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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 668, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005999

RESUMEN

Watershed morphometric assessment is about measurements and calculations of land surface forms for the purpose of understanding hydro-geomorphological character and patterns. Important natural environment geo-information and summary of the spatial characteristics of Tana River Basin (TRB) in Kenya have been obtained through hydro-geomorphometric analysis. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Digital Elevation Model (ASTERDEM) data and ArcGIS (ESRI Inc., version 10.4.1) together with published mathematical equations were applied to extract morphometric parameters of the drainage basin, which covers a total area of 94,930 km2 and a span of 527.75 km. The quantitative morphometric analysis considered a total of 28 relief, areal, and linear hydro-morphometric characteristics of the TRB. Relief parameters of the basin suggest moderate-to-low overall watershed steepness, upland with rolling land surface patterns, rugged landforms susceptible to erosion and sediment transportation, and a landscape in evolution process tending towards maturity. This means stability of the land surface can be attained with intensive land degradation reversing strategies like erosion control measures. Areal characteristics further support the basin's susceptibility to erosion as shown by stream length, stream drainage density, and circulatory ratio values. Also, the areal aspects portray peak runoffs with short duration flashes. Linear parameter value results such as bifurcation ratio imply that infiltration capacity varies with stream orders across the watershed. This hydro-geomorphometric analysis would be useful to land and water managers, researchers and practitioners of TRB, and other similar systems in designing and planning soil and water conservation and management practices such as soil erosion control, groundwater recharge activities, catchment modelling, runoff and flood studies, prospecting groundwater mapping, and biological applications.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Kenia , Ríos , Suelo
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 684, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026519

RESUMEN

Groundwater quality monitoring is a critical part of water management in all groundwater basins. In order to be effective and to meet the required needs, groundwater quality monitoring networks (GQMNs) must be designed to be able to operate long-term and economically without minimal disruption. The analytical hierarchical process (AHP), a multi-criteria decision-making program, was used to design a GQMN for an alluvial aquifer located in the Islam Abad plain west of Kermanshah province, Iran. This semi-arid area is subject to groundwater depletion and water quality changes. The model used 8 primary criteria sub-divided with 5 sub-criteria based on a combination of empirical data and expert opinion. The primary criteria included density of wells, well discharge, well depth, water quality (conductivity), flow direction, annual groundwater extraction, water level declines, and accessibility. The model showed that 59 of 254 production wells in the basin could provide optimal monitoring locations. When a second screening of the wells was used to determine constraints (physical conditions of the wells and pumps, owner permission of use, type of the pump, etc.), the number of wells was reduced to 13 wells. An initial round of water sampling and chemical analysis demonstrated that the design of the GQMN met the goals of the water management agency of the region.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Agua Subterránea , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Irán , Pozos de Agua
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3631-3641, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893552

RESUMEN

Zha-xun is widely used in Tibetan medicine and is also an international traditional medicine. This study believes that the black organic matter constituting Zha-xun is mainly stored in the rocks. The exudation points of Zha-xun mostly distribute on the cliffs of high mountains, which makes it difficult to evaluate its resource distribution and storage area. This paper was aimed at the exudation environment of Tibetan medicine Zha-xun in Sichuan province and 6 ecological environmental factors of the Zha-xun were determined via the field investigation. Combining with these 6 factors as well as the GIS data of Sichuan province, ArcGIS software was used to extract ideal environmental factors which are suitable for exudation of Zha-xun, including geology types, geomorphological types, altitude, slope, vegetation types, and mean annual temperature. The spatial overlay analyses on the extracted environmental factors were carried out to predict the distribution area of Zha-xun in Sichuan province. Afterwards, field investigation was conducted to verify the prediction. The prediction showed that the exudation spots of Zha-xun in Sichuan province mainly located in 29 counties including 12 in Aba Prefecture, 15 in Ganzi Prefecture, and Muli County and Dechang County in Liangshan Prefecture. The deposit areas of Zha-xun were located in the Triassic, Devonian and Silurian strata and were basically distributed in 9 basins, including Dingqu River, Yalong River, Xianshui River, Dadu River, Suomo River, Minjiang River and Baishui River, characterized by a fragmented patch-like distribution along the mountain ranges, and the exudation spots of Zha-xun were mainly scattered among the rain-free cliffs' concavities of river valleys at a certain altitude. The prediction was consistent with the field investigation results, which suggested that it is possible and feasible to predict distribution of Zha-xun resources based on GIS-analysis. The study may provide a scientific basis for comprehensive investigations into Zha-xun's distribution and formation mechanism, thus promoting rational development and utilization of Zha-xun resources.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana , China , Geología , Medicina Tradicional , Temperatura
4.
Global Health ; 16(1): 85, 2020 09 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967691

