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BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 634, 2024 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38419036


BACKGROUND: Owing to crowded and unsanitary conditions, internally displaced persons (IDPs) have an increased risk of COVID-19 infection. Adoption of COVID-19 preventive measures among this population is premised on accurate information, adequate knowledge, and risk perception. We assessed COVID-19 knowledge and risk perception and investigated the association between risk perception and COVID-19 preventive measures, including vaccination among IDPs in Northeast Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study during July-December 2022 and sampled 2,175 IDPs using stratified sampling. We utilized a 12-point assessment tool to evaluate COVID-19 knowledge. Participants who scored ≥ 6 points were considered to have adequate knowledge. We used a 30-item Risk Behavior Diagnosis Scale to assess COVID-19 risk perception and evaluated each item on a 5-point Likert scale. Participants were divided into risk perception categories by the median of Likert scale scores. We performed weighted logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with risk perception. Pearson's chi-squared with Rao-Scott adjustment was used to determine the relationship between risk perception and COVID-19 preventive measures. RESULTS: Of 2,175 participants, 55.7% were 18-39 years old, 70.9% were females, and 81.7% had no formal education. Among the IDPs, 32.0% (95% CI: 28.8 - 35.0) were considered to have adequate COVID-19 knowledge, and 51.3% (95% CI: 47.8 - 54.8) perceived COVID-19 risk as high. Moreover, 46.3% (95% CI: 42.8 - 50.0) had received one dose of COVID-19 vaccine, and 33.1% (95% CI: 29.8 - 36.0) received two doses. Adequate knowledge (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.10, [95% CI: 1.46 - 3.03]) and post-primary education (AOR = 3.20, [95% CI: 1.59 - 6.46]) were associated with risk perception. Furthermore, high risk perception was significantly associated with wearing face masks (χ2 = 106.32, p-value < .001), practicing hand hygiene (χ2 = 162.24, p-value < .001), physical distancing (χ2 = 60.84, p-value < .001) and vaccination uptake (χ2 = 46.85, p-value < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed gaps in COVID-19 knowledge, risk perception, and vaccination uptake but demonstrated a significant relationship between risk perception and COVID-19 preventive practices. Health education and risk communication should be intensified to improve knowledge, elicit stronger risk perception, and enhance COVID-19 preventive practices.

COVID-19 , Refugiados , Sistemas de Socorro , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Masculino , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Estudios Transversales , Nigeria/epidemiología , Vacunación , Percepción
Mil Med ; 189(1-2): e110-e118, 2024 Jan 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37114679


INTRODUCTION: It is time to provide heavier defense systems to U.S. Navy hospital ships. They serve vital functions in both the military and emergency management spaces. They provide medical support for combat operations and can also convey the empathy and generosity of the American people when used in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief response. Hospital ships are often key to success in scenarios that require the international deployment of resources and medical expertise. Hospital ships serve a dual purpose and hence are subject to regulations that do not address all wartime mission requirements and necessary defensive capabilities. The current U.S. Navy's interpretation of the Geneva Conventions regarding the visibility, lack of defensive capabilities, and inability to use encrypted communications needlessly endangers medical platforms and personnel in the modern environment. METHODS: The authors (including senior author F.M.B.-a recognized (International Health Law expert) reviewed relevant literature and have evaluated the policies of belligerent parties in past and current conflicts. These increasingly appear to target civilian infrastructure including medical facilities and may increase the risk to hospital ships. This demonstrable current hybrid warfare appears to include purposeful attacks on health care facilities and as such hospital ships should have additional defensive measures. RESULTS: Hybrid warfare and its focus on civilian infrastructure and health care targets are highly visible in the acts of both state and non-state actors and may encourage others to purposefully target health care facilities and personnel. Evidence of this is seen in the current Russian invasion of Ukraine, where since the invasion a year ago 1,218 Ukrainian health facilities have been damaged, including 540 damaged hospitals, 173 of which were totally destroyed and turned into "piles of stones." CONCLUSIONS: In today's conflicted global environment, the clear identification of hospital ships leaving them relatively undefended and denying encrypted communication is the folly of a bygone era. Hospital ships may be targeted because they are brightly lit soft targets that can deliver a large payoff by their destruction. It is time to adapt to the global reality and move on from the tradition of painting hospital ships white, adorning them with red crosses, keeping them unarmed, maintaining open communications, and illuminating them at night. The increasing threats from hybrid warfare and unprincipled adversaries to medical platforms and providers of health care demonstrate that hospital ships must be capable of self-defense. The U.S. Navy is designing new platforms for medical missions and the debate, no matter how uncomfortable, must now occur among major decision-makers to make them more tactical and defensible.

