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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 102, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889268

RESUMEN

Introduction: some studies reported that 25.5% of African population presents hypercholesterolemia; however, epidemiology of hypercholesterolemia in Africa is poorly described. Mozambique is experiencing a constant growth of non-communicable diseases, but scarce data are available about hypercholesterolemia. Our study aims at describing the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in patients with diabetes and hypertension in Mozambique and investigate possible risk factors. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study involving all the patients diagnosed with hypertension and/or diabetes from June 2018 to November 2020 in the Zimpeto DREAM Centre (Maputo, Mozambique). For each patient, anthropometric, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as total blood cholesterol >200 mg/dL. Univariable and multivariable analysis were perfumed. Results: a total of 885 patients were included, 76.2% (n=674) female. Hypertension alone was diagnosed in 670 (75.7%) patients, diabetes in 109 (12.3%) patients and 106 (11.9%) both diseases. Hypercholesterolemia was present in 410 (46.3%) patients and it was more prevalent in patients diagnosed with both diabetes and hypertension (52.8%), as compared to the patients diagnosed with hypertension (46.9%) or diabetes alone (36.7%). In the multivariable analysis, the only factors independently associated with hypercholesterolemia were female sex (aOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.26-2.48, p=0.001) and a body mass index >25kg/m2 (aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.11-2.04, p=0.008). Conclusion: our results highlight the need for a specific focus on female and obese/overweight patients, especially if diagnosed with both hypertension and diabetes, to promptly detect metabolic disorders and establish temporary preventive measures for cardiovascular events.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mozambique/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25399, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847636

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with detrimental changes in cardiovascular and metabolic parameters, including blood pressure, dyslipidemia, markers of systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance. In the elderly living with the human immunodeficiency virus (EPLHIV), and being treated with antiretroviral medications, the obesity complications escalate and expose the elderly to the risk of noncommunicable diseases. Given that over 3 million EPLHIV in sub-Sahara Africa, we assessed the prevalence of obesity and its associated factors among EPLHIV in a low-resource setting.This was a cross sectional study of EPLHIV aged 50 years and older, being treated with antiretroviral medications from 2004 to 2018. HIV treatment data collected from multiple treatment sites were analyzed. Baseline characteristics of the participants were described, and multivariable relative risk model was applied to assess the associations between obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) and the prespecified potential risk factors.Of the 134,652 in HIV cohort, 19,566 (14.5%) were EPLHIV: 12,967 (66.3%) were normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25), 4548 (23.2%) were overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30), while 2,051 (10.5%) were obese (BMI ≥30). The average age the normal weight (57.1; standard deviation 6.6) and the obese (56.5; standard deviation 5.5) was similar. We observed that being an employed (relative risk [RR] 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-2.00; P < .001), educated (RR 1.93; 95% CI 1.54-2.41; P < .001), and presence of hypertension (RR 1.78; 95% CI 1.44-2.20; P < .001), increased the risk of obesity. Also, being male (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.33-0.44; P < .001), stages III/IV of the World Health Organization clinical stages of HIV (RR 0.58; 95% CI 0.50-0.68; P < .001), tenofovir-based regimen (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.73-0.96, P < .001), and low CD4 count (RR 0.56; 95% CI 0.44-0.71; P < .001) were inversely associated with obesity.This study demonstrates that multiple factors are driving obesity prevalence in EPLHIV. The study provides vital information for policy-makers and HIV program implementers in implementing targeted-interventions to address obesity in EPLHIV. Its findings would assist in the implementation of a one-stop-shop model for the management of HIV and other comorbid medical conditions in EPLHIV.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Pobreza , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Anciano , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Índice de Masa Corporal , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos
3.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 44, 2021 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820527

