-Computador , Equipos de Comunicación para Personas con Discapacidad/economía , Barreras de Comunicación , Trastornos de la Comunicación , Participación de la Comunidad , Computadores , Computadoras de Mano , Personas con Discapacidad , Fijación Ocular , Predicción , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Colaboración Intersectorial , Invenciones/economía , Simbolismo , Interfaz Usuario-Computador
14.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 52(1): 43-58, 20190400.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-988391

RESUMEN

La inclusión curricular de la historia de la medicina se hace cada vez más importante, y dentro de la misma el estudio de la simbología en medicina es un tema muy interesante y a veces polémico. Los símbolos asociados a la medicina usualmente presentan serpientes asociadas a los mismos, siendo los más reconocidos el bastón de Asclepio/Esculapio y el caduceo de Hermes/Mercurio. Las serpientes se encuentran asociadas a consideraciones positivas y negativas en las diferentes culturas del mundo. En el Antiguo Egipto eran símbolos de sabiduría y poder. En la Biblia tenían un rol dual y una participación en al menos un evento relacionado a curaciones masivas. La mitología griega nos provee de elementos que conectan a serpientes enrolladas en torno a una rama o vara directamente con la medicina. El tratamiento de la dracunculiasis nos otorga otra vía de conexión entre esta imagen y la medicina. El bastón de Asclepio/Esculapio se reconoce como símbolo de la medicina y las ciencias de la salud en general, mientras que el caduceo se asocia a otras profesiones no médicas.


The curricular inclusion of the history of medicine is becoming more and more important, and within it the study of symbology in medicine is a very interesting and sometimes controversial subject. The symbols associated with medicine usually present snakes associated with them, the most recognized being the rod of Asclepius/ Aesculapius and the Hermes/Mercury caduceus. Snakes are associated with positive and negative considerations in the different cultures of the world. In Ancient Egypt they were symbols of wisdom and power. In the Bible they had a dual role and a participation in at least one event related to massive healings. Greek mythology provides us with elements that connect snakes coiled around a branch or rod directly to medicine. The treatment of dracunculiasis gives us another way of connection between this image and medicine. The rod of Asclepius/ Aesculapius is recognized as a symbol of medicine and health sciences in general, while the caduceus is associated with other non-medical professions


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Historia Antigua , Simbolismo , Historia de la Medicina , Emblemas e Insignias/historia , Dracunculiasis/historia , Medicina , Mitología
15.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214281, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908546

RESUMEN

Traffic signals, i.e., iconic symbols conveying traffic rules, generally represent spatial or movement meanings, e.g., "Stop", "Go", "Bend warning", or "No entry", and we visually perceive these symbols and produce appropriate bodily actions. The traffic signals are clearly thought to assist in producing bodily actions such as going forward or stopping, and the combination of symbolic recognition through visual perception and production of bodily actions could be one example of embodied cognition. However, to what extent our bodily actions are associated with the symbolic representations of commonly used traffic signals remains unknown. Here we experimentally investigated how traffic symbol recognition cognitively affects bodily action patterns, by employing a simple stimulus-response task for traffic sign recognition with a response of either sliding or pushing down on a joystick in a gamepad. We found that when operating the joystick, participants' slide reaction in response to the "Go" traffic symbol was significantly faster than their push reaction, while their response time to the "Stop" signal showed no differences between sliding and pushing actions. These results suggested that there was a possible association between certain action patterns and traffic symbol recognition, and in particular the "Go" symbol was congruent with a sliding action as a bodily response. Our findings may thus reveal an example of embodied cognition in visual perception of traffic signals.


Asunto(s)
Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos/fisiología , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tiempo de Reacción , Simbolismo , Adulto Joven
16.
JAMA ; 321(6): 545-546, 2019 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747968
17.
J Lesbian Stud ; 23(1): 105-118, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666902

RESUMEN

This article addresses the theological and liturgical problem of incorporating mythic traditions of the divine feminine into contemporary practice, given the typically essentialist nature of these traditions. The article considers the dream practice of a Jewish women's learning community, the Kohenet Hebrew Priestess Institute, and applies this practice to several "dragon dreams" in which dragons appear as powerful, erotic, sacred figures that "queer" the divine feminine by offering a norm-upending vision of what the feminine is and does. These dragon dreams provide a powerful alternative to traditional Jewish images of the female dragon in which the dragon represents the demonic feminine. I suggest that dreams can offer a "queering" of mythic images of the sacred feminine because they contain images that have mythic depth but also upend norms and expectations. The article then explores how these dragon images have made their way into the liturgy and theology of the Kohenet Hebrew Priestess Institute.


