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1.
Wiad Lek ; 74(3 cz 1): 423-428, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813444

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the research was to study the cellular composition of the gums in children of primary school age with normal body weight and overweight for further use of this data in the early diagnostics of periodontal diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We examined 81 children aged from 6 to 12 years. Cytological examination of gingival cytograms was performed in all examined children. RESULTS: Results: Based on the analysis of the quantitative content of epithelial cells in children with normal body weight, their ratio was established, which is determined by the percentage of 0: 6: 94 (parabasal, intermediate, superficial). The obtained data completely coincide with the percentage of the differentiated ratio of epitheliocytes of multilayered squamous epithelium in children with normal body weight with inflammation and without it in the periodontal tissues. Our cytological examinations of gingival scrape smears in overweight children in contrast to the results of the study of epithelial scrape smears in children with normal body weight have some differences. Thus, in the process of calculation, the degree of differentiation of various epitheliocytes determines their percentage as follows - 3: 7: 90 (parabasal, intermediate, superficial) for children with gingivitis, and 2: 5: 93 (parabasal, intermediate, superficial) for children without inflammation in the periodontal tissues. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The obtained results allowed us to conclude that in overweight children, in contrast to children with normal body weight, the number of parabasal cells decreases, and the number of superficial and intermediate cells increases.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal Ideal , Sobrepeso , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Niño , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas
2.
Wiad Lek ; 74(2): 313-316, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813493

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To evaluate anthropometric, hemodynamic parameters, as well as changes in blood and leptin lipid spectrum in children and adults with overweight and obesity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We examined 68 overweight children and 90 patients with obesity in combination with stage 2, grade 2 AH who were electively inpatient. The control group consisted of practically healthy individuals - 20 adults and 55 children. RESULTS: Results: Obesity in childhood isaccompanied by the development of dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperleptinemia and hypertension, and in adulthood may be an additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease, in particular AH. According to the study, total leptin level in overweight children was significantly higher compared to the control group (p<0.01). The concentration of leptin in patients with hypertension in combination with obesity was 3 times higher compared to the control group (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Thus, obesity or overweight, accompanied by hyperleptinemia and an increase in the proatherogenic fractions of the blood lipid spectrum, is an important problem that needs to be addressed in childhood to prevent cardiovascular disease in adulthood.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Síndrome Metabólico , Obesidad Pediátrica , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Leptina , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/complicaciones , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1487, 2021 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674561

RESUMEN

Hyocholic acid (HCA) is a major bile acid (BA) species in the BA pool of pigs, a species known for its exceptional resistance to spontaneous development of diabetic phenotypes. HCA and its derivatives are also present in human blood and urine. We investigate whether human HCA profiles can predict the development of metabolic disorders. We find in the first cohort (n = 1107) that both obesity and diabetes are associated with lower serum concentrations of HCA species. A separate cohort study (n = 91) validates this finding and further reveals that individuals with pre-diabetes are associated with lower levels of HCA species in feces. Serum HCA levels increase in the patients after gastric bypass surgery (n = 38) and can predict the remission of diabetes two years after surgery. The results are replicated in two independent, prospective cohorts (n = 132 and n = 207), where serum HCA species are found to be strong predictors for metabolic disorders in 5 and 10 years, respectively. These findings underscore the association of HCA species with diabetes, and demonstrate the feasibility of using HCA profiles to assess the future risk of developing metabolic abnormalities.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/sangre , Ácidos Cólicos/sangre , Ácidos Cólicos/orina , Enfermedades Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Heces/química , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Estado Prediabético/diagnóstico , Estudios Prospectivos
4.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-9, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764850

RESUMEN

Gut microbiome manipulation to alter the gut-lung axis may potentially protect humans against respiratory infections, and clinical trials of probiotics show promise in this regard in healthy adults and children. However, comparable studies are lacking in overweight/obese people, who have increased risks in particular of viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). This Addendum further analyses our recent placebo-controlled trial of probiotics in overweight/obese people (focused initially on weight loss) to investigate the impact of probiotics upon the occurrence of URTI symptoms. As well as undergoing loss of weight and improvement in certain metabolic parameters, study participants taking probiotics experienced a 27% reduction in URTI symptoms versus control, with those ≥45 years or BMI ≥30 kg/m2 experiencing greater reductions. This symptom reduction is apparent within 2 weeks of probiotic use. Gut microbiome diversity remained stable throughout the study in probiotic-treated participants. Our data provide support for further trials to assess the potential role of probiotics in preventing viral URTI (and possibly also COVID-19), particularly in overweight/obese people.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Probióticos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Método Doble Ciego , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Autoinforme
5.
Magy Onkol ; 65(1): 46-52, 2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730116

