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1.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 427-432, Out.-Dez. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024399

RESUMEN

Introduction: The bone-implant interface has been studied extensively, but only few papers focused on the nutritional aspects that may affect bone quality, especially salt intake. Objective: To study the osseointegration of implants in salt-loaded rats with low mineral bone content. Methods: A total of 60 4-month-old male rats were divided in 2 groups ( n = 30), being these groups divided in 2 periods, (2 and 4 months). The control group received a normal diet, while the test group received a diet supplemented with 1% sodium chloride (NaCl). Implants were placed in the tibia of both groups. A total of 15 animals of each group were sacrificed at the 2 nd month of the experiment, while the remaining animals were sacrificed at the 4 th month. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in food intake between the groups on any experimental period, but a statistically significant difference was found in the liquid intake in the saline group in both periods. For all groups, osseointegration was observed in both groups. The mean percentage of osseointegration in the cortical bone, in the trabecular bone, and in the total osseointegrated surface between the control (46.38 ± 16.17%) and saline (49.13 ± 11.52%) groups at 2 months was not statistically different ( p = 0.61). The total osseointegration areas of the control (53.98 ± 12.06%) and saline (51.40 ± 13.01%) groups at the 4 th month of the study were not statistically ( p = 0.61). Conclusion: Ingestion of salt did not affect directly the osseointegration process during the period of the experiment. The results suggest that mineral losses may not affect the achievement of good osseointegration in aging rats. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Oseointegración/fisiología , Envejecimiento , Densidad Ósea , Ratas Wistar
2.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514387

RESUMEN

Despite public health efforts to reduce dietary sodium, sodium intakes in most countries remains high. The purpose of this study was to determine if using novel web-based tools that provide tailored feedback, the Sodium Calculator and Sodium Calculator Plus, improves users' sodium-related knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviours (KAB). In this single arm pre- and post-test study, 199 healthy adults aged 18-34 years completed a validated questionnaire to assess changes to sodium-related KAB before and after using the calculators. After using the calculators, the proportion of participants who accurately identified the sodium adequate intake and chronic disease risk reduction level increased (19% to 74% and 23% to 74%, respectively, both p = 0.021). The proportion accurately self-assessing their sodium intake as 'high' also increased (41% to 66%, p = 0.021). Several intended behavioural changes were reported, i.e., buying foods with sodium-reduced labels, using the Nutrition Facts table, using spices and herbs instead of salt, and limiting eating out. Evidence-based eHealth tools that assess and provide personalized feedback on sodium intake have the potential to aid in facilitating sodium reduction in individuals. This study is an important first step in evaluating and optimizing the implementation of eHealth tools to help reduce Canadians' sodium intakes.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Hiposódica , Conducta Alimentaria , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Internet , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Sodio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prueba de Estudio Conceptual , Medición de Riesgo , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Adulto Joven
3.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438636

RESUMEN

The close relationship between hypertension and dietary sodium intake is widely recognized and supported by several studies. A reduction in dietary sodium not only decreases the blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension, but is also associated with a reduction in morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Prolonged modest reduction in salt intake induces a relevant fall in blood pressure in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals, irrespective of sex and ethnic group, with larger falls in systolic blood pressure for larger reductions in dietary salt. The high sodium intake and the increase in blood pressure levels are related to water retention, increase in systemic peripheral resistance, alterations in the endothelial function, changes in the structure and function of large elastic arteries, modification in sympathetic activity, and in the autonomic neuronal modulation of the cardiovascular system. In this review, we have focused on the effects of sodium intake on vascular hemodynamics and their implication in the pathogenesis of hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión/inducido químicamente , Sodio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Presión Arterial/efectos de los fármacos , Presión Arterial/fisiología , Arterias/efectos de los fármacos , Arterias/fisiología , Humanos , Sistema Nervioso Simpático/efectos de los fármacos , Sistema Nervioso Simpático/fisiología , Rigidez Vascular/efectos de los fármacos , Rigidez Vascular/fisiología
4.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261665