Asunto(s)
Sueños , Homosexualidad Femenina/psicología , Judíos/psicología , Mujeres/psicología , Femenino , Feminidad , Humanos , Mitología , Simbolismo , Teología
19.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 23: e-1259, jan.2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1048245

RESUMEN

O estudo tem como objeto a representação da imagem da enfermeira com seus atributos, por meio de charges em cenas do cuidado veiculadas na Revista Fon-Fon (1920-1931). OBJETIVO: identificar as charges pelo conteúdo de representações de enfermeiras veiculadas na imprensa ilustrada; analisar as circunstâncias de sua veiculação sobre as enfermeiras nas charges; comentar as representações como elementos simbólicos para a construção da imagem pública da enfermeira. MÉTODO: domínio da história da cultura visual a partir da busca de charges de enfermeira na revista Fon-Fon. Essas charges foram analisadas mediante matriz de análise. RESULTADO: a busca resultou em três imagens datadas de 1921, 1929 e 1931, que após analise se identificou a circunscrição do contexto da Reforma Sanitária liderada por Carlos Chagas. CONCLUSÃO: as representações das enfermeiras nas charges foram elementos protagonizantes para os aspectos ocorridos no âmbito sociopolítico e sanitário.(AU)


The study has as its object the representation of the nurse's image with its attributes through cartoons in scenes of care published in the Revista Fon-Fon (1920-1931). Objective: to identify cartoons by the content of representations of nurses in the illustrated press; to analyze the circumstances of its broadcasting about the nurses in the cartoons; and to comment on the representations as symbolic elements for the construction of the public image of the nurse. Method: mastery of the history of visual culture through the search for nurse cartoons in the Revista Fon-Fon. These cartoons were analyzed by analysis matrix. Result: the search resulted in three images dated 1921, 1929 and 1931 which, after analysis, allowed identifying the circumscription of the context of the Sanitary Reform led by Carlos Chagas. Conclusion: the nurses' representations in the cartoons were the main elements for the socio-political and sanitary aspects.(AU)


El estudio tiene como objeto la representación de la imagen de las enfermeras con sus atributos por medio de caricaturas en escenas de cuidado publicadas en la revista Fon-Fon (1920-1931). Objetivo: identificar las caricaturas por el contenido de las representaciones de enfermeras publicadas en la prensa ilustrada; analizar las circunstancias de su divulgación en las ilustraciones; comentar las representaciones como elementos simbólicos para la construcción de la imagen pública de la enfermera. Método: dominio de la historia de la cultura visual a partir de la búsqueda de caricaturas de las enfermeras en la revista Fon-Fon. Estas caricaturas fueron analizadas por la matriz de análisis. Resultado: la búsqueda resultó en tres imágenes de 1921, 1929 y 1931 dónde, después de analizarse, se identificaron la circunscripción del contexto de la Reforma Sanitaria dirigida por Carlos Chagas. Conclusión: las representaciones de las enfermeras en las caricaturas fueron los elementos principales para los eventos ocurridos en el ambiente sociopolítico y sanitario.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Facultades de Enfermería , Simbolismo , Rol de la Enfermera , Comunicación y Divulgación Científica , Historia de la Enfermería , Enfermería
20.
Dev Sci ; 22(4): e12783, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516315

RESUMEN

Rapid automatized naming (RAN) of visual items is a powerful predictor of reading skills. However, the direction and locus of the association between RAN and reading is still largely unclear. Here, we investigated whether literacy acquisition directly bolsters RAN efficiency for objects, adopting a strong methodological design, by testing three groups of adults matched in age and socioeconomic variables, who differed only in literacy/schooling: unschooled illiterate and ex-illiterate, and schooled literate adults. To investigate in a fine-grained manner whether and how literacy facilitates lexical retrieval, we orthogonally manipulated the word-form frequency (high vs. low) and phonological neighborhood density (dense vs. spare) of the objects' names. We observed that literacy experience enhances the automaticity with which visual stimuli (e.g., objects) can be retrieved and named: relative to readers (ex-illiterate and literate), illiterate adults performed worse on RAN. Crucially, the group difference was exacerbated and significant only for those items that were of low frequency and from sparse neighborhoods. These results thus suggest that, regardless of schooling and age at which literacy was acquired, learning to read facilitates the access to and retrieval of phonological representations, especially of difficult lexical items.


Asunto(s)
Alfabetización , Lectura , Simbolismo , Adulto , Dislexia , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Lingüística , Masculino
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