RESUMEN

Considerable evidence supports the rationale for postoperative radiotherapy after breast cancer surgery. Moreover, local tumour control affects survival too. High-dose irradiation is inherently associated with an increased risk of secondary malignancies in the long run. This radiobiological phenomenon raises the question whether it is worth taking this hazard, and the exact level of the risk of a secondary malignancy should be clarified. Answering these questions is important, regarding the large population size of breast cancer survivors, as well as patients' improving survival rates and time. The postoperative radiation load to the ipsilateral lung tissue can be reduced, but it is still significant. The current literature review aims to evaluate the risk of secondary lung cancer associated with breast cancer- specific radiotherapy. Published evidence suggests that the benefits of postoperative radiotherapy following breast cancer surgery are much higher than the minimal risk of secondary lung cancer associated with this management strategy.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Primarias Secundarias , Neoplasias de la Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Mastectomía , Sobrepeso
6.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 01, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681955

RESUMEN

This study describes body weight changes among participants of the NutriNet Brasil cohort (n = 14,259) during the covid-19 pandemic. We analyzed data reported before the pandemic onset (01/26/2020 to 03/18/2020) and about six months after (09/14/2020 to 10/19/2020). Our results show that 19.7% of the participants gained ≥ 2 kg. Weight gain was directly associated with male gender, lower education, and previous presence of overweight, and inversely associated with age. In turn, 15.2% lost ≥ 2kg, being directly associated with male gender and previous presence of overweight and inversely associated with age.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal , Pandemias , Factores de Edad , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso , Aumento de Peso
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24812, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725948

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a worldwide problem and is associated with multiple negative health effects. Obesity also has a direct relationship with risk of diabetes. Several pharmacotherapy weight-reducing interventions have been employed to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in overweight or obese adults and older adults. However, data with respect to comparative effectiveness are limited. To address this gap, in this study, evidence on benefits of anti-obesity agents for preventing diabetes will be systematically reviewed using a network meta-analysis. METHODS: We will perform an online systematic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating 5 FDA-approved anti-obesity agents for preventing T2D in obese or overweight adults and older adults through electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from inception until December 31, 2020. Two independent reviewers will screen titles, abstracts, and full-texts of all potentially eligible trials. Two authors working independently will abstract data on trial-, participant- and intervention-related characteristics. The primary outcome will be incidence of T2D. Secondary outcomes will be achievement of normoglycaemia in patients with prediabetes, percentage of individuals achieving at least 5% or 10% weight loss of their baseline weight. We will conduct pairwise meta-analyses for all outcomes included in this study. To determine comparative efficacy of multiple interventions, network meta-analysis with a frequentist random-effects model will be performed. Moreover, subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses will be performed to assess the robustness of our findings. To evaluate publication bias, the comparison-adjusted funnel plot will be utilized. Stata version 14.0 and RevMan version 5.3.3 will be used to perform all statistical analyses. RESULTS: This study will evaluate the effectiveness of weight-loss medications on T2D prevention in overweight or obese people. CONCLUSIONS: This study will generate meaningful findings for overweight or obese adults and older adults, clinicians, and policy-makers concerning the optimal anti-obesity pharmacotherapy to decrease risk of T2D. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202110104.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Antiobesidad/uso terapéutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevención & control , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/tratamiento farmacológico , Pérdida de Peso/efectos de los fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Metaanálisis en Red , Obesidad/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Estado Prediabético/tratamiento farmacológico , Estado Prediabético/etiología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
8.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 60(4): 338-344, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765703