RESUMEN

Sodium intake in Argentina has been estimated to be at least double the dose of 2000 mg/day recommended by WHO, mostly coming from processed foods. Argentina is one of the few countries in the world that have regulated sodium content in certain food products. This study presents an assessment of sodium content in a selection of food groups and categories as reported in the nutrient information panels. We surveyed 3674 food products, and the sodium content of 864 and 1375 of them was compared to the maximum levels according to the Argentinean law and the regional targets, respectively. All food categories presented high variability of sodium content. Over 90% of the products included in the national sodium reduction law were found to be compliant. Food groups with high median sodium, such as condiments, sauces and spreads, and fish and fish products, are not included in the national law. In turn, comparisons with the lower regional targets indicated that almost 50% of the products analyzed had sodium contents above the recommended values. This evidence suggests that enhancing sodium reduction in processed foods may be a necessity for public health objectives and it is also technically feasible in Argentina.


Asunto(s)
Manipulación de Alimentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Etiquetado de Alimentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Industria de Procesamiento de Alimentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adhesión a Directriz/legislación & jurisprudencia , Guías como Asunto , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada/legislación & jurisprudencia , Sodio en la Dieta/análisis , Argentina , Estudios Transversales , Manipulación de Alimentos/normas , Etiquetado de Alimentos/normas , Industria de Procesamiento de Alimentos/normas , Adhesión a Directriz/normas , Guías como Asunto/normas , Humanos , Control de Calidad , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Sodio en la Dieta/normas
5.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 572-580, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352828

RESUMEN

To study the effect of formulas on the estimation of dietary sodium intake (sodium intake) and its association with mortality, we analyzed the TOHP (Trials of Hypertension Prevention) follow-up data. Sodium intake was assessed by measured 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and estimations from sodium concentration using the Kawasaki, Tanaka, and INTERSALT (International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure) formulas. We used both the average of 3 to 7 urinary measurements during the trial period and the first measurement at the beginning of each trial. Additionally, we kept sodium concentration constant to test whether the formulas were independently associated with mortality. We included 2974 individuals aged 30 to 54 years with prehypertension, not assigned to sodium intervention. During a median 24-year follow-up, 272 deaths occurred. The average measured sodium intake was 3766±1290 mg/d. All estimated values, including those with constant sodium concentration, were systematically biased with overestimation at lower levels and underestimation at higher levels. There was a significant linear association between the average measured sodium intake (ie, gold standard method) and mortality. This relationship was altered by using the estimated sodium intakes. There appeared to be a J- or U-shaped relationship for the average estimated sodium by all formulas. Despite variations in the sodium-mortality relationship among various formulas, a common pattern was that all estimated values including those with constant sodium appeared to be inversely related to mortality at lower levels of sodium intake. These results demonstrate that inaccurate estimates of sodium cannot be used in association studies, particularly as the formulas per se seem to be related to mortality independent of sodium.


Asunto(s)
Causas de Muerte , Hipertensión/inducido químicamente , Hipertensión/mortalidad , Cloruro de Sodio/orina , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Medición de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales , Análisis de Supervivencia , Taiwán , Factores de Tiempo , Urinálisis/métodos
6.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 260-266, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230545

RESUMEN

Over the past decade, blood pressure and sodium intake declined among children and adolescents (ie, youths) in the United States. We updated temporal trends and determined if secular changes in blood pressure might be partly associated with usual sodium intake. We included 12 249 youths aged 8 to 17 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003 to 2016 and had blood pressure and dietary data. Logistic regression was used to describe secular trends and the association between usual sodium intake and blood pressure categorized according to 2017 Hypertension Guidelines. The prevalence of youths with combined elevated blood pressure/hypertension (ie, either elevated blood pressure or hypertension) significantly declined from 16.2% in 2003-2004 to 13.3% in 2015-2016 ( P<0.001 for trend), as did hypertension from 6.6% to 4.9% ( P=0.005 for trend). Across the same time period, mean usual sodium intake decreased from 3381 to 3208 mg/day ( P<0.001 for trend). Holding constant survey cycle, sex, age, race and Hispanic origin, and weight status, the adjusted odds ratio per 1000 mg/day of usual sodium intake for elevated blood pressure/hypertension was 1.18 (95% CI, 1.03-1.35) and for hypertension was 1.20 (95% CI, 0.96-1.50). From 2003 to 2016, blood pressure and usual sodium intake declined among youths. Although 1000 mg/day higher usual sodium intake was associated with ≈20% higher odds of elevated blood pressure/hypertension and hypertension, the association with hypertension was not statistically significant.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/efectos adversos , Hipertensión/etiología , Encuestas Nutricionales/métodos , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Edad de Inicio , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/tendencias , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Estados Unidos
7.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(6): 544-560, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078365