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Restricting mobility is a central aim for lowering contact rates and preventing COVID-19 transmission. Yet the impact on mobility of different non-pharmaceutical countermeasures in the earlier stages of the pandemic is not well-understood. DESIGN: Trends were evaluated using Citymapper's mobility index covering 2nd to 26th March 2020, expressed as percentages of typical usage periods from 0% as the lowest and 100% as normal. China and India were not covered. Multivariate fixed effects models were used to estimate the association of policies restricting movement on mobility before and after their introduction. Policy restrictions were assessed using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Stringency Index as well as measures coding the timing and degree of school and workplace closures, transport restrictions, and cancellation of mass gatherings. SETTING: 41 cities worldwide. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Citymapper's mobility index. RESULTS: Mobility declined in all major cities throughout March. Larger declines were seen in European than Asian cities. The COVID-19 Government Response Stringency Index was strongly associated with declines in mobility (r = - 0.75, p < 0.001). After adjusting for time-trends, we observed that implementing non-pharmaceutical countermeasures was associated with a decline of mobility of 10.0% for school closures (95% CI: 4.36 to 15.7%), 15.0% for workplace closures (95% CI: 10.2 to 19.8%), 7.09% for cancelling public events (95% CI: 1.98 to 12.2%), 18.0% for closing public transport (95% CI: 6.74 to 29.2%), 13.3% for restricting internal movements (95% CI: 8.85 to 17.8%) and 5.30% for international travel controls (95% CI: 1.69 to 8.90). In contrast, as expected, there was no association between population mobility changes and fiscal or monetary measures or emergency healthcare investment. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the effect of public policy on mobility in the early stages is crucial to slowing and reducing COVID-19 transmission. By using Citymapper's mobility index, this work provides the first evidence about trends in mobility and the impacts of different policy interventions, suggesting that closure of public transport, workplaces and schools are particularly impactful.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Salud Global , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Viaje/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciudades/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Política Pública , Factores de Tiempo , Viaje/legislación & jurisprudencia , Voluntarios
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899619

RESUMEN

Keeping the dynamic nature of Coronaviruses (COVID-19) pandemic in mind, we have opted to explore the importance of the decentralization of COVID-19 testing centers across the country of Bangladesh in order to combat the pandemic. In doing so, we considered quantitative, qualitative, and geographic information systems (GIS) datasets to identify the location of existing COVID-19 testing centers. Moreover, we attempted to collect data from the existing centers in order to demonstrate testing times at the divisional level of the country. Results show that the number of testing centers is not enough to cater to the vast population of the country. Additionally, we found that the number of days it takes to receive the results from the COVID-19 testing centers is not optimal at divisional cities, let alone the remote rural areas. Finally, we propose a set of recommendations in order to enhance the existing system to assist more people under a testing range of COVID-19 viruses at the local level.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Pandemias
6.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 26(6): 622-631, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969952

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate predictors of stay-at-home order adoption among US states, as well as associations between order enactment and residents' mobility. DESIGN: We assess associations between state characteristics and adoption timing. We also assess associations between enactment and aggregate state-level measures of residents' mobility (Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports). SETTING: The United States. PARTICIPANTS: Adoption population: 50 US states and District of Columbia. Mobility population: state residents using devices with GPS tracking accessible by Google. INTERVENTION AND EXPOSURES: State characteristics: COVID-19 diagnoses per capita, 2016 Trump vote share, Republican governor, Medicaid expansion status, hospital beds per capita, public health funding per capita, state and local tax revenue per capita, median household income, population, percent residents 65 years or older, and percent urban residents. Mobility exposure: indicator of order enactment by March 29, 2020 (date of mobility data collection). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Order adoption timing: days since adoption of first order. Mobility: changes in mobility to 6 locations from February 6 to March 29, 2020. RESULTS: In bivariate models, order adoption was associated with COVID-19 diagnoses (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.01), Republican governor (HR = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.44), Medicaid expansion (HR = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.40 to 4.48), and hospital capacity (HR = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.70), consistent with findings in the multivariate models. Order enactment was positively associated with time at home (beta (B) = 1.31; 95% CI, 0.35 to 2.28) and negatively associated with time at retail and recreation (B = -7.17; 95% CI, -10.89 to -3.46) and grocery and pharmacy (B = -8.28; 95% CI, -11.97 to -4.59) locations. Trump vote share was associated with increased mobility for 4 of 6 mobility measures. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: While politics influenced order adoption, public health considerations were equally influential. While orders were associated with decreased mobility, political ideology was associated with increased mobility under social distancing policies.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Política Pública , Cuarentena , Viaje , Betacoronavirus , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Distancia Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
Sci Adv ; 6(37)2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917709

