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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131741, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358888

RESUMEN

Airborne particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) are significant contributors leading to many human health issues. Thus, this study was designed to perform chemical analysis and biological impact of airborne particulate matter 10 (PM10) in the World heritage City of Kandy City in Sri Lanka. 12 priority PAHs and 34 metals, including 10 highly toxic HMs were quantified. The biological effects of organic extracts were assayed using an in vitro primary porcine airway epithelial cell culture model. Cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and gene expressions of selected inflammatory and cancer-related genes were also assessed. Results showed that the total PAHs ranged from 3.062 to 36.887 ng/m3. The metals were dominated by Na > Ca > Mg > Al > K > Fe > Ti, while a few toxic HMs were much higher in the air than the existing ambient air quality standards. In the bioassays, a significant cytotoxicity (p < 0.05) was observed at 300 µg/mL treatment, and significant (p < 0.05) DNA damages were noted in all treatment groups. All genes assessed were found to be significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) after 24 h of exposure and after 48 h, only TGF-ß1 and p53 did not significantly up-regulate (p < 0.05). These findings confirm that the Kandy city air contains potential carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds and thus, exposure to Kandy air may increase the health risks and respiratory tract-related anomalies.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Metales Pesados , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Células Epiteliales , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidad , Sistema Respiratorio/química , Sri Lanka , Porcinos
2.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2094-2099, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725282

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To determine the prevalence rate of Staphylococcus aureus infection among children with Cystic Fibrosis in the Dnieper region, to provide microbiological characteristics of the isolates and to elevate their susceptibility to antimicrobials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Sputum, tracheobronchial lavage waters and/ or deep smear from the posterior pharyngeal wall were taken from children with genetically confirmed Cystic Fibrosis. Bacteriological method was the main. The first screening for small colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus was carried out after 48 hours of incubation. The antimicrobials susceptibility testing was determined by disk-diffusion method according to the EUCAST 2019. Microsoft Office Excel 2010 was used for statistical data processing. RESULTS: Results: Twenty one children were enrolled in the survey. The culture of Staphylococcus spp. was obtained from all patients with 40.8% positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Small colony variants appeared with the prevalence rate 21.6% after 48 hours of incubation. The frequency of associations between Staphylococcus aureus with auxotroph phenotype with the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was significantly higher than with wild-type group. The 3d-generation aminoglycosides, the 3d-generation fluoroquinolones, linezolid, rifampicin and tetracyclines showed the best antimicrobial activity, however, resistance to cefoxitin and gentamicin was significantly higher in auxotroph-modified group. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Infection Staphylococcus aureus is common among children. The appearance of auxotrophs registered after treatment with aminoglycosides and/ or co-trimoxazole and co-infection Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus showed good chemotherapeutic sensitivity, but tendency in increasing resistance registered for auxotroph-modified phenotype.


Asunto(s)
Fibrosis Quística , Infecciones Estafilocócicas , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Niño , Fibrosis Quística/complicaciones , Fibrosis Quística/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Sistema Respiratorio , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Staphylococcus aureus
3.
Clin Lab ; 67(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758225