RESUMEN

AIMS: This review aimed at investigating fruit, vegetable and legume consumption, salt/sodium intake, and the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern in adolescents, three key aspects towards the adoption of a healthy diet. DATA SYNTHESIS: Three separate searches were carried out on PubMed and Scopus, using the same procedure, searching for studies published in the previous decade with data on fruit and/or vegetable or legume consumption, salt or sodium intake, and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet assessed using the KIDMED questionnaire. The review included a total of 58 papers, which describe original investigations on healthy adolescents (10-19 years old) living in North America, Europe or Oceania, with a sample size >150 participants. The average fruit and vegetable consumption has been found strongly below the recommended values of 400 grams or 5 portions per day in almost all the examined populations. Very little is known about adolescents' legume consumption. Few available data have been found also for sodium intake and, for the majority of the screened populations, levels were far above the recommended 5 grams per day. Lastly, a medium-low adherence to the Mediterranean Diet has been found for adolescents living in Mediterranean Countries. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents living in North America, Europe or Oceania are far from being compliant with the nutritional recommendations for fruit, vegetables, legumes, and sodium, and they do not follow the principles of the Mediterranean Diet. Educational and behavioural interventions are required to improve adolescents' dietary patterns.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conducta Infantil , Dieta Mediterránea , Conducta Alimentaria , Frutas , Sodio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Verduras , Adolescente , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Adolescentes , Factores de Edad , Niño , Europa (Continente) , Fabaceae , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , América del Norte , Estado Nutricional , Oceanía , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Adulto Joven
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(5): 464-469, 2019 May 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091602

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand prevalence, control of hypertension and intake of sodium and potassium among residents aged 50-69 years old in Zhejiang Province. Methods: A multi-stage random cluster sampling method was used to select 3 032 residents aged 50-69 years old in Zhejiang Province. The demographic characteristics, prevalence and control of hypertension were collected through a questionnaire survey, and physical measurement was also performed. The stratified random sampling method was used to detect the level of sodium and potassium in the 24 h urine of 676 subjects. The total amount of 24 h urinary sodium ≥102.55 mmol and the ratio of 24 h urinary sodium and potassium content ≥2 were defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of hypertension (95%CI) was 56.89% (54.39%-59.40%), and the awareness, treatment and control rate of hypertension were 58.25% (55.01%-61.49%), 45.37% (42.10%-48.65%) and 19.75% (17.01%-22.50%), respectively. 78.99% (n=534) of residents had excessive 24 h urinary sodium, and 95.41% (n=360) of residents had excessive ratio of 24 h urinary sodium and potassium. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in residents aged 50-69 years old in Zhejiang Province was at a high level, and the control of hypertension was not satisfactory in 2017. Most of residents have excessive level of sodium intake and the level of sodium and potassium intake was not balanced.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/prevención & control , Potasio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Sodio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Potasio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Prevalencia , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos
10.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(5): 458-466, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952573