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of pre-hypertension and hypertension in young and middle-aged population in Nanjing. Methods: Subjects of the study were those who underwent physical examination in the physical examination center of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from 2009 to 2016. The prevalence and risk factors of pre-hypertension and hypertension in young (aged 18-44 years old) and middle-aged people (aged 45-59 years old) were analyzed. Results: A total of 142 857 participants aged 18-59 years old were analyzed. Among them, 64 220 cases in the pre-hypertension group and 13 912 cases in the hypertension group. The prevalence of hypertension was 9.74% (12.51% in males and 5.82% in females). The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 44.95% (53.31% in males and 33.15% in females). In the middle-aged group, the prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension were 51.68% and 15.13%, respectively, which was higher than that in the young group (37.95% and 4.13%, respectively). The prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension in 2013-2016 was 45.37% and 10.65%, respectively, which was higher than that in 2009-2012(44.52% and 8.78%). In addition, the prevalence of abnormal blood glucose metabolism, abnormal blood lipid metabolism and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in the pre-hypertension group was higher than that in the normal blood pressure group, but lower than that in the hypertension group (P<0.001). A logistic regression analysis indicated that age, overweight or obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were risk factors of pre-hypertension in male. Age, overweight or obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and hyper-low density cholesterolemia were associated with hypertension in male and with pre-hypertension and hypertension in female. Conclusions: Middle age, overweight/obesity, elevated fasting plasma glucose, elevated triglyceride and elevated total cholesterol were risk factors of pre-hypertension and hypertension in both men and women. Intervention on the related risk factors should be conducted as early as possible.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Prehipertensión , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sobrepeso , Prehipertensión/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
9.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(1): 196-200, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677940

RESUMEN

Although obesity is a risk factor for infection, whether it has the same effect on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) need confirming. We conducted a retrospective propensity score matched case-control study to examine the association between obesity and COVID-19. This study included data from the Nationwide COVID-19 Registry and the Biennial Health Checkup database, until May 30, 2020. We identified 2,231 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and 10-fold-matched negative test controls. Overweight (body mass index [BMI] 23 to 24.9 kg/m2; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1.03 to 1.30) and class 1 obesity (BMI 25 to 29.9 kg/m2; aOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.42) had significantly increased COVID-19 risk, while classes 2 and 3 obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) showed similar but non-significant trend. Females and those <50 years had more robust association pattern. Overweight and obesity are possible risk factors of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Obesidad/virología , Sobrepeso/virología , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , /estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Oportunidad Relativa , Sobrepeso/fisiopatología , Puntaje de Propensión , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e25017, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761657

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Overweight and obesity may be associated with poor clinical outcome, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, whether body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) are related to CKD is yet to be elucidated.A total of 7593 adults were divided into 4 groups based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) quartile. The eGFR was calculated with the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration. Multiple linear regression analyzed the association between eGFR and WHR, BMI, and WC. Logistic regression analysis determined whether the CKD patients were associated with WHR, BMI, and WC after adjusting for other variables.The mean age of the cohort was 72.34 ±â€Š7.30 years. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that WC (P = .006) was associated with eGFR, although adjusted by lifestyle factor and biochemical indicators. The individuals in the underweight, overweight, and obese groups had significantly lower eGFR value than those in the healthy weight group in moderate CKD. The eGFR in the overweight group with WHR ≤0.894 was higher than in the healthy weight group with WHR >0.894 group (P = .036). Overweight with WHR ≤0.894 group had a longer WC with a pronounced increase in the hip circumference. Logistic regression analysis showed that the WC (OR = 1.362, P < .001) and BMI (OR = 1.227, P = .031) were independent risk factors for moderate CKD patients. Each standard deviation (SD) of high BMI and WC level was associated with 23.0% and 17.3% higher odds of moderate CKD (OR = 1.230, P = .017 and OR = 1.173, P = .021, respectively).WC is an independent risk factor for eGFR. Combined BMI and WC are important factors that would predict moderate CKD patients.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/diagnóstico , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Relación Cintura-Cadera , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Sobrepeso/fisiopatología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/etiología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/fisiopatología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Delgadez/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24800, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725834

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: There is increasing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Dyslipidemia is a well-known CVD risk factor which has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment in high-income countries. Studies in SSA that have examined the relationship between HIV and dyslipidemia have reported mixed results. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in HIV positive and negative adults (>=30 years old) and evaluate for association in Western Kenya with a higher prevalence expected among HIV positive individuals.HIV positive adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV negative individuals seeking HIV testing and counseling services were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Demographic and behavioral data and fasting blood samples were collected. Dyslipidemia was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Associations between baseline demographic and clinical variables and dyslipidemia were analyzed using logistic regression.A total of 598 participants, 300 HIV positive and 298 HIV negative adults were enrolled. Dyslipidemia data was available for 564 (94%) participants. In total, 267 (47%) had dyslipidemia. This was not significantly different between HIV positive and HIV negative individuals (46% vs 49%, P = .4). In a multivariate analysis including both HIV positive and negative individuals, adults 50 to 59 years of age had a 2-fold increased risk of dyslipidemia (Odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval (1.2-3.5) when compared to 30 to 39-years-old participants. Abdominal obesity (OR 2.5), being overweight (OR 1.9), and low fruit and vegetable intake (OR 2.2) were significantly associated with dyslipidemia. Among HIV positive participants, time since HIV diagnosis, ART duration, use of (PI) protease inhibitor-based ART, viral load suppression, current cluster of differentiation (CD4) count and nadir CD4 did not have significant associations with dyslipidemia.The prevalence of dyslipidemia is high in Western Kenya, with nearly half of all participants with lipid abnormalities. Dyslipidemia was not significantly associated with HIV status, or with HIV-specific factors. Older age, being overweight, abdominal obesity, and low fruit and vegetable intake were associated with dyslipidemia and may be targets for public health interventions to lower the prevalence of dyslipidemia and CVD risk in sub-Saharan Africa.