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 has seriously threatened people. In this study, we detected the expression of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM and respiratory tract SARS-CoV-2 RNA in patients with COVID-19 and explored the correlation and clinical significance between SARS-CoV-2 antibody and respiratory SARS-CoV-2 RNA. METHODS: From March 5, 2020 to April 28, 2020, 48 cases with COVID-19 diagnosed in Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital were enrolled. SARS-CoV-2 RNAs were detected by real-time fluorescence RT-PCR method. Serum SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies were determined by colloidal gold immunochromatography. The statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared test. RESULTS: In all the patients, SARS-CoV-2 RNA among 270 upper respiratory tract (nasal or throat swabs) samples, 71 lower respiratory tract (sputum) samples, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibodies in 123 serum samples were detected during the hospitalization period. The positive rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was significantly higher than that of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM within the first week after symptom onset (p < 0.05). The positive rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was also significantly higher than that of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM during day 8 - 30 after symptom onset (p < 0.01). The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the lower respiratory tract specimens (64.8%, 46/71) was significantly higher than that in the upper respiratory tract (46.7%, 126/270) (p < 0.05). The positive rate (100%, 4/4) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the lower respiratory tract specimens before IgG seroconversion was significantly higher than that of the positive rate (59.3%, 32/54) after IgG seroconversion (p < 0.01). The positive rate (72.2%, 57/79) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the upper respiratory tract specimens before IgG seroconversion was significantly higher than that of the positive rate (30.7%, 39/127) after IgG seroconversion (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG might be detected within the first week after symptom onset. The application of SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgG/IgM) detection is important for the suspected cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection with negative SARS-CoV-2 RNA results. The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the lower respiratory tract specimens was significantly higher than that in the upper respiratory tract. Sputum detection is recommended for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Using lower respiratory tract specimens may reduce the false negative PCR tests. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be improved by investigating follow-up specimens over time.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G , Inmunoglobulina M , ARN Viral/genética , Sistema Respiratorio , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
4.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(10): 623-628, 2021 Oct 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665949

RESUMEN

In the post-epidemic period, the circulation of the causative agent of diphtheria in the population is maintained due to the carrier of bacteria. Entering an organism with a high level of antitoxic immunity, the pathogen enters into intermicrobial interactions with representatives of the opportunistic microflora inhabiting the respiratory tract and forms a biofilm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Modeling of the biofilm formation process was carried out using the strains C.diphtheriae gravis tox+№. 665, C.pseudodiphtheriticum, S.aureus. Biofilm samples were placed on the stage of a scanning electron microscope and gold-sputtered in an EicoIB-3 ioncoater vacuum deposition unit (Eico, Japan) at an ion current of 6-8 mA. The samples obtained were examined in a JEOL 6510LB scanning electronmicroscope. («JEOL¼ company, Japan) at an accelerating voltage of 30 kV. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination of samples of biofilms C. diphtheriae gravis tox+ № 665 and opportunistic microorganisms shows groups of 2-7 young bacterial cells packed into a single microcapsule. Much more voluminous accumulations of bacterial cells (more than 10-12) are typical for biofilm samples represented by C. diphtheriae gravis tox+№ 665 and S. aureus cells. On the surface of the biofilm, young bacterial cells with an intact structure are located at various stages of active division. The conglomerates of bacterial cells, covered with a common intermicrobial matrix, adhere tightly to each other and form a multilayer biofilm. CONCLUSION: Features of the ultrastructure of biofilms containing strains of C. diphtheriae and opportunistic bacteria, especially antibiotic-resistant bacteria inhabiting the respiratory tract, can contribute to long-term persistence of the pathogen of diphtheria in the body. They not only significantly complicate the access of antibacterial drugs, but also interfere with the isolation of C.diphtheriae during bacteriological research.


Asunto(s)
Corynebacterium diphtheriae , Difteria , Biopelículas , Humanos , Sistema Respiratorio , Staphylococcus aureus
6.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 59(11-12): 2409-2418, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655052

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The accuracy of the CyberKnife Synchrony Respiratory Tracking System is dependent on the breathing pattern of a patient. Therefore, the tracking error in each patient must be determined. Support vector regression (SVR) can be used to easily identify the tracking error in each patient. This study aimed to develop a system with SVR that can predict tracking error according to a patient's respiratory waveform. METHODS: Datasets of the respiratory waveforms of 93 patients were obtained. The feature variables were variation in respiration amplitude, tumor velocity, and phase shift between tumor and the chest wall, and the target variable was tracking error. A learning model was evaluated with tenfold cross-validation. We documented the difference between the predicted and actual tracking errors and assessed the correlation coefficient and coefficient of determination. RESULTS: The average difference and maximum difference between the actual and predicted tracking errors were 0.57 ± 0.63 mm and 2.1 mm, respectively. The correlation coefficient and coefficient of determination were 0.86 and 0.74, respectively. CONCLUSION: We developed a system for obtaining tracking error by using SVR. The accuracy of such a system is clinically useful. Moreover, the system can easily evaluate tracking error. We developed a system that can be used to predict the tracking error of SRTS in the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System using machine learning. The feature variables were the breathing parameters, and the target variable was the tracking error. We used support vector regression algorithm.