RESUMEN

Mistrust of scientific evidence and government-issued guidelines is increasingly correlated with political affiliation. Survey evidence has documented skepticism in a diverse set of issues including climate change, vaccine hesitancy, and, most recently, COVID-19 risks. Less well understood is whether these beliefs alter high-stakes behavior. Combining GPS data for 2.7 million smartphone users in Florida and Texas with 2016 U.S. presidential election precinct-level results, we examine how conservative-media dismissals of hurricane advisories in 2017 influenced evacuation decisions. Likely Trump-voting Florida residents were 10 to 11 percentage points less likely to evacuate Hurricane Irma than Clinton voters (34% versus 45%), a gap not present in prior hurricanes. Results are robust to fine-grain geographic controls, which compare likely Clinton and Trump voters living within 150 m of each other. The rapid surge in media-led suspicion of hurricane forecasts-and the resulting divide in self-protective measures-illustrates a large behavioral consequence of science denialism.


Asunto(s)
Negación en Psicología , Política , Confianza/psicología , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación , Betacoronavirus , Cambio Climático , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Florida , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Gobierno , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Texas , Estados Unidos , Negativa a la Vacunación
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2020485, 2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897373

RESUMEN

Importance: A stay-at-home social distancing mandate is a key nonpharmacological measure to reduce the transmission rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), but a high rate of adherence is needed. Objective: To examine the association between the rate of human mobility changes and the rate of confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used daily travel distance and home dwell time derived from millions of anonymous mobile phone location data from March 11 to April 10, 2020, provided by the Descartes Labs and SafeGraph to quantify the degree to which social distancing mandates were followed in the 50 US states and District of Columbia and the association of mobility changes with rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Exposure: State-level stay-at-home orders during the COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the association of state-specific rates of COVID-19 confirmed cases with the change rates of median travel distance and median home dwell time of anonymous mobile phone users. The increase rates are measured by the exponent in curve fitting of the COVID-19 cumulative confirmed cases, while the mobility change (increase or decrease) rates were measured by the slope coefficient in curve fitting of median travel distance and median home dwell time for each state. Results: Data from more than 45 million anonymous mobile phone devices were analyzed. The correlation between the COVID-19 increase rate and travel distance decrease rate was -0.586 (95% CI, -0.742 to -0.370) and the correlation between COVID-19 increase rate and home dwell time increase rate was 0.526 (95% CI, 0.293 to 0.700). Increases in state-specific doubling time of total cases ranged from 1.0 to 6.9 days (median [interquartile range], 2.7 [2.3-3.3] days) before stay-at-home orders were enacted to 3.7 to 30.3 days (median [interquartile range], 6.0 [4.8-7.1] days) after stay-at-home social distancing orders were put in place, consistent with pandemic modeling results. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that stay-at-home social distancing mandates, when they were followed by measurable mobility changes, were associated with reduction in COVID-19 spread. These results come at a particularly critical period when US states are beginning to relax social distancing policies and reopen their economies. These findings support the efficacy of social distancing and could help inform future implementation of social distancing policies should they need to be reinstated during later periods of COVID-19 reemergence.