Asunto(s)
Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Seropositividad para VIH/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Femenino , Frutas , Seropositividad para VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Seropositividad para VIH/inmunología , Seropositividad para VIH/virología , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Verduras , Carga Viral
12.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 42: 132-137, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745566

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ongoing outbreak of the novel coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID- 19) constitutes a major global pandemic health care system challenge. Shortly following the disease outbreak, like SARS-CoV virus, all affected countries are implementing various preventive and control measures to mitigate the spread of the disease. Optimizing public health system during COVID-19 pandemic requires not only advanced medical and biological sciences knowledge, but also all human sciences related to social, as well as nutritional behavior, and lifestyle practices. AIM: To investigate the effect of COVID-19- quarantine on healthy nutritional behavior and lifestyle practices among Jordanian population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among Jordanian population was conducted using an online questionnaire between March and April 2020. Participants were kindly requested to answer a standardized and validated structured questionnaire. Demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, and occupation), anthropometric data (reported weight and height); nutritional behavior information (number of meals per day, snakes, water intake), and physical activity behavior were requested. RESULTS: A total of 4473 respondents were included in the study; obese (n = 1135), normal body weight (n = 1561), and underweight (n = 116). During COVID-19 quarantine, a significant increase in body weight (12.9% underweight, 28.5% normal body weight, 36.4% overweight' and 41.1% of obese (p < 0.001) was reported. Moreover, the number of snacks between meals (p < 0.001), number of main meals (p < 0.001), and the smoking rate was also increased significantly; however, there was no significant difference regarding physical activity among various weight status groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have provided evidence, for the first time, that there were significant negative changes in healthy nutritional behavior among Jordanians during COVID-19 quarantine who encountered significantly increased body weight, appetite, and smoking. Hence, future larger cross-sectional studies are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Jordania , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Comidas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Pandemias , Cuarentena , Bocadillos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Aumento de Peso , Adulto Joven
13.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 42: 158-165, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745572

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the implementation of stay-at-home and lockdown measures. It is currently unknown if the experience of lockdown leads to long term changes in individual's eating behaviors. The objectives of this study were: i) to derive longitudinal trajectories of change in eating during UK lockdown, and ii) to identify risk factors associated with eating behavior trajectories. METHOD: Data from 22,374 UK adults from the UCL COVID-19 Social study (a panel study collecting weekly data during the pandemic) were analyzed from 28th March to 29th May 2020. Latent Class Growth Analysis was used to derive trajectories of change in eating. These were then associated with prior socio-economic, health-related and psychological factors using multinomial regression models. RESULTS: Analyses suggested five trajectories, with the majority (64%) showing no change in eating. In contrast, one trajectory was marked by persistently eating more, whereas another by persistently eating less. Overall, participants with greater depressive symptoms were more likely to report any change in eating. Loneliness was linked to persistently eating more (OR = 1.07), whereas being single or divorced, as well as stressful life events, were associated with consistently eating less (OR = 1.69). Overall, higher education status was linked to lower odds of changing eating behavior (OR = 0.54-0.77). Secondary exploratory analyses suggest that participants self-reported to have overweight were more commonly categorised into the group consistently eating more, whereas participants with underweigh persistently ate less. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found that one third of the sample report changes in quantities eaten throughout the first UK lockdown period. Findings highlight the importance of adjusting public health programs to support eating behaviors in future lockdowns both in this and potential future pandemics. This is particularly important as part of on-going preventive efforts to prevent nutrition-related chronic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Ingestión de Alimentos , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sobrepeso/prevención & control , Pandemias , Cuarentena , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
14.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 30(3): 239-243, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754505