Asunto(s)
Radiocirugia , Robótica , Algoritmos , Humanos , Respiración , Sistema Respiratorio
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20615, 2021 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663858

RESUMEN

Differential kinetics of RNA loads and infectious viral levels in the upper respiratory tract between asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected adult outpatients remain unclear limiting recommendations that may guide clinical management, infection control measures and occupational health decisions. In the present investigation, 496 (2.8%) of 17,911 French adult outpatients were positive for an upper respiratory tract SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection by a quantitative RT-PCR assay, of which 180 (36.3%) were COVID-19 asymptomatic. Of these adult asymptomatic viral shedders, 75% had mean to high RNA viral loads (Ct values < 30) which median value was significantly higher than that observed in symptomatic subjects (P = 0.029), and 50.6% were positive by cell culture assays of their upper respiratory tract specimens. Our findings indicate that COVID-19 asymptomatic adult outpatients are significant viable SARS-CoV-2 shedders in their upper respiratory tract playing a major potential role as SARS-CoV-2 transmitters in various epidemiological transmission chains, promoting COVID-19 resurgence in populations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virología , Pacientes Ambulatorios , SARS-CoV-2 , Esparcimiento de Virus , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Infecciones Asintomáticas , Prueba de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Femenino , Francia , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , ARN Viral , Sistema Respiratorio/metabolismo , Células Vero , Carga Viral , Adulto Joven
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 701443, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650550

RESUMEN

The airway mucus barrier is a primary defensive layer at the airway surface. Mucins are the major structural components of airway mucus that protect the respiratory tract. Respiratory viruses invade human airways and often induce abnormal mucin overproduction and airway mucus secretion, leading to airway obstruction and disease. The mechanism underlying the virus-induced abnormal airway mucus secretion has not been fully studied so far. Understanding the mechanisms by which viruses induce airway mucus hypersecretion may open new avenues to treatment. In this article, we elaborate the clinical and experimental evidence that respiratory viruses cause abnormal airway mucus secretion, review the underlying mechanisms, and also discuss the current research advance as well as potential strategies to treat the abnormal airway mucus secretion caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Moco/metabolismo , Virosis/metabolismo , Animales , Humanos , Sistema Respiratorio/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684676

RESUMEN

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are widely distributed in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, where they play diverse physiological roles. In this review, we highlight the recent findings regarding the role of nAChR in the respiratory tract with a special focus on the involvement of nAChR in the regulation of multiple processes in health and disease. We discuss the role of nAChR in mucociliary clearance, inflammation, and infection and in airway diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. The subtype diversity of nAChR enables differential regulation, making them a suitable pharmaceutical target in many diseases. The stimulation of the α3ß4 nAChR could be beneficial in diseases accompanied by impaired mucociliary clearance, and the anti-inflammatory effect due to an α7 nAChR stimulation could alleviate symptoms in diseases with chronic inflammation such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, while the inhibition of the α5 nAChR could potentially be applied in non-small cell lung cancer treatment. However, while clinical studies targeting nAChR in the airways are still lacking, we suggest that more detailed research into this topic and possible pharmaceutical applications could represent a valuable tool to alleviate the symptoms of diverse airway diseases.


Asunto(s)
Receptores Nicotínicos , Sistema Respiratorio , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Animales , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Asma/patología , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/farmacología , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/patología , Receptores Nicotínicos/efectos de los fármacos , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Receptores Nicotínicos/fisiología , Sistema Respiratorio/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratorio/patología
10.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 25(5): 101632, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627782