Desastres , Personal Militar , Sistemas de Socorro , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Navíos , Hospitales Militares
Mil Med ; 189(3-4): e532-e540, 2024 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37261884


INTRODUCTION: War has influenced the evolution of global neurosurgery throughout the past century. Armed conflict and mass casualty disasters (MCDs), including Humanitarian Assistance Disaster Relief missions, require military surgeons to innovate to meet extreme demands. However, the military medical apparatus is seldom integrated into the civilian health care sector. Neurosurgeons serving in the military have provided a pragmatic template for global neurosurgeons to emulate in humanitarian disaster responses. In this paper, we explore how wars and MCD have influenced innovations of growing interest in the resource-limited settings of global neurosurgery. METHODS: We performed a narrative review of the literature examining the influence of wars and MCD on contemporary global neurosurgery practices. RESULTS: Wartime innovations that influenced global neurosurgery include the development of triage systems and modernization with airlifts, the implementation of ambulance corps, early operation on cranial injuries in hospital camps near the battlefield, the use of combat body armor, and the rise of damage control neurosurgery. In addition to promoting task-shifting and task-sharing, workforce shortages during wars and disasters contributed to the establishment of the physician assistant/physician associate profession in the USA. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face similar challenges in developing trauma systems and obtaining advanced technology, including neurosurgical equipment like battery-powered computed tomography scanners. These challenges-ubiquitous in low-resource settings-have underpinned innovations in triage and wound care, rapid evacuation to tertiary care centers, and minimizing infection risk. CONCLUSION: War and MCDs have catalyzed significant advancements in neurosurgical care both in the pre-hospital and inpatient settings. Most of these innovations originated in the military and subsequently spread to the civilian sector as military neurosurgeons and reservist civilian neurosurgeons returned from the battlefront or other low-resource locations. Military neurosurgeons have utilized their experience in low-resource settings to make volunteer global neurosurgery efforts in LMICs successful. LMICs have, by necessity, responded to challenges arising from resource shortages by developing innovative, context-specific care paradigms and technologies.

Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa , Neurocirugia , Sistemas de Socorro , Humanos , Neurocirugia/métodos , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/métodos , Conflictos Armados
Cairo; World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean; 2023-12. (WHO-EM/EHA/059/E).
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-375639
Cult. cuid ; 27(67): 136-156, Dic 11, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-228579


The Covid-19 pandemic presents unprecedented challenges around the world and Timor-Leste is no exception. Despite volatile economic performance, consistent low levels of health spending, and bureaucratic fragility associated with young democratic institutions, Timor-Leste is one of the few nations that has mitigated the virus effectively. We consider the first-hand accounts of healthcare and NGO workers, community leaders, and Ministry of Health officials responding to the Covid-19 pandemic in assessing the effectiveness of ‘South-South’ development partnerships and co-operation. Our analysis of interview data collected during April and May show that TimorLeste’s success in responding to the pandemic is a product of the continuing efforts of genuine partnerships and international aid. We argue that despite criticism of the development effectiveness agenda following the 2011 Busan Forum, on-the-ground accounts in Timor-Leste display the value of unconditional partnerships, mutually defined goals, and development cooperation in combatting the pandemic. This research contributes to the literature on development effectiveness and is the first of its kind characterising the Timorese response to the Covid-19 pandemic.(AU)