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increased levels of plasma lipoproteins are among some of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dietary changes and increased physical activity are the most powerful non-pharmacological interventions for achieving optimal plasma lipid levels. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of an intensive short-term lifestyle intervention on plasma lipid trajectories in overweight non-diabetic females. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 202 healthy overweight (body mass index (BMI) >27.5 kg/m2) females underwent an intensive short-term (ten-week) intervention (at least 4 units of one-hour exercise activity weekly at optimal energy intake) aimed at lowering body weight. Plasma lipid (total cholesterol (TC), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG)) levels were examined at baseline and every 2 weeks over the course of the ten-week intervention. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in BMI (Δ -4.7%, p < 0.001) and body weight (Δ -4.9%, p < 0.001) after the intervention. Positive changes (decreases) in TC (Δ -8%, p < 0.001), TG (Δ -9%, p < 0.001) and LDL-C (Δ -11%, p < 0.001) were observed immediately after 2 weeks, but levels did not decrease further thereafter. In contrast, HDL-C did not increase as expected: after 2 weeks of intervention, we observed a significant decrease of about 6% (p < 0.001) followed by a slow return to baseline values. But even after 10 weeks of intervention, HDL-C values had not reached the values detected at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: In overweight females, HDL-C decreased after short-term intensive lifestyle intervention. To confirm the protective effect of increased physical activity, plasma lipids need to be examined over a longer time period.


Asunto(s)
Colesterol , Lípidos , HDL-Colesterol , Femenino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/terapia , Plasma , Triglicéridos
15.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 66, 2021 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726805

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early postanal growth of preterm infants has many effects on early and late health. However, evidence on growth pattern in Chinese preterm infant population during early life is insufficient. This study aims to describe the growth trajectory, catch-up growth, and risk of overweight of preterm infants during the first 2 years of life in a Chinese community population. METHODS: All preterm infants (n = 10,624) received routine childcare in one primary maternal and child healthcare network in 8 years were included. Body weight and length/height at corrected age (CA) 40 weeks, CA 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 24 months were extracted and converted to z-scores based on the World Health Organization (WHO) standards. According to the intrauterine growth status, infants were divided into small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA), and large for gestational age (LGA) infants. Changes of z-score were used to describe the growth velocity. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was used to analyze growth trajectory trends over time. RESULTS: Body weight and length/height were overall above the WHO standards during the first 2 years of life. Z-score increased significantly by 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06-0.10) in weight and 0.07 (95% CI: 0.04-0.09) in length/height from CA 40 weeks to 3 months and then levelled off until CA 24 months after adjustment. Almost 90% of AGA and LGA infants achieved growth targets (≥25th percentile of WHO standards), and over 85% of SGA infants achieved catch-up growth (≥10th percentile of WHO standards) before CA 24 months. However, the risk of overweight appeared during this period, with the proportion of infants with the risk of overweight being at the peak at CA 3 months (25.6% of all preterm infants and 39.4% of LGA infants). Growth trajectories of SGA showed increasing trends, but those of LGA showed decreasing trends during the first 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Body weight and length/height of preterm infants are above the WHO standards in the Chinese community population during the first 2 years of life. Catch-up growth is accompanied by risk of overweight as early as CA 3 months. (349 words).


Asunto(s)
Recien Nacido Prematuro/crecimiento & desarrollo , Sobrepeso , Antropometría , China , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Recién Nacido Pequeño para la Edad Gestacional/crecimiento & desarrollo , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo
16.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(1): 36-42, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-198838

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: human growth is the result of an interaction between genetic, hormonal, nutritional, and environmental factors. It is not yet fully understood what is predominant and decisive in determining an individual's weight and height. OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiometabolic profile of exclusively breastfed children born small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS: this is a prospective cohort study of children born at term who were classified as SGA, and as appropiate for gestational age (AGA), who were followed up to pre-school age. Anthropometric measures and body composition parameters were obtained. Breastfeeding duration was calculated in days, and achievement of catch up of weight was considered an increase in Z-score ≥ 0.67. The cardiometabolic profile was evaluated in the first month of life and repeated at pre-school age. At pre-school age, fasting blood glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood pressure were measured. RESULTS: twenty SGA and 12 AGA children were studied. The mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) was 180 days in both groups. Of SGA children, 85 % had recovery anthropometric parameters for age within the first six months, with a speed of weight gain significantly higher than the that of AGAs (p < 0.001). SGAs continued to be thinner and smaller than AGAs at pre-school age. There was no diagnosis of overweight or obesity in the studied sample, and no differences were foun between groups in laboratory tests. CONCLUSION: these findings suggest that EBF may confer protection until pre-school age in children born SGA, who are considered at higher risk for chronic non-communicable diseases