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Food allergy (FA) is a common disease in children, and its prevalence has increased in developed countries. The impact of overweight on children health also becomes an important social problem. However, the relationship between overweight and FA is still unclear. We examined the association between overweight and the prevalence of FA among Japanese children. METHODS: We analyzed data obtained using a self-administered questionnaire from 1772 Japanese children. Weight groups according to body mass index cutoff points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force were used to create two groups: overweight and non-overweight. Children were separated into four age groups (3-6 years, 6-9 years, 9-12 years, and 12-15 years) to examine age differences. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic models to examine the association between overweight and FA. RESULTS: The prevalence of FA was significantly higher in boys (10.6%, p = 0.014) than girls (4.5%) and girls (7.9%, p = 0.012) than boys (2.5%) for 6-9 and 12-15 age groups, respectively. While the prevalence of FA was significantly higher in overweight than non-overweight girls (26.1%, p = 0.005) in the 12-15 age group, no significant difference was found in boys. In girls, overweight was significantly associated with FA after adjustment for age and asthma (odds ratio 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.89, p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that being overweight was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of FA in girls, but not in boys. Further prospective studies are necessary to find the causal relationship between overweight and FA.


Asunto(s)
Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos/complicaciones , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803582

RESUMEN

In the United States, overweight/obesity is more prevalent among those with low-income; higher income is related to greater leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and sedentary behavior (SB), which are inversely related to overweight/obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the role of LTPA and SB simultaneously in the income-overweight/obesity relationship. Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2014) were utilized (n = 10,348 non-older adults (aged 20-59 years)). A multiple mediator structural equation model was conducted to evaluate the indirect effects from income to overweight/obesity (Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2) through LTPA and SB simultaneously, controlling for confounding variables, including diet, smoking, and alcohol consumption. As expected, greater income was negatively associated with overweight/obesity. Income indirectly influenced overweight/obesity through LTPA (Indirect effect: B = -0.005; CI = -0.01, -0.003), and through SB (Indirect effect: B = 0.008; CI = 0.005, 0.01), in opposing directions. The direct effect from income to overweight/obesity remained statistically significant. LTPA partially accounted for the negative relationship between income and overweight/obesity; SB reduced the strength of the negative relationship between income and overweight/obesity. Targeted behavior approaches for weight management may be beneficial. Increasing LTPA among adults with lower income and decreasing SB among adults with higher income may provide some overweight/obesity protection.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Recreativas , Conducta Sedentaria , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804662

RESUMEN

Children obesity is a serious public health issue. This study aimed to investigate physical/sedentary activities of first-year primary schools children in Modena, and their association with overweight/obesity and dietary habits of children and family characteristics to identify the risk factors for unhealthy lifestyles. Child physical/sedentary activities were gathered through an anonymous questionnaire administered to parents, as well as family characteristics and weight/height of child and parents. Logistic regression models, eventually adjusted for parents' sociodemographic characteristics, were used to analyze data. Questionnaires were delivered by 660 families (74.2%), of which 72 without anthropometric data were excluded. Three out of four children spent in physical activities less than 7 h/week, while 63.9% dedicated to sedentary activities two or more hours/day. From multivariate analysis, the habit significantly affecting children's overweight/obesity was spending time on tablets/Personal Computers/mobile phones/videogames. Higher parental education level resulted in a protective factor for implementing unhealthy lifestyles in terms of time dedicated to physical/sedentary activities. Our results suggest the need of interventions to increase time for physical activity and to promote a responsible use of digital media involving the entire families to reach all parents regardless of their education and nationality with a possible relapse on other family members.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad Pediátrica , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Internet , Italia/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/etiología , Instituciones Académicas , Conducta Sedentaria , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 39(1): 42-46, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885386

RESUMEN

Aim: To evaluate and compare the body mass index (BMI) of school-going children with bruxism and without bruxism of age between 6 and 12 years. Settings and Design: To find the correlation between BMI and oral habit bruxism among school children and compare with those children without bruxism. Materials and Methods: A total of 6122 children were screened from 28 government and 12 private schools, in which 1854 (30.28%) had various types of oral habits. Among this 280 children had the stressful habit bruxism. The BMI of those children was calculated by measuring the height and weight. The values were compared with the BMI of same number of students of same age group, who does not have any oral habits, with the WHO standard. The values were calculated and tabulated for the statistical analysis, using the SPSS software version 19 (IBM company) with the P < 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Its shows that children with bruxism has high BMI range, was in the order of overweight > Normal > Underweight, but the BMI of children without any habit was in the order of normal > Underweight > Overweight. On comparison, it was statistically significant. Conclusion: The habit bruxism had a positive correlation with the BMI of children. The children are more stressed from both indoor and outdoor. Hence, kindly educate all the parents, teachers, and public to identify the cause for the habit, because each oral habit is strongly deep rooted with some emotional and/or psychological problem and to make the children stress free in future.