RESUMEN

Emerging human coronaviruses, including the recently identified SARS-CoV-2, are relevant respiratory pathogens due to their potential to cause epidemics with high case fatality rates, although endemic coronaviruses are also important for immunocompromised patients. Long-term coronavirus infections had been described mainly in experimental models, but it is currently evident that SARS-CoV-2 genomic-RNA can persist for many weeks in the respiratory tract of some individuals clinically recovered from coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19), despite a lack of isolation of infectious virus. It is still not clear whether persistence of such viral RNA may be pathogenic for the host and related to long-term sequelae. In this review, we summarize evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA persistence in respiratory samples besides results obtained from cell culture and histopathology describing long-term coronavirus infection. We also comment on potential mechanisms of coronavirus persistence and relevance for pathogenesis.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , ARN Viral , Técnicas de Cultivo de Célula , Humanos , ARN Viral/genética , Sistema Respiratorio , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21297, 2021 10 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716394

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 outbreak has caused over three million deaths worldwide. Understanding the pathology of the disease and the factors that drive severe and fatal clinical outcomes is of special relevance. Studying the role of the respiratory microbiota in COVID-19 is especially important as the respiratory microbiota is known to interact with the host immune system, contributing to clinical outcomes in chronic and acute respiratory diseases. Here, we characterized the microbiota in the respiratory tract of patients with mild, severe, or fatal COVID-19, and compared it to healthy controls and patients with non-COVID-19-pneumonia. We comparatively studied the microbial composition, diversity, and microbiota structure between the study groups and correlated the results with clinical data. We found differences in the microbial composition for COVID-19 patients, healthy controls, and non-COVID-19 pneumonia controls. In particular, we detected a high number of potentially opportunistic pathogens associated with severe and fatal levels of the disease. Also, we found higher levels of dysbiosis in the respiratory microbiota of patients with COVID-19 compared to the healthy controls. In addition, we detected differences in diversity structure between the microbiota of patients with mild, severe, and fatal COVID-19, as well as the presence of specific bacteria that correlated with clinical variables associated with increased risk of mortality. In summary, our results demonstrate that increased dysbiosis of the respiratory tract microbiota in patients with COVID-19 along with a continuous loss of microbial complexity structure found in mild to fatal COVID-19 cases may potentially alter clinical outcomes in patients. Taken together, our findings identify the respiratory microbiota as a factor potentially associated with the severity of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/genética , COVID-19/microbiología , COVID-19/mortalidad , Disbiosis/microbiología , Microbiota/genética , Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/patología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Adulto Joven
12.
J Immunol ; 207(10): 2581-2588, 2021 11 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607939

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 is a respiratory pathogen that can cause severe disease in at-risk populations but results in asymptomatic infections or a mild course of disease in the majority of cases. We report the identification of SARS-CoV-2-reactive B cells in human tonsillar tissue obtained from children who were negative for coronavirus disease 2019 prior to the pandemic and the generation of mAbs recognizing the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein from these B cells. These Abs showed reduced binding to Spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 variants and did not recognize Spike proteins of endemic coronaviruses, but subsets reacted with commensal microbiota and exhibited SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing potential. Our study demonstrates pre-existing SARS-CoV-2-reactive Abs in various B cell populations in the upper respiratory tract lymphoid tissue that may lead to the rapid engagement of the pathogen and contribute to prevent manifestations of symptomatic or severe disease.


Asunto(s)
Tonsila Faríngea/inmunología , Subgrupos de Linfocitos B/inmunología , Linfocitos B/inmunología , COVID-19/inmunología , Membrana Mucosa/inmunología , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfocitos B/genética , Sistema Respiratorio/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/metabolismo , Niño , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Memoria Inmunológica , Activación de Linfocitos , Análisis de la Célula Individual , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Transcriptoma
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257644, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710098