INTRODUCCIÓN: el crecimiento humano es el resultado de la interacción de factores genéticos, hormonales, nutricionales y ambientales. Todavía no se comprende completamente lo que es predominante y decisivo para determinar el peso y la altura del individuo. OBJETIVO: el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el perfil cardiometabólico de niños alimentados con lactancia materna exclusivamente y que nacieron pequeños para la edad gestacional (PEG). MÉTODOS: este es un estudio de cohortes prospectivo con niños nacidos a término, unos clasificados como PEG y otros como apropiados para la edad gestacional (AEG). Se hizo un seguimiento de estos niños hasta la edad preescolar. Se realizaron medidas antropométricas y de la composición corporal. La duración de la lactancia materna se calculó en días y el éxito en la recuperación del peso se consideró como un aumento de la puntuación Z ≥ 0,67. El perfil cardiometabólico se evaluó en el primer mes de vida y se repitió en la edad preescolar. En la edad preescolar se midieron la glucosa en sangre en ayunas, la insulina, el HOMA-IR y la presión arterial. RESULTADOS: el grupo del estudio estaba formado por veinte niños PEG y doce niños AEG. La duración media de la lactancia materna exclusiva (LME) fue de 180 días en ambos grupos. De los niños PEG, el 85 % tenían parámetros antropométricos de recuperación para la edad en los primeros seis meses, siendo la velocidad del aumento de peso significativamente mayor que en los AEG (p < 0,001). Aun así, los niños PEG continuaron siendo más delgados y pequeños que los AEG en la edad preescolar. No hubo diagnóstico de sobrepeso u obesidad en la muestra estudiada, y no hay diferencia entre los grupos relativos a las pruebas de laboratorio. CONCLUSIÓN: estos hallazgos sugieren que la LME puede conferir protección hasta la edad preescolar en los niños nacidos PEG, que se consideran en mayor riesgo de contraer enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Edad Gestacional , Leche Humana/metabolismo , Recién Nacido Pequeño para la Edad Gestacional/metabolismo , Recién Nacido Pequeño para la Edad Gestacional/fisiología , Síndrome Metabólico/prevención & control , Estudios de Cohortes , Recién Nacido Pequeño para la Edad Gestacional/crecimiento & desarrollo , Sobrepeso/prevención & control , Estudios Prospectivos , Presión Sanguínea , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control
17.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(1): 73-84, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-198843

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: la actividad física moderada o vigorosa, la limitación de los comportamientos sedentarios y el descanso adecuado son factores del estilo de vida que ayudan a prevenir el sobrepeso y la obesidad. Sin embargo, existen pocos trabajos que relacionen el conjunto de estos factores con la situación ponderal, la composición corporal y la calidad de la dieta en escolares. OBJETIVO: conocer las diferencias en cuanto a situación antropométrica y calidad de la dieta de un grupo de escolares españoles en función del nivel de adherencia a las guías de movimiento de 24 horas. MÉTODOS: se han estudiado 367 escolares de 7-11 años de edad. Se recogieron datos antropométricos, dietéticos y de comportamientos de movimiento. Posteriormente se dividieron en tres grupos sobre la base de su adherencia a las guías: baja adherencia (BA), adherencia media (AM) y alta adherencia (AA). RESULTADOS: solo un 15 % de los escolares cumplía con las guías. El porcentaje de sobrepeso era mayor en el grupo BA que en el AM y el AA. El grupo BA también presentaba una menor ingesta de fibra; una menor contribución a las recomendaciones de vitaminas B6, B12 y C, selenio y magnesio; y una mayor ingesta de ácidos grasos saturados. Los escolares que incumplían la recomendación referente al tiempo de pantalla tenían mayor riesgo de desarrollar sobrepeso u obesidad (OR = 1,92 (1,10-3,36); p = 0,022). CONCLUSIÓN: los escolares que se adhieren a 2 o más recomendaciones de las guías de movimiento presentan menos sobrepeso y una mejor calidad nutricional de la dieta. El incumplimiento de la recomendación de tiempo de pantalla supone un mayor riesgo de sobrepeso u obesidad