Asunto(s)
Teléfono Celular , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Viaje/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Estudios Transversales , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 652, 2020 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964332

RESUMEN

Location selection for offshore wind farms is a major challenge for renewable energy policy, marine spatial planning, and environmental conservation. This selection constitutes a multi-criteria decision-making problem, through which parameters like wind velocity, water depth, shorelines, fishing areas, shipping routes, environmental protection areas, transportation, and military zones should be jointly investigated. The aim of the present study was thus to develop an integrated methodology for assessing the siting of bottom-fixed offshore wind farms in two different countries (with different legal, political, and socio/economic characteristics). Our methodology combined multi-criteria decision-making methods and geographical information systems and was implemented in Cyclades (Greece) and in the sea area of Izmir region (Turkey). Experts used fuzzy sets and linguistic terms to achieve more consistent and independent rankings and results. In the Turkish region, the results showed that 519 km2 (10.23%) of the study area is suitable for offshore wind farms, while in the Greek region, only 289 km2 (3.22%) of the study area was found to be suitable. This spatial suitability analysis may contribute to provide some useful recommendations for the spatial marine planning at the regional scale, as well as for the preliminary assessment of new offshore wind farms in both countries.


Asunto(s)
Fuentes Generadoras de Energía , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Grecia , Centrales Eléctricas , Turquia , Viento
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(7): 732-736, 2020 Jul 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794462

RESUMEN

Bangladesh reported the first three laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases on March 8, 2020 in Dhaka and Narayanganj cities. As of April 8, 2020, 218 confirmed cases across the country, they have mostly detected from Dhaka (56.4%) and Narayanganj (21%) cities where the hotspots of an outbreak of COVID-19 disease. There were 6 cases in Dhaka district excluding metropolitan areas and rest of 43 (20%) cases in the 19 other regions. Local government-enforced completely shut down the hotspots areas on April 8 2020. However, peoples from hotspots travelled openly to the other districts. We aimed to understand the risk of open movement from hotspots. We studied 40 individuals who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus later at their destination. We developed a route map and density maps using Geographic Information System (GIS). Among the studied people, the average distance was 140.1 (75.1) kilometers (Km), and the range of distance was from 20.3 to 321.7 kilometers. Among them, 42.5% traveled <100 Km, 40.0% traveled between 100 and 200 Km and 17.5% traveled above 200 Km. Case numbers were increased 13.5 times more on April 20 than the cases as of April 8, 2020. Our analysis suggests that relaxed travel restriction could play an important role to spread COVID-19 transmission domestically. To reduce further spread of COVID-19, the government should closely monitor the public health intervention to stop the casual movement.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Viaje/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Migrantes , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes
11.
J Registry Manag ; 47(1): 13-20, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833379

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Between 1997 and 2013 (the included study years), approximately 23% of addresses in the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry (OCCR) were not geocoded to the address level. Addresses in rural counties were geocoded with poorer quality, preventing the instructive geographic research that informs policymaking. METHODS: To improve the accuracy of the geocodes, we first utilized the United States Postal Service's LACSLink database to correct addresses; specifically, to convert old rural route-based addresses to modernized Enhanced 911 (E911) addresses. We created custom geocoders using regional E911 reference data sets and used existing national scope geocoders of NAVTEQ and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. We attempted to geocode 5,102 addresses, which are either regular street addresses or rural route addresses. In the process, we evaluated and tabulated performances of the address correction. Accordingly, we first tabulated how well each geocoder could geocode original and LACSLink corrected addresses. We then documented the overall performances of geocoders based on pairwise comparisons. RESULTS: We were able to geocode 1,945 addresses out of this data set using 5 distinct geocoders. We observed that the LACSLink correction and E911 data were useful in the specific purpose of geocoding rural addresses, as found in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that both LACSLink correction and E911 data were useful for improving geocoding of cancer records, many of which were in rural areas. Future directions include further validation of the geocoding and plans to conduct spatial exploratory data analysis to generate hypotheses related to the distribution of cancer in Oklahoma.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Mapeo Geográfico , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia , Topografía Médica/métodos , Humanos , Oklahoma/epidemiología , Sistema de Registros , Características de la Residencia/clasificación , Población Rural , Población Urbana
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 589, 2020 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816076

RESUMEN

Ecological sensitivity is defined as the ecosystem's reaction to environmental change caused by internal and external factors. The degree of ecological sensitivity varies in spatial dimension depending on the natural and cultural features. Ecological sensitivity analysis is based on basis of mapping these differences. As a result of the analysis, an important data that can be a base for spatial plans at different scales is provided. In accordance with this aim, Denizli province was selected for the study area in this research. The factors affecting sensitivity were determined by the literature survey, which was conducted by considering the characteristics of the study area. In this context, elevation, slope, aspect, the proximity to water surface, land cover, and vegetation coverage were evaluated as natural factors, and the proximity to primary traffic roads and residential areas as cultural factors. Each factor was spatially grouped by means of geographic information systems (GIS) according to the degree of impact on ecological sensitivity. Scale 1 (lowest ecological sensitivity) to 5 (highest ecological sensitivity) was used for the spatial grouping. A analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to weight the factors. The overlay method was used in line with the weighted scores in order to determine the composite ecological sensitivity. As a result of the study, the area of 286.26 sq km (2.37%) as highly and more sensitive, 5267.47 sq km (43.50%) as moderately sensitive, and 6554.56 sq km (54.13%) as mildly and less sensitive was determined. In line with the results, suggestions for protection-utilization balance were developed.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Monitoreo del Ambiente
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 611, 2020 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811467

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The poliovirus has been targeted for eradication since 1988. Kenya reported its last case of indigenous Wild Poliovirus (WPV) in 1984 but suffered from an outbreak of circulating Vaccine-derived Poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) in 2018. We aimed to describe Kenya's polio surveillance performance 2016-2018 using WHO recommended polio surveillance standards. METHODS: Retrospective secondary data analysis was conducted using Kenyan AFP surveillance case-based database from 2016 to 2018. Analyses were carried out using Epi-Info statistical software (version 7) and mapping was done using Quantum Geographic Information System (GIS) (version 3.4.1). RESULTS: Kenya reported 1706 cases of AFP from 2016 to 2018. None of the cases were confirmed as poliomyelitis. However, 23 (1.35%) were classified as polio compatible. Children under 5 years accounted for 1085 (63.6%) cases, 937 (55.0%) cases were boys, and 1503 (88.1%) cases had received three or more doses of Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). AFP detection rate substantially increased over the years; however, the prolonged health workers strike in 2017 negatively affected key surveillance activities. The mean Non-Polio (NP-AFP) rate during the study period was 2.87/ 100,000 children under 15 years, and two adequate specimens were collected for 1512 (88.6%) AFP cases. Cumulatively, 31 (66.0%) counties surpassed target for both WHO recommended AFP quality indicators. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of Kenya's AFP surveillance system surpassed the minimum WHO recommended targets for both non-polio AFP rate and stool adequacy during the period studied. In order to strengthen the country's polio free status, health worker's awareness on AFP surveillance and active case search should be strengthened in least performing counties to improve case detection. Similar analyses should be done at the sub-county level to uncover underperformance that might have been hidden by county level analysis.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Parálisis/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Poliovirus/inmunología , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Heces/virología , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Kenia/epidemiología , Masculino , Parálisis/virología , Vacuna Antipolio Oral/efectos adversos , Vigilancia de la Población , Estudios Retrospectivos , Programas Informáticos
14.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857174

RESUMEN

The interest in using geographic methods for health monitoring has grown strongly over the last two decades. Through these methods, analysis and visualization of health data can be more focused and target-group specific. The application in health monitoring is possible mostly due to broader technical possibilities and more available datasets. In this article, we show which geographic aspects are adapted in health monitoring at different levels (federal, state, municipality).For example, at the federal level, surveillance methods are used; at the state level health atlases are created; and on the municipality level geographic analyses are performed for possible public health interventions.Methods range from simple maps on different levels of aggregation to more complex methods like space-temporal visualization or spatial-smoothing methods. While the technical possibilities are in place, a broader implementation of geographic methods is mostly hindered by missing data access to small-area information and data protection policies. Better access to data could especially improve the possibility for geographic methods in health monitoring and could inform the population and decision makers to inform and improve population health or healthcare.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Salud Pública , Alemania
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237835, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817725

RESUMEN

Fisheries bycatch has been identified as the greatest threat to marine mammals worldwide. Characterizing the impacts of bycatch on marine mammals is challenging because it is difficult to both observe and quantify, particularly in small-scale fisheries where data on fishing effort and marine mammal abundance and distribution are often limited. The lack of risk frameworks that can integrate and visualize existing data have hindered the ability to describe and quantify bycatch risk. Here, we describe the design of a new geographic information systems tool built specifically for the analysis of bycatch in small-scale fisheries, called Bycatch Risk Assessment (ByRA). Using marine mammals in Malaysia and Vietnam as a test case, we applied ByRA to assess the risks posed to Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) and dugongs (Dugong dugon) by five small-scale fishing gear types (hook and line, nets, longlines, pots and traps, and trawls). ByRA leverages existing data on animal distributions, fisheries effort, and estimates of interaction rates by combining expert knowledge and spatial analyses of existing data to visualize and characterize bycatch risk. By identifying areas of bycatch concern while accounting for uncertainty using graphics, maps and summary tables, we demonstrate the importance of integrating available geospatial data in an accessible format that taps into local knowledge and can be corroborated by and communicated to stakeholders of data-limited fisheries. Our methodological approach aims to meet a critical need of fisheries managers: to identify emergent interaction patterns between fishing gears and marine mammals and support the development of management actions that can lead to sustainable fisheries and mitigate bycatch risk for species of conservation concern.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Explotaciones Pesqueras/normas , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Mamíferos/fisiología , Animales , Cetáceos/fisiología , Delfines/fisiología , Dugong/fisiología , Humanos , Malasia , Medición de Riesgo , Tortugas/fisiología , Vietnam
16.
Value Health ; 23(8): 1020-1026, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828213

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: There is no generally accepted methodology to assess trauma system access. The goal of this study is to determine the influence of the number and geographical distribution of trauma centers (TCs) on transport times (TT) using geographic information system (GIS)-technology. METHODS: Using ArcGIS-PRO, we calculated differences in TT and population coverage in 7 scenarios with 1, 2, or 3 TCs during rush (R) and low-traffic (L) hours in a densely populated region with 3 TCs in the Netherlands. RESULTS: In all 7 scenarios, the population that could reach the nearest TC within <45 minutes varied between 96% and 99%. In the 3-TC scenario, roughly 57% of the population could reach the nearest TC <15 minutes both during R and L. The hypothetical geographically well-spread 2-TC scenario showed similar results as the 3-TC scenario. In the 1-TC scenarios, the population reaching the nearest TC <15 minutes decreased to between 19% and 32% in R and L. In the 3-TC scenario, the average TT increased by about 1.5 minutes to almost 21 minutes during R and 19 minutes during L. Similar results were seen in the scenarios with 2 geographically well-spread TCs. In the 1-TC scenarios and the less well-spread 2-TC scenario, the average TT increased by 5 to 8 minutes (L) and 7 to 9 minutes (R) compared to the 3-TC scenario. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that a GIS-based model offers a quantifiable and objective method to evaluate trauma system access under different potential trauma system configurations. Transport time from accident to TC would remain acceptable, around 20 minutes, if the current 3-TC situation would be changed to a geographically well-spread 2-center scenario.


Asunto(s)
Ambulancias/estadística & datos numéricos , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Centros Traumatológicos/organización & administración , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Países Bajos , Factores de Tiempo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237784, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813745

RESUMEN

Built environments have been cited as important facilitators of activity and research using geographic information systems (GIS) has emerged as a novel approach in exploring environmental determinants. The Active Children Through Individual Vouchers Evaluation Project used GIS to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of how teenager's (aged 13-14) environments impacted on their amount of activity and influences fitness. The ACTIVE Project recruited 270 participants aged 13-14 (year 9) from 7 secondary schools in south Wales, UK. Demographic data and objective measures of accelerometery and fitness were collected from each participant between September and December 2016. Objective data was mapped in a GIS alongside datasets relating to activity provision, active travel routes, public transport stops, main roads and natural resources. This study shows that fitness and physical activity are not correlated. Teenagers who had higher levels of activity also had higher levels of sedentary time/inactivity. Teenagers showed higher amounts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity if their homes were closer to public transport. However, they were also more active if their schools were further away from public transport and natural resources. Teenagers were fitter if schools were closer to natural resources. Sedentary behaviour, fitness and activity do not cluster in the same teenagers. Policymakers/planning committees need to consider this when designing teenage friendly environments. Access to public transport, active travel, green space and activities that teenagers want, and need could make a significant difference to teenage health.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Adolescente/estadística & datos numéricos , Entorno Construido , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Acelerometría/métodos , Acelerometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Gales
18.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111185, 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768759

RESUMEN

To explore the impact of groundwater hydrodynamics on water quality, a cost-effective geospatial model was developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology and the Dupuit assumption. Meanwhile, the groundwater quality in the Dagu River Basin was evaluated based on the water quality index (WQI) and multivariate statistical analyses. In April (dry season) and September (rainy season) 2017, the groundwater level was automatically monitored from 115 wells, and the water quality including 21 hydrochemical parameters was sampled from 37 wells. Results reveal that the WQI values varied from 35.01 to 64.74, with mean values of 51.89 and 47.87 in the rainy and dry seasons. Approximately 80% of the samples exhibited moderate water quality, with no significant difference between the rainy and dry seasons. Nitrate pollution and the integrated water quality in the central and northern regions were generally worse than that in the southern region. The Darcy velocity in the central and northern regions was relatively high with a maximum rate of 0.56 m/d, compared with the southern region. This correlation illustrates the effect of groundwater hydrodynamics on quality. The sowing of greater chemical fertilizers combined with faster groundwater movement is likely responsible for the large-scale nitrate pollution in the central and northern regions. Results also proved the accuracy of the geospatial model with a valid uncertainty. The geospatial model provides a valuable alternative for the spatial analysis of the effect of groundwater hydrodynamics on water quality.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Hidrodinámica , Calidad del Agua
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236643, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841239

RESUMEN

Accelerometry is a recent method used to quantify workload in team sports. A rapidly increasing number of studies supports the practical implementation of accelerometry monitoring to regulate and optimize training schemes. Therefore, the purposes of this study were: (1) to reflect the current state of knowledge about accelerometry as a method of workload monitoring in invasion team sports according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and (2) to conclude recommendations for application and scientific investigations. The Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for relevant published studies according to the following keywords: "accelerometry" or "accelerometer" or "microtechnology" or "inertial devices", and "load" or "workload", and "sport". Of the 1383 studies initially identified, 118 were selected for a full review. The main results indicate that the most frequent findings were (i) devices' body location: scapulae; (b) devices brand: Catapult Sports; (iii) variables: PlayerLoadTM and its variations; (iv) sports: rugby, Australian football, soccer and basketball; (v) sex: male; (vi) competition level: professional and elite; and (vii) context: separate training or competition. A great number of variables and devices from various companies make the comparability between findings difficult; unification is required. Although the most common location is at scapulae because of its optimal signal reception for time-motion analysis, new methods for multi-location skills and locomotion assessment without losing tracking accuracy should be developed.


Asunto(s)
Acelerometría , Rendimiento Atlético , Baloncesto , Fútbol Americano , Fútbol , Carga de Trabajo , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Microtecnología
20.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 24(10): 2755-2764, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750960

RESUMEN

The fast evolving and deadly outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed grand challenges to human society. To slow the spread of virus infections and better respond for community mitigation, by advancing capabilities of artificial intelligence (AI) and leveraging the large-scale and up-to-date data generated from heterogeneous sources (e.g., disease related data, demographic, mobility and social media data), in this work, we propose and develop an AI-driven system (named α-Satellite), as an initial offering, to provide dynamic COVID-19 risk assessment in the United States. More specifically, given a point of interest (POI), the system will automatically provide risk indices associated with it in a hierarchical manner (e.g., state, county, POI) to enable people to select appropriate actions for protection while minimizing disruptions to daily life. To comprehensively evaluate our system for dynamic COVID-19 risk assessment, we first conduct a set of empirical studies; and then we validate it based on a real-world dataset consisting of 5,060 annotated POIs, which achieves the area of under curve (AUC) of 0.9202. As of June 18, 2020, α-Satellite has had 56,980 users. Based on the feedback from its large-scale users, we perform further analysis and have three key findings: i) people from more severe regions (i.e., with larger numbers of COVID-19 cases) have stronger interests using our system to assist with actionable information; ii) users are more concerned about their nearby areas in terms of COVID-19 risks; iii) the user feedback about their perceptions towards COVID-19 risks of their query POIs indicate the challenge of public concerns about the safety versus its negative effects on society and the economy. Our system and generated datasets have been made publicly accessible via our website.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Benchmarking , Betacoronavirus , Biología Computacional , Sistemas de Computación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Bases de Datos Factuales , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Medición de Riesgo/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
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