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 may present with a variety of clinical syndromes, however, the upper airway and the lower respiratory tract are the principle sites of infection. Previous work on respiratory viral infections demonstrated that airway inflammation results in the release of volatile organic compounds as well as nitric oxide. The detection of these gases from patients' exhaled breath offers a novel potential diagnostic target for COVID-19 that would offer real-time screening of patients for COVID-19 infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present here a breath tester utilizing a catalytically active material, which allows for the temporal manifestation of the gaseous biomarkers' interactions with the sensor, thus giving a distinct breath print of the disease. A total of 46 Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients on mechanical ventilation participated in the study, 23 with active COVID-19 respiratory infection and 23 non-COVID-19 controls. Exhaled breath bags were collected on ICU days 1, 3, 7, and 10 or until liberation from mechanical ventilation. The breathalyzer detected high exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration with a distinctive pattern for patients with active COVID-19 pneumonia. The COVID-19 "breath print" has the pattern of the small Greek letter omega (). The "breath print" identified patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with 88% accuracy upon their admission to the ICU. Furthermore, the sensitivity index of the breath print (which scales with the concentration of the key biomarker ammonia) appears to correlate with duration of COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The implication of this breath tester technology for the rapid screening for COVID-19 and potentially detection of other infectious diseases in the future.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/análisis , Anciano , Biomarcadores , Pruebas Respiratorias/métodos , Enfermedad Crítica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratorio/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
14.
Viana do Castelo; s.n; 20211028.
Tesis en Portugués | BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1343816

RESUMEN

Introdução: Nas doenças respiratórias, as infeções respiratórias, nomeadamente do trato respiratório inferior, são uma das principais causas de internamento hospitalar e de necessidade de ventilação mecânica. As complicações associadas ao recurso de ventilação mecânica são várias e torna-se cada vez mais importante o papel do Enfermeiro Especialista em Enfermagem de Reabilitação, no sentido de prevenir complicações, manter e/ou restaurar a sua funcionalidade que antecede este episódio. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos de um programa de reabilitação respiratória diário, no doente submetido a ventilação mecânica invasiva com infeção respiratória, internado em unidade de cuidados intensivos. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, de natureza quase-experimental de grupo único e o tipo de amostragem foi não probabilística. Foram comparados os valores da saturação periférica de oxigénio, da frequência respiratória, da PaO2 e da PaCO2, no momento antes e após a realização do plano de Reeducação Funcional Respiratória. O presente estudo foi realizado numa unidade de cuidados intensivos de um hospital da zona norte, e tivemos como critérios de inclusão, a infeção respiratória do trato inferior com necessidade de ventilação mecânica, internamento superior a 48h e, monitorização de pressões arteriais invasivas. O período intervenção e recolha de dados decorreu entre os meses de janeiro a agosto de 2019, desde o momento em que o doente era admitido no estudo até à data de alta do serviço. Resultados: Os resultados obtidos revelaram um ligeiro aumento da saturação periférica de oxigénio no momento pós sessão de RFR e sem alterações relevantes na frequência respiratória ou PaO2, não se tendo verificado resultados estatisticamente significativos. Relativamente aos valores na PaCO2, obtivemos uma diminuição nos momentos após a intervenção, com resultados estatisticamente significativos. Conclusão: Consideramos existir evidência da eficácia de um programa de Reeducação Funcional Respiratória, no doente com infeção respiratória submetido a ventilação mecânica, nomeadamente na diminuição dos valores gasométricos da PaCO2.


Introduction: In respiratory diseases, respiratory infections, particularly of the lower respiratory tract, are one of the main causes of hospitalization and the need for mechanical ventilation. The complications associated with the use of mechanical ventilation are several and the role of the Nurse Specialist in Rehabilitation Nursing becomes increasingly important, in order to prevent complications, maintain and/or restore its functionality that precedes this episode. Objective: Evaluate the effects of a daily respiratory rehabilitation program on patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation with respiratory infection, admitted to an intensive care unit. Methodology: This is a quantitative study of a single-group almost-experimental nature and the type of sampling was non-probabilistic. The values of peripheral oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, PaO2 and PaCO2, were compared at the time before and after the realization of the Respiratory Functional Reeducation plan. The present study was conducted in an intensive care unit of a hospital in the north, and we had as inclusion criteria the respiratory infection of the lower tract requiring mechanical ventilation, hospitalization greater than 48h and monitoring of invasive arterial pressures. The intervention and data collection period took place between January and August 2019, from the time the patient was admitted to the study until the date of discharge from the service. Results: The results showed a slight increase in peripheral oxygen saturation at the time after the RFR session and without significant changes in respiratory rate or PaO2, and no statistically significant results were found. Regarding the values in PaCO2, we obtained a decrease in the moments after the intervention, with statistically significant results. Conclusion: We consider that there is evidence of the efficacy of a Respiratory Functional Reeducation program in patients with respiratory infection undergoing mechanical ventilation, in particular in the reduction of blood pressure values of PaCO2.