INTRODUCTION: moderate to vigorous physical activity, limiting sedentary behaviors, and getting adequate rest are lifestyle factors that help prevent overweight and obesity. However, there are few studies that relate all of these factors to weight status, body composition, and diet quality in school children. OBJECTIVE: to assess the differences in anthropometric status and diet quality in a group of Spanish schoolchildren, according to their level of adherence to the 24-hour movement guidelines. METHODS: a total of 367 schoolchildren aged 7-11 years were studied. Anthropometric, dietary, and movement patterns were collected. Subsequently, they were divided into three groups based on their adherence to the extant guidelines: low adherence (BA), medium adherence (AM) and high adherence (AA). RESULTS: only 15 % of the schoolchildren met the guidelines. The percentage of overweight was higher in the BA group than in the AM and AA groups. The BA group also had a lower fibre intake; a lower contribution to the recommendations for vitamins B6, B12 and C, selenium and magnesium; and a higher intake of saturated fatty acids. The schoolchildren who did not meet screen time recommendations had a higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity (OR = 1.92 (1.10-3.36); p = 0.022). CONCLUSION: schoolchildren who adhere to 2 or more movement guideline recommendations had less overweight and a diet of better nutritional quality. Non-compliance with the screen time recommendation leads to a higher risk of overweight or obesity


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Peso Corporal , Composición Corporal , Alimentación Escolar , Dieta , Sobrepeso/prevención & control , Obesidad/prevención & control , Conducta Sedentaria , Estilo de Vida , Antropometría , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Actividad Motora , Técnicas de Ejercicio con Movimientos/métodos
18.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(1): 177-185, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-198855

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: cada vez son más numerosos los estudios que relacionan el consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados con la prevalencia de la obesidad. Esta clase de alimentos se caracteriza porque aportan gran cantidad de azúcares libres y grasas saturadas, lo que contribuye a aumentar la ingesta energética. En las últimas décadas, el consumo de estos alimentos ha aumentado hasta el punto de convertirse en una importante fuente de energía diaria en algunas poblaciones. De esta manera se desplazan los alimentos ricos en fibra, hidratos de carbono complejos y grasas beneficiosas para la salud que pertenecen a los patrones de alimentación saludables. El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática fue recopilar la información existente en la literatura sobre la relación entre alimentos ultraprocesados y obesidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se realizó una revisión sistemática en la base de datos PubMed. Se siguieron los criterios PRISMA para identificar los artículos publicados desde el año 2000 hasta abril de 2020 que cumplían los siguientes criterios: eran artículos originales (en inglés o español), realizados en sujetos humanos y excluyendo a mujeres embarazadas. La búsqueda se realizó utilizando los términos "Ultra-processed food and obesity" y "ultra-processed food and overweight", de manera que se incluyeron un total de 12 artículos: 7 estudios transversales, 3 estudios prospectivos de cohortes y 2 estudios ecológicos. RESULTADOS: se encontró una asociación positiva entre el consumo de ultraprocesados y la obesidad en 9 de los 12 artículos incluidos en la revisión. Sin embargo, existen limitaciones con respecto a la heterogeneidad de las metodologías de los diversos estudios o la utilización de distintos sistemas de clasificación de alimentos en función del grado de procesamiento. CONCLUSIÓN: es necesario realizar más estudios que permitan establecer con mayor evidencia la relación entre el consumo de ultraprocesados y la prevalencia e incidencia de la obesidad


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: a number of studies suggest a relationship between the intake of ultra-processed foods and the prevalence of obesity. Specifically, this type of food provides large amounts of free sugars and saturated fats, which contribute to a high energy intake. In the last few decades, consumption of these products has increased to the point of representing an important amount of calories in the daily diet of several populations. As a result, foods that are usually consumed in healthy eating patterns containing fiber, complex carbohydrates and fats are displaced. This systematic review aimed to compile the information in the literature, and to examine the scientific evidence about the relationship between ultra-processed food and obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: a systematic review was performed of the PubMed database. PRISMA criteria were applied to identify those papers published from 2000 to April 2020 that met the following criteria: original articles (in English or Spanish), dealing with research in human subjects, with exclusion of pregnant women. The search was performed using the terms "ultra-processed food and obesity" and "ultra-processed food and overweight", which resulted in a total of 12 references: 7 cross-sectional studies, 3 prospective cohort studies, and 2 ecological studies. RESULTS: a positive association was found between ultra-processed food consumption and obesity in 9 of the 12 papers included in the review. However, limitations exist regarding the heterogeneity of methodologies or use of different food classification systems according to processing degree. CONCLUSION: further studies are needed to establish the relationship between ultra-processed food consumption and the prevalence and incidence of obesity


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Comida Rápida/efectos adversos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Ingestión de Energía , Alimentos/clasificación , Estado Nutricional , Estilo de Vida , Conducta Sedentaria
19.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021301, 09 fev. 2021. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147213