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to evaluate whether preeclampsia in pregnant women is associated with dietary factors and antioxidant intake (vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin A, and selenium). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this case-control study, a group of 79 pregnant Jordanian women (36 preeclamptic pregnant women and 43 healthy pregnant women aged 18-45 years with a gestational age ≥20th week of pregnancy) were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinics at Royal Medical Services, King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan. Information about socio-demographics, anthropometric measurements, biochemical measurements, nutritional intake, and dietary habits was collected through a structured interview. Three 24-hour dietary records were also made. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and dietary intake was analyzed using ESHA software. Prepregnancy BMI, age, multiple pregnancies, energy intake, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and sodium showed significant difference between preeclamptic pregnant women and healthy pregnant women. The odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) show that a strong association with preeclampsia exists for the intake of fat (OR = 6.40, 95% CI: 1.85-22.17) and saturated fat (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 1.0-11.54). Inverse associations with preeclampsia were found for fruit intake (OR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.47-0.55) and olive oil intake (OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05-0.78). CONCLUSION: In this case-control study in Jordanian pregnant women, preeclampsia was associated with a high intake of fat, saturated fat, and sodium and a low intake of fruits, fiber, vitamin C, B-carotene, and olive oil.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Conducta Alimentaria , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Micronutrientes/administración & dosificación , Nutrientes/administración & dosificación , Estado Nutricional , Preeclampsia/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Grasas de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Fibras de la Dieta , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Frutas , Humanos , Jordania , Persona de Mediana Edad , Preeclampsia/diagnóstico , Preeclampsia/etiología , Preeclampsia/fisiopatología , Embarazo , Factores Protectores , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Adulto Joven
11.
BMJ ; 364: l772, 2019 03 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867146

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the joint association of sodium and potassium urinary excretion (as surrogate measures of intake) with cardiovascular events and mortality, in the context of current World Health Organization recommendations for daily intake (<2.0 g sodium, >3.5 g potassium) in adults. DESIGN: International prospective cohort study. SETTING: 18 high, middle, and low income countries, sampled from urban and rural communities. PARTICIPANTS: 103 570 people who provided morning fasting urine samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of estimated 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion (surrogates for intake) with all cause mortality and major cardiovascular events, using multivariable Cox regression. A six category variable for joint sodium and potassium was generated: sodium excretion (low (<3 g/day), moderate (3-5 g/day), and high (>5 g/day) sodium intakes) by potassium excretion (greater/equal or less than median 2.1 g/day). RESULTS: Mean estimated sodium and potassium urinary excretion were 4.93 g/day and 2.12 g/day, respectively. After a median follow-up of 8.2 years, 7884 (6.1%) participants had died or experienced a major cardiovascular event. Increasing urinary sodium excretion was positively associated with increasing potassium excretion (unadjusted r=0.34), and only 0.002% had a concomitant urinary excretion of <2.0 g/day of sodium and >3.5 g/day of potassium. A J-shaped association was observed of sodium excretion and inverse association of potassium excretion with death and cardiovascular events. For joint sodium and potassium excretion categories, the lowest risk of death and cardiovascular events occurred in the group with moderate sodium excretion (3-5 g/day) and higher potassium excretion (21.9% of cohort). Compared with this reference group, the combinations of low potassium with low sodium excretion (hazard ratio 1.23, 1.11 to 1.37; 7.4% of cohort) and low potassium with high sodium excretion (1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; 13.8% of cohort) were associated with the highest risk, followed by low sodium excretion (1.19, 1.02 to 1.38; 3.3% of cohort) and high sodium excretion (1.10, 1.02 to 1.18; 29.6% of cohort) among those with potassium excretion greater than the median. Higher potassium excretion attenuated the increased cardiovascular risk associated with high sodium excretion (P for interaction=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the simultaneous target of low sodium intake (<2 g/day) with high potassium intake (>3.5 g/day) is extremely uncommon. Combined moderate sodium intake (3-5 g/day) with high potassium intake is associated with the lowest risk of mortality and cardiovascular events.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/orina , Potasio/orina , Sodio/orina , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad , Potasio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Potasio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Estudios Prospectivos , Sodio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos
12.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 15(6): 435-445, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747074

RESUMEN

There is ongoing debate surrounding the complex relationship between dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The existing literature consists largely of observational studies that have demonstrated positive, negative, U-/J-shaped or unclear associations between sodium intake and cardiovascular outcomes. Our group and others have previously demonstrated an inverse relationship between dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic nervous system is postulated to contribute to these paradoxical findings through endothelial dysfunction, a precursor to the development of cardiovascular disease. Microvesicles are submicron (0.1 - 1.0µm) vesicles that form during cellular activation, injury or death with endothelial microvesicles being recognized markers of endothelial dysfunction. They are pathologically elevated in a variety of vascular-related conditions including type 2 diabetes. Lower habitual sodium intake in type 2 diabetes has been associated with higher pro-coagulant platelet microvesicles levels but not with endothelial microvesicles. Research utilizing endothelial microvesicles to evaluate the mechanistic relationship between dietary sodium intake and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes remains scarce.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Sodio en la Dieta , Presión Sanguínea , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Sistema Cardiovascular/patología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Humanos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos
13.
Digestion ; 99(4): 267-274, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293081