Asunto(s)
Bruxismo , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800084

RESUMEN

Food insecurity may exacerbate adverse maternal health outcomes during pregnancy, however, this association has not been well established, particularly in the context of developing countries. This study aimed to identify the associations between household food insecurity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk among urban pregnant women. Household food insecurity was assessed using the translated 10-item Radimer/Cornell hunger scale. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between food insecurity status and GDM risk. About 35.6% of women experienced food insecurity, with 25.2% reported household food insecurity, 8.0% individual food insecurity, and 2.4% child hunger. Food insecure women were at significantly higher risk of developing GDM compared to food secure women (AOR = 16.65, 95% CI = 6.17-24.98). The significant association between food insecurity and GDM risk was influenced by pre-pregnancy BMI, parity and rate of GWG at second trimester. Food insecure women with parity ≥ 2 (AOR = 4.21, 95% CI = 1.98-8.92), overweight/obese BMI prior to pregnancy (AOR = 12.11, 95% CI = 6.09-24.10) and excessive rate of GWG in the second trimester (AOR = 9.66, 95% CI = 4.27-21.83) were significantly more likely to develop GDM compared to food secure women. Food insecurity showed strong association with GDM risk in that the association was influenced by maternal biological and physical characteristics. Multipronged interventions may be necessary for food insecure pregnant women who are not only at risk of overweight/obesity prior to pregnancy but also may have excessive gestational weight gain, in order to effectively reduce GDM risk.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Gestacional , Ganancia de Peso Gestacional , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Paridad , Embarazo
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806798

RESUMEN

Overweight and obesity, as well as underweight in children and adolescents, pose a significant public health issue. This study aimed to investigate the secular trend of the incidence of underweight, overweight, and obesity in children from Ukraine in 2013/2014 and 2018/2019. The studies were conducted in randomly selected primary and secondary schools in Ukraine. In total, 13,447 children (6468 boys and 6979 girls) participated in the study in 2013/2014 and 18,144 children (8717 boys and 9427 girls) participated in 2018/2019. Measurements of body weight and height were performed in triplicate. Underweight, overweight, and obesity were diagnosed according to the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). In the group of girls, a significant difference between 2013/2014 and 2018/2019 measurements was found only among 7-year-olds. The percentage of girls at this age exceeding the body mass index (BMI) norm was lower in the 2018/2019 study. In boys, a significant difference was also found in 7-year-olds, and, as in girls, a lower share of overweight and obesity was found in 2018/2019. But for the ages of 12, 13, and 15, the significant differences had a different character-more overweight or obese boys were found in the 2018/2019 study. The proportion of underweight children was similar for the majority of age groups in both genders and did not differ in a statistically significant way.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad Pediátrica , Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Delgadez/epidemiología , Ucrania/epidemiología
9.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801989

RESUMEN

The increase in sedentary behaviors during the COVID-19-induced lockdown may have led to a significant weight gain. To investigate this hypothesis, a representative sample of the Spanish adult population comprising 1000 subjects was enrolled in a cross-sectional study between 26 May and 10 June 2020. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted consisting of 29 questions on the topic of lifestyle habits during the lockdown. The cohort comprised 51.5% women and 51% overweight or obese subjects and had a mean age of 50 ± 18 years. Of the respondents, 44.5% self-reported weight gain during the lockdown; of these, 58.0% were women, 69.9% had previous excess weight, 44.7% lived with a relative who also gained weight, and 73.5 experienced increased appetite. Further, an increased consumption of energy-dense products was found relative to respondents who did not gain weight (p ≤ 0.016 for all). Additionally, respondents were unaware that obesity is a poor prognostic factor for COVID-19 infection, lived in smaller flats, and had a lower level of education and lower monthly income. The factors independently associated with weight gain were female gender, previous overweight or obesity, lack of food care, increased appetite, and increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, alcoholic beverages, and snacks (p ≤ 0.023 for all). Should another lockdown be mandated, extra caution is warranted to prevent weight gain.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , /prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/etiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/etiología , Factores de Riesgo , España/epidemiología , Aumento de Peso
10.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 29(1): 38-44, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831285