RESUMEN

The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among young Brazilian aged 5 to 19 years through systematic review and metaanalysis of data available in the literature. An electronic search was conducted for articles in the MedLine/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Scielo e Lilacs published from 2000 to 2018 were selected using predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Measures of heterogeneity and variability were calculated, and random effect model were used to estimate pooled prevalence rates. Forest-plots graphs were generated by sex and age. Meta-regression models were fitted to identify possible sources of heterogeneity in the prevalence estimates. Of the 1,002 articles initially identified 26 met the inclusion criteria. In children (5-9 years) the pooled prevalence rates of verweight were 16.2% (95%CI 13.2-19.3; Q=411.7, p<0.001; I2=97.8%) in girls and 14.4% (95%CI 11.5-17.3; Q=403.9, p<0.001; I2=97.7%) in boys. Obesity, 9.2% (95%CI 5.9-12.3; Q=1111.7, p<0.001; I2=99.2%) and 9.0% (95%CI 5.5-12.5; Q=1413.1, p<0.001; I2=99.4%), respectively. Regarding adolescents (10-19 years), in girls 16.4% (95%CI 15.1-17.7; Q=245.6, p<0.001; I2=92.3%) for overweight and 6.2% (95%CI 4.9-7.5; Q=842.9, p<0.001; I2=97.7%) for obesity. In boys, 15.3% (95%CI 13.4-17.1; Q=493.7, p<0.001; I2=96.2%) and 6.7% (95%CI 5.0-8.5; Q=1200.4, p<0.001; I2=98.4%), respectively. Geographic region, year of data collection and diagnostic criteria had a significant impact on the heterogeneity of the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The review identified increasing trends in the prevalence rates, highlighting the urgent need to promote healthy lifestyles from the young ages, in order to effectively address the presence of excess body weight.


O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em jovens brasileiros entre 5 e 19 anos através de revisão sistemática e metanálise de dados disponibilizadas na literatura. Foi realizada busca eletrônica nas bases de dados MedLine/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Scielo e Lilacs publicados de 2000 a 2018, utilizando critérios de inclusão/ gerados por sexo e idade. Modelos de metarregressão foram ajustados para identificar exclusão pré-definidos. Medidas de heterogeneidade e variabilidade foram calculadas e modelos de efeito aleatório foram usados para estimar taxas de prevalência global. Gráficos forest-plots foram possíveis fontes de heterogeneidade. Dos 1002 estudos identificados inicialmente 26 atenderam os critérios de inclusão. Nas crianças (5-9 anos) as taxas de prevalência global de sobrepeso foram equivalentes a 16,2% (IC95% 13,2-19,3; Q=411,7, p<0,001; I2=97,8%) nas moças e 14,4% (IC95% 11,5-17,3; Q=403,9, p<0,001; I2=97,7%) nos rapazes. No caso da obesidade, 9,2% (IC95% 5,9-12,3; Q=1111,7, p < 0,001; I2=99,2%) e 9,0% (IC95% 5,5-12,5; Q=1413,1, p<0,001; I2=99,4%), respectivamente. Referente aos adolescentes (10-19 anos), nas moças 16,4% (IC95% 15,1-17,7; Q=245,6, p<0,001; I2=92,3%) para sobrepeso e 6,2% (IC95% 4,9-7,5; Q=842,9, p<0,001; I2=97,7%) para obesidade. Nos rapazes, 15,3% (IC95% 13,4-17,1; Q=493,7, p<0,001; I2=96,2%) e 6,7% (IC95% 5,0-8,5; Q=1200,4, p<0,001; I2=98,4%), respectivamente. Região geográfica, ano de coleta dos dados e critérios diagnósticos impactaram significativamente na heterogeneidade das prevalências. Foram identificadas tendências crescentes nas taxas de prevalência, ressaltando a necessidade urgente de promover estilos de vida saudáveis desde as idades jovens, a fim de abordar com eficácia a presença do excesso de peso corporal.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Brasil , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Nutrición del Niño , Nutrición del Adolescente , Obesidad/epidemiología , Conducta Alimentaria , Estilo de Vida
20.
Rev Med Liege ; 76(2): 134-139, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543861

RESUMEN

Obesity is a chronic disease that is difficult to manage and is often punctuated by treatment failure. Screening for eating disorders, the prevalence of which is high in overweight patients, is essential in order to minimize the risk of relapse and the «yoyo¼ phenomenon. As the reason for consulting obese subjects is rare to be eating disorders from the outset, it is necessary to assess this behaviour from the first consultations, in order to propose a specific therapeutic approach aimed at stable weight loss in the long term.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Atracón , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/epidemiología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/terapia , Humanos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/terapia , Sobrepeso
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