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are known to be largely influenced by one's lifestyle and dietary uptake. A high-salt diet (HSD) is well recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular complications, hypertension, and metabolic syndromes. However, the relationship between an HSD and the GI system, which is the compartment that comes in direct contact with exogenous stimulants, has not been fully explored. AIMS: We seek to better understand the complexity of the pathogenic effects of an HSD in the context of GI disorders. METHODS: By searching the PubMed and Web of science, the review of literature was performed using keywords: high-salt and GI, high-salt and immunity, salt and microbiota, salt and hormone. RESULTS: In this review, we concluded that high-salt intake potentially perturbs the local immune homeostasis, alters the gut microbiota composition and function, and affects the endocrine hormone profiling in the GI system. CONCLUSION: HSD might get involved in GI diseases through the reshaping of gastroenterological milieu, which could help to better understand the complexity of the pathogenic effects of an HSD in the context of GI disorders.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/epidemiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Tracto Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/etiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/microbiología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Int J Cardiol ; 276: 218-223, 2019 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503186

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Due to the known contribution of excess sodium intake on elevations in blood pressure, salt reduction regulations are being introduced in countries all over the world. To study the contribution of sodium intake on cardiovascular disease development, we determined whether left ventricular mass associates with sodium excretion in young adults free from overt cardiovascular disease and those with masked hypertension. METHODS: We included 681 participants (41% men and 50% black) in a cross-sectional analysis from the African-PREDICT study with complete 24-hour urine collections and successful ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (>70% valid readings). The participants were categorized as normotensive (n = 534) or masked hypertensive (n = 147). In addition, we determined left ventricular mass index (LVMI) along with traditional risk factors. RESULTS: Masked hypertensive individuals had higher sodium excretion (149 vs. 128 mmol/L/day) and LVMI (78.1 vs. 69.6 g/m2) than normotensives. In single, partial and multiple regression analyses, LVMI independently associated with higher sodium excretion in the total group of young adults (ß = 0.089; p = 0.011). This result was also evident among masked hypertensives (ß = 0.215; p = 0.008), but not in normotensives (ß = 0.054; p = 0.134). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that higher sodium excretion (reflecting a higher salt intake) may contribute to increased left ventricular mass, potentially driven by the early development of masked or undetected hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda/epidemiología , Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda/orina , Hipertensión Enmascarada/epidemiología , Hipertensión Enmascarada/orina , Sodio en la Dieta/orina , Adulto , África/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda/diagnóstico , Masculino , Hipertensión Enmascarada/diagnóstico , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Estudios Prospectivos , Radioisótopos de Sodio/orina , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Adulto Joven
15.
JAAPA ; 32(1): 11-15, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589728

RESUMEN

Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital admissions and death in the United States and worldwide. In 2016, the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the Heart Failure Society of America released a joint focused guideline update for the management of patients with Stage C heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. An additional update released in 2017 reinforces the 2016 update's strong recommendation for substituting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers with an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor to reduce morbidity and mortality in selected patients. The 2017 and 2016 updates also support adding a sinoatrial node modulator to further reduce heart rates in patients already maximized on beta-blocker therapy. These innovative therapies can significantly improve patients' quality of life and reduce the healthcare costs associated with managing heart failure.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/terapia , Neprilisina/antagonistas & inhibidores , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina , Biomarcadores , Sustitución de Medicamentos , Terapia por Ejercicio , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/etiología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/fisiopatología , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Calidad de Vida , Sodio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Volumen Sistólico
16.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 39(1): 14-21, 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-184182

RESUMEN

Introduction: The average daily intake of sodium in Brazil is 4.11 g/d, which is higher than