Asunto(s)
Respiración Artificial , Sistema Respiratorio , Enfermería en Rehabilitación
15.
Cell ; 184(19): 4953-4968.e16, 2021 09 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492226

RESUMEN

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by overproduction of immune mediators, but the role of interferons (IFNs) of the type I (IFN-I) or type III (IFN-III) families remains debated. We scrutinized the production of IFNs along the respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients and found that high levels of IFN-III, and to a lesser extent IFN-I, characterize the upper airways of patients with high viral burden but reduced disease risk or severity. Production of specific IFN-III, but not IFN-I, members denotes patients with a mild pathology and efficiently drives the transcription of genes that protect against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In contrast, compared to subjects with other infectious or noninfectious lung pathologies, IFNs are overrepresented in the lower airways of patients with severe COVID-19 that exhibit gene pathways associated with increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Our data demonstrate a dynamic production of IFNs in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients and show IFNs play opposing roles at distinct anatomical sites.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/patología , Interferones/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores de Edad , Envejecimiento/patología , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/inmunología , Células Epiteliales/patología , Células Epiteliales/virología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Interferones/genética , Leucocitos/patología , Leucocitos/virología , Pulmón/patología , Pulmón/virología , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/patología , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/virología , Carga Viral
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257165, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550994

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The burden of the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru has led to people seeking alternative treatments as preventives and treatment options such as medicinal plants. This study aimed to assess factors associated with the use of medicinal plants as preventive or treatment of respiratory symptom related to COVID-19 during the pandemic in Cusco, Peru. METHOD: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted on general public (20- to 70-year-old) from August 31 to September 20, 2020. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire via Google Forms, it consisted of an 11-item questionnaire that was developed and validated by expert judgment using Aiken's V (Aiken's V > 0.9). Both descriptive statistics and bivariate followed by multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with the use of medicinal plants for COVID-19 prevention and respiratory symptom treatment during the pandemic. Prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI), and a P-value of 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 1,747 respondents participated in the study, 80.2% reported that they used medicinal plants as preventives, while 71% reported that they used them to treat respiratory symptoms. At least, 24% of respondents used medicinal plants when presenting with two or more respiratory symptoms, while at least 11% used plants for malaise. For treatment or prevention, the multivariate analysis showed that most respondents used eucalyptus (p < 0.001 for both), ginger (p < 0.022 for both), spiked pepper (p < 0.003 for both), garlic (p = 0.023 for prevention), and chamomile (p = 0.011 for treatment). The respondents with COVID-19 (p < 0.001), at older ages (p = 0.046), and with a family member or friend who had COVID-19 (p < 0.001) used more plants for prevention. However, the respondents with technical or higher education used less plants for treatment (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There was a significant use of medicinal plants for both prevention and treatment, which was associated with several population characteristics and whether respondents had COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevención & control , Plantas Medicinales , Sistema Respiratorio/efectos de los fármacos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(9): 1036-42, 2021 Sep 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491655

RESUMEN

From the perspective of academic history, the background and evolution of "Fenglong (ST 40) for phlegm" were systematically summarized. As a result, it was found that in the early period, Fenglong (ST 40) was used for "tangible phlegm" of respiratory tract, but in the later generations, due to the comprehensive effects of various factors, the phlegm treated by Fenglong (ST 40) was generalized. In modern clinical practice of acupuncture and moxibustion, Fenglong (ST 40) is widely used for phlegm-related diseases. In addition, the knowledge content represented by "Fenglong (ST 40) for phlegm" showed evolution and change in academic heritage of previous dynasties. It is necessary for modern acupuncture researchers to systematically sort out, test and discriminate the habitual knowledge in combination with the background of traditional Chinese medicine, so as to promote the contemporary inheritance and application of traditional acupuncture theory and knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Moxibustión , Puntos de Acupuntura , Moco , Sistema Respiratorio
18.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 405, 2021 09 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587975