La pandemia de Covid-19 presenta desafíos sin precedentes en todo el mundo y Timor-Leste no es una excepción. A pesar del desempeño económico volátil, los bajos niveles constantes de gasto en salud y la fragilidad burocrática asociada con las instituciones democráticas jóvenes, Timor-Leste es una de las pocas naciones que ha mitigado el virus de manera efectiva. Consideramos los relatos de primera mano de trabajadores de la salud y de ONG, líderes comunitarios y funcionarios del Ministerio de Salud que respondieron a la pandemia de Covid-19 al evaluar la efectividad de las asociaciones y la cooperación para el desarrollo 'Sur-Sur'. Nuestro análisis de datos realizado durante abril y mayo, muestra que el éxito de Timor-Leste en respuesta a la pandemia es producto de los esfuerzos de asociaciones verdaderas y de la ayuda internacional. Argumentamos que, a pesar de las críticas a la agenda de eficacia del desarrollo después del Foro de Busan de 2011, los análisis sobre el terreno en Timor-Leste, muestran el valor de las alianzas incondicionales, los objetivos definidos mutuamente y la cooperación en la lucha contra la pandemia. Esta investigación contribuye a la literatura sobre la efectividad del desarrollo y es la primera de su tipo que caracteriza la respuesta timorense a la pandemia de Covid-19.(AU)

A pandemia de Covid-19 apresenta desafios sem precedentes em todo o mundo e Timor-Leste não é exceção. Apesar do desempenho económico volátil, dos baixos níveis consistentes de gastos com saúde e da fragilidade burocrática associada a instituições democráticas jovens, Timor-Leste é uma das poucas nações que mitigaram o vírus de forma eficaz. Consideramos os relatos em primeira mão de trabalhadores de saúde e ONGs, líderes comunitários e funcionários do Ministério da Saúde que responderam à pandemia de Covid-19 ao avaliar a eficácia das parcerias e cooperação de desenvolvimento "Sul-Sul". A nossa análise dos dados das entrevistas recolhidos durante abril e maio mostra que o sucesso de Timor-Leste na resposta à pandemia é produto dos esforços contínuos de parcerias genuínas e ajuda internacional. Argumentamos que, apesar das críticas à agenda de eficácia do desenvolvimento após o Fórum de Busan de 2011, as contas no terreno em Timor-Leste mostram o valor de parcerias incondicionais, objetivos mutuamente definidos e cooperação para o desenvolvimento no combate à pandemia. Esta investigação contribui para a literatura sobre a eficácia do desenvolvimento e é a primeira do género a caracterizar a resposta timorense à pandemia de Covid-19.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , /complicaciones , /economía , Sistemas de Socorro , Asistentes de Enfermería , Asistencia Internacional en Desastres , Asia , Salud Global
Lancet ; 402(10414): 1738-1739, 2023 11 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37952538
Forensic Sci Int ; 353: 111861, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37918320


Forensic and humanitarian interventions deployed to address migrant death in US southwestern border states have become increasingly prevalent over the past four decades. In this paper we address two persistent issues specific to the Texas-Mexico border context. First, we present the first comprehensive geospatial analysis of migrant deaths in South Texas, establishing a twelve-year (2009-2020) mortality profile. And second, we introduce the concept of necrosilences and its implications to both forensic and humanitarian work and usage of geospatial tools. We applied ANOVA, spatial statistics, and cluster analysis to test the relationships of migrant mortality point locations throughout South Texas, an area comprised of ten counties with some of the highest reported migrant deaths in the state. Our findings demonstrated that unidentified human remains that corresponded to migrants were found most consistently in jurisdictions inland from the Mexican border. Further, the map visualizations highlighted vast areas seemingly devoid of migrant deaths. These "empty" areas are emblematic of necrosilences. That is, instances where there is a lack of access or accounting rather than no death incidences. We conclude by discussing the importance of visualizing necrosilences.

Sistemas de Socorro , Migrantes , Humanos , Texas/epidemiología , Medicina Legal , México