RESUMEN

Epidemiological data consistently show sustained upward trend in the incidence of cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) estimated that in 2018 more than 18 million people were diagnosed with cancer, and in about 9.6 million cases cancer could be the cause of death. At the same time, an increasing percentage of overweight and obesity is observed in both adults and children. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2016 over 1.9 billion (39% of the population) of adults were overweight, of which over 650 million (13%) were obese. Obesity is closely related to the risk of cancer development. Excessive body weight is considered as a second risk factor for the development of specific cancers after smoking. According to IARC data, high BMI index may be the cause of up to half a million cancer cases per year. In addition, overweight and obesity contribute to increased mortality due to malignancies - it is estimated that they are the cause of death in 20% of women and in 14% of men. Data from the American Cancer Society indicate increased mortality due to pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, multiple myeloma, and Hodgkin's lymphoma in connection with the occurrence of excessive body weight. The study tried to confirm the influence of obesity on the risk of cancer. To achieve this, risk factors such as excessive adipose tissue, chronic inflammation, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia, sex steroids, and microbiome were taken into account. In addition, the study presents a simple method of estimating the risk quotient of chances of developing malignant tumors in people with excessive body mass and methods of cancer disease prevention. According to the current state of knowledge, the modification of factors significantly affecting the risk of falling ill may contribute to reducing the risk of cancer. In view of the above, the importance of the problem of overweight and obesity in society and their impact on the occurrence of some types of cancer should be emphasized. Thus, the understanding of excessive body weight as a serious health and social problem sets one of the priorities in the area of public health.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Obesidad , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
11.
Wiad Lek ; 74(2): 313-316, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813493

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To evaluate anthropometric, hemodynamic parameters, as well as changes in blood and leptin lipid spectrum in children and adults with overweight and obesity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We examined 68 overweight children and 90 patients with obesity in combination with stage 2, grade 2 AH who were electively inpatient. The control group consisted of practically healthy individuals - 20 adults and 55 children. RESULTS: Results: Obesity in childhood isaccompanied by the development of dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperleptinemia and hypertension, and in adulthood may be an additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease, in particular AH. According to the study, total leptin level in overweight children was significantly higher compared to the control group (p<0.01). The concentration of leptin in patients with hypertension in combination with obesity was 3 times higher compared to the control group (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Thus, obesity or overweight, accompanied by hyperleptinemia and an increase in the proatherogenic fractions of the blood lipid spectrum, is an important problem that needs to be addressed in childhood to prevent cardiovascular disease in adulthood.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Síndrome Metabólico , Obesidad Pediátrica , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Leptina , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/complicaciones , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
12.
Wiad Lek ; 74(3 cz 1): 423-428, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813444

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the research was to study the cellular composition of the gums in children of primary school age with normal body weight and overweight for further use of this data in the early diagnostics of periodontal diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We examined 81 children aged from 6 to 12 years. Cytological examination of gingival cytograms was performed in all examined children. RESULTS: Results: Based on the analysis of the quantitative content of epithelial cells in children with normal body weight, their ratio was established, which is determined by the percentage of 0: 6: 94 (parabasal, intermediate, superficial). The obtained data completely coincide with the percentage of the differentiated ratio of epitheliocytes of multilayered squamous epithelium in children with normal body weight with inflammation and without it in the periodontal tissues. Our cytological examinations of gingival scrape smears in overweight children in contrast to the results of the study of epithelial scrape smears in children with normal body weight have some differences. Thus, in the process of calculation, the degree of differentiation of various epitheliocytes determines their percentage as follows - 3: 7: 90 (parabasal, intermediate, superficial) for children with gingivitis, and 2: 5: 93 (parabasal, intermediate, superficial) for children without inflammation in the periodontal tissues. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The obtained results allowed us to conclude that in overweight children, in contrast to children with normal body weight, the number of parabasal cells decreases, and the number of superficial and intermediate cells increases.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal , Encía , Sobrepeso , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Femenino , Encía/citología , Encía/patología , Humanos , Peso Corporal Ideal , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas
13.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(1): 193-197, 2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775088

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obesity affect an increasing number of children and adolescents in Poland. This excessive body weight usually coexists with sleep disorders and other afflictions, which is worrisome. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and sleep disorders among adolescents and demonstrate their relationships. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 1,002 students. Nutritional habits and subjective assessment of sleep were evaluated with the author's survey; daytime sleepiness and sleep quality were assessed with Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Sleep Quality Scale (SQS). Statistical calculations were performed with the STATISTICA 12.0 programme. RESULTS: 24.7% of adolescents suffered from overweight or obesity, 38% reported sleep problems in subjective assessment, 10.5% exhibited excessive daytime sleepiness, determined by ESS, and 14.3% had impaired quality of sleep as determined by SQS. Gender affected all the discussed problems. Type of school affected all the above, except for daytime sleepiness. In the group with overweight and obesity, 46.6% of individuals reported sleep problems in subjective assessment. About 59.1% of adolescents reported chronic fatigue. Reduced concentration and difficulties in learning were reported in 36.3% of all students, and in 46% of students with overweight and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The problem of excess body weight is a very alarming phenomenon since it affects almost 1/4 of the students. Almost half of the students with overweight and obesity reported sleep problems, which is strongly correlated with the type of school. Furthermore, excess body weight influenced the prevalence of reduced concentration and learning difficulties among adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Sobrepeso/fisiopatología , Polonia , Prevalencia , Sueño , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/fisiopatología
14.
Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) ; 10(5): 281-292, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733885

RESUMEN

Significance: Chronic wounds impact the quality of life (QoL) of nearly 2.5% of the total population in the United States and the management of wounds has a significant economic impact on health care. Given the aging population, the continued threat of diabetes and obesity worldwide, and the persistent problem of infection, it is expected that chronic wounds will continue to be a substantial clinical, social, and economic challenge. In 2020, the coronavirus disease (COVID) pandemic dramatically disrupted health care worldwide, including wound care. A chronic nonhealing wound (CNHW) is typically correlated with comorbidities such as diabetes, vascular deficits, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. These risk factors make persons with CNHW at high risk for severe, sometimes lethal outcomes if infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (pathogen causing COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted several aspects of the wound care continuum, including compliance with wound care visits, prompting alternative approaches (use of telemedicine and creation of videos to help with wound dressing changes among others), and encouraging a do-it-yourself wound dressing protocol and use of homemade remedies/substitutions. Recent Advances: There is a developing interest in understanding how the social determinants of health impact the QoL and outcomes of wound care patients. Furthermore, addressing wound care in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of telemedicine options in the continuum of care. Future Directions: The economic, clinical, and social impact of wounds continues to rise and requires appropriate investment and a structured approach to wound care, education, and related research.


Asunto(s)
Úlcera de la Pierna/epidemiología , Úlcera por Presión/epidemiología , Infección de Heridas/epidemiología , Heridas y Traumatismos/epidemiología , Enfermedad Aguda , Vendajes , Enfermedad Crónica , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Pie Diabético/economía , Pie Diabético/epidemiología , Pie Diabético/terapia , Educación Médica , Educación en Enfermería , Úlcera del Pie/economía , Úlcera del Pie/epidemiología , Úlcera del Pie/terapia , Humanos , Úlcera de la Pierna/economía , Úlcera de la Pierna/terapia , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Úlcera por Presión/economía , Úlcera por Presión/terapia , Autocuidado , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Telemedicina , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Úlcera Varicosa/economía , Úlcera Varicosa/epidemiología , Úlcera Varicosa/terapia , Infección de Heridas/economía , Infección de Heridas/microbiología , Infección de Heridas/terapia , Heridas y Traumatismos/economía , Heridas y Traumatismos/terapia
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 170, 2021 03 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750323

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between health-related physical fitness performance and overweight/obesity risk among Taiwanese healthy older adults. METHODS: A secondary dataset from the nationwide survey was applied in this study. Data from a total of 21,630 respondents aged 65-96 years were collected in this study. Demographic characteristics, life habits, perceived health status, anthropometric assessments, and health-related physical fitness measurements from this dataset were analyzed using the chi-square test, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The results indicated that overweight and obesity significantly associated with health-related physical fitness performance in the Taiwanese older adult population. In particular, the upper extremity muscular endurance scores of older adults with poor activity and physical fitness scores revealed obesity as a critical indicator of health-related physical fitness performance. CONCLUSIONS: Future studies can use muscle quality or body fat classification to predict obesity in older adults, which could more precisely portray the relationship between obesity and health-related physical fitness performance.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Sobrepeso , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Aptitud Física , Taiwán/epidemiología
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671739

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) has become one of the major challenges to public health worldwide due to its significant association with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among children and adolescents. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors of MS in Saudi adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two female National Guard schools (Um Kalthoom Intermediate School and Zainab Bint Jahsh Secondary School) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between January 2018 and March 2018. Of the 808 female students, 172 (age range of 12-19 years) participated voluntarily, with consent from their guardian(s), fasted for at least 8 h prior to the study, and represent the final study sample. Male students were not included due to cultural constraints in conducting the study. Demographic data, physical measurement (blood pressure, weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)), and biochemical measurement (fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein) were obtained. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria was utilized in the diagnosis of MS. RESULTS: Of the 172 female adolescents, 24 (13.75%) are overweight, 20 (11.63%) are obese, and 3 (1.74%) are underweight. High-fasting plasma glucose (n = 85, 49.41%) and high waist circumference (n = 74, 43.02%) were the most common risk factors of MS among female adolescents. The overall prevalence of MS was 7% (n = 12/172). MS is more common among those who are obese or among those with a BMI that falls at the ≥95th percentile (n = 6/20, 30.0%) (p < 0.05) as compared to those who are overweight with a BMI that falls within the 85th to <95th percentiles (n = 2/24, 8.33%). Interestingly, 3.20% of the sample (n = 4/125) with normal BMI were diagnosed with MS. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that MS is common among obese and overweight female adolescents but is also present among those who are not obese or with normal BMI. Moreover, the prevalence of overweight, obese, and those with MS in this reference population are lower compared to the cities of Makkah and Riyadh; however, it varies widely around the world due to different criteria and cut-off values in the diagnosis of MS.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Síndrome Metabólico , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672502

RESUMEN

Excessive body mass is a health problem among children and adolescents that contributes to the occurrence of lipid disorders and abnormal blood pressure. Effective treatment of excessive body mass in children is essential for the health of population in the future. The aim of the study was to identify universal components of lifestyle interventions in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity leading to weight loss and improvement of selected cardiometabolic parameters. The review included studies from the PubMed and Google Scholar databases published in 2010-2019, which were analyzed for eligibility criteria including age of the participants, BMI defined as overweight or obese, nutritional intervention and the assessment of BMI and/or BMI z-score and at least one lipid profile parameter. Eighteen studies were included in the review, presenting the results of 23 intervention programs in which a total of 1587 children and adolescents participated. All interventions, except one, were multi-component. Data analysis suggests a relationship between a decrease in BMI and/or BMI z-score with diet and physical activity, the involvement of a dietician/nutrition specialist and physician in the treatment team and a longer duration of intervention. Moreover, it seems that a decrease in BMI is mostly associated with decreases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure. No change in BMI and/or BMI z-score is associated with no change in blood pressure. Our data can be used by public health authorities to design effective weight loss programs for children and adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Obesidad Pediátrica , Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Niño , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/terapia , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672817

RESUMEN

(1) Background: To compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity in boys and girls and to estimate socioeconomic differences associated with obesity in Spain in 1997, 2007, and 2017. (2) Methods: Data were drawn from national health interview surveys. For each year of study, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was measured, and these results were compared by gender (boy/girl) and socioeconomic status (low/high education). (3) Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity rose from 1997 to 2007 but then fell in 2017 in all subgroups except in girls aged 10 to 15 years. In this group, there was a steady increase in the prevalence of both overweight (1997, 14.6%; 2007, 17.7%; 2017, 19.6%) and obesity (1.1, 3.2, and 3.7%, respectively). The decrease in prevalence of overweight in both sexes and of obesity in boys, along with the increase in prevalence of obesity in girls, was of a higher magnitude in children whose parents had a lower educational level. (4) Conclusions: The apparent turnaround in the obesity epidemic in Spain should be interpreted with caution. Children's body weight is influenced by both gender and socioeconomic status-considerations that should be kept in mind when designing health promotion interventions.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Sobrepeso , Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Prevalencia , España/epidemiología
19.
J Affect Disord ; 286: 351-359, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757648

RESUMEN

BACKGROUNDS: Obesity and overweight are common in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD); the results are inconsistent due to confounding variables involved in studies. Furthermore, no well-designed study has been published to investigate the prevalence, risk factors and underlying mechanisms of obesity/overweight in Chinese MDD patients. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of obesity/overweight and related risk factors in first-episode, drug-naïve (FEDN) patients with MDD in China. METHODS: A total of 1718 patients were recruited. Their clinical and anthropometric data, thyroid function and biochemical parameters were collected. All patients were evaluated on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 14-item Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 3.73% and 56.00%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that TSH was the only independent risk factor for weight gain in MDD patents. The fitting curve of the relationship between TSH and BMI formed an inverted U-shaped parabola. The ordinal logit mode showed that when TSH<=2.68 was set as a reference, the odd rates of weight increased with the increase of TSH, and the highest rate was 3.929 (95%CI: 2.879-5.361, P<0.0001). LIMITATION: Causality cannot be drawn due to cross-sectional design. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that overweight is very common among patients with FEDN MDD rather than obesity. TSH is a promising predictor and potential biomarker of high weight in MDD patients, and there is an inverted U-shaped parabolic relationship between TSH and BMI.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24800, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725834

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: There is increasing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Dyslipidemia is a well-known CVD risk factor which has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment in high-income countries. Studies in SSA that have examined the relationship between HIV and dyslipidemia have reported mixed results. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in HIV positive and negative adults (>=30 years old) and evaluate for association in Western Kenya with a higher prevalence expected among HIV positive individuals.HIV positive adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV negative individuals seeking HIV testing and counseling services were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Demographic and behavioral data and fasting blood samples were collected. Dyslipidemia was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Associations between baseline demographic and clinical variables and dyslipidemia were analyzed using logistic regression.A total of 598 participants, 300 HIV positive and 298 HIV negative adults were enrolled. Dyslipidemia data was available for 564 (94%) participants. In total, 267 (47%) had dyslipidemia. This was not significantly different between HIV positive and HIV negative individuals (46% vs 49%, P = .4). In a multivariate analysis including both HIV positive and negative individuals, adults 50 to 59 years of age had a 2-fold increased risk of dyslipidemia (Odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval (1.2-3.5) when compared to 30 to 39-years-old participants. Abdominal obesity (OR 2.5), being overweight (OR 1.9), and low fruit and vegetable intake (OR 2.2) were significantly associated with dyslipidemia. Among HIV positive participants, time since HIV diagnosis, ART duration, use of (PI) protease inhibitor-based ART, viral load suppression, current cluster of differentiation (CD4) count and nadir CD4 did not have significant associations with dyslipidemia.The prevalence of dyslipidemia is high in Western Kenya, with nearly half of all participants with lipid abnormalities. Dyslipidemia was not significantly associated with HIV status, or with HIV-specific factors. Older age, being overweight, abdominal obesity, and low fruit and vegetable intake were associated with dyslipidemia and may be targets for public health interventions to lower the prevalence of dyslipidemia and CVD risk in sub-Saharan Africa.


Asunto(s)
Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Seropositividad para VIH/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Femenino , Frutas , Seropositividad para VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Seropositividad para VIH/inmunología , Seropositividad para VIH/virología , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Verduras , Carga Viral
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