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease affecting different organs including the heart. Myocardial strain analysis could potentially detect the early stages of cardiac dysfunction in sarcoidosis patients. The present study aims to assess the use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) strain analysis using feature tracking (FT) in the detection of early cardiac involvement in asymptomatic patients with sarcoidosis. METHODS: One hundred and thirteen CMR studies of patients with sarcoidosis of the respiratory tract and/or extrapulmonary sarcoidosis without pre-existing known cardiovascular disease were included in the study and analysed using FT and compared to 22 age and gender-matched controls. Global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS) and global radial strain (GRS) of the left ventricle (LV) were measured. RESULTS: The sarcoidosis patients did not significantly differ from the controls in basic demographic data and had normal global and regional systolic LV function-LV ejection fraction (EF) 66 ± 7% vs 65 ± 5% in the controls (p = NS). No statistically significant differences were found in all strain parameters between patients and controls: GLS (- 13.9 ± 3.1 vs. - 14.2 ± 2.5), GCS (- 23.4 ± 4.0 vs. - 22.2 ± 2.9) and GRS (53.4 ± 13.5 vs. 51.2 ± 13.6%) (p = NS). CONCLUSION: Patients with sarcoidosis of the respiratory tract and/or extrapulmonary sarcoidosis had normal myocardial deformation measured by CMR-FT derived global strain.


Asunto(s)
Ventrículos Cardíacos , Sarcoidosis , Ventrículos Cardíacos/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Cinemagnética , Sistema Respiratorio , Sarcoidosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Función Ventricular Izquierda
19.
F1000Res ; 10: 801, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557293

RESUMEN

The airways of people with cystic fibrosis (CF) are often chronically colonised with a diverse array of bacterial and fungal species. However, little is known about the relative partitioning of species between the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth in the airways. Existing in vivo and in vitro models of CF airway infection are ill-suited for the long-term recapitulation of mixed microbial communities. Here we describe a simple, in vitro continuous-flow model for the cultivation of polymicrobial biofilms and planktonic cultures on different substrata. Our data provide evidence for inter-species antagonism and synergism in biofilm ecology. We further show that the type of substratum on which the biofilms grow has a profound influence on their species composition. This happens without any major alteration in the composition of the surrounding steady-state planktonic community. Our experimentally-tractable model enables the systematic study of planktonic and biofilm communities under conditions that are nutritionally reminiscent of the CF airway microenvironment, something not possible using any existing in vivo models of CF airway infection.


Asunto(s)
Fibrosis Quística , Microbiota , Bacterias , Biopelículas , Humanos , Sistema Respiratorio
20.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578783

RESUMEN

The human body is host to a large number of microorganisms which conform the human microbiota, that is known to play an important role in health and disease. Although most of the microorganisms that coexist with us are located in the gut, microbial cells present in other locations (like skin, respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, and the vaginal zone in women) also play a significant role regulating host health. The fact that there are different kinds of microbiota in different body areas does not mean they are independent. It is plausible that connection exist, and different studies have shown that the microbiota present in different zones of the human body has the capability of communicating through secondary metabolites. In this sense, dysbiosis in one body compartment may negatively affect distal areas and contribute to the development of diseases. Accordingly, it could be hypothesized that the whole set of microbial cells that inhabit the human body form a system, and the dialogue between the different host microbiotas may be a contributing factor for the susceptibility to developing diseased states. For this reason, the present review aims to integrate the available literature on the relationship between the different human microbiotas and understand how changes in the microbiota in one body region can influence other microbiota communities in a bidirectional process. The findings suggest that the different microbiotas may act in a coordinated way to decisively influence human well-being. This new integrative paradigm opens new insights in the microbiota field of research and its relationship with human health that should be taken into account in future studies.


Asunto(s)
Disbiosis/metabolismo , Microbiota , Femenino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Boca/microbiología , Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Piel/microbiología , Sistema Urogenital/microbiología , Vagina/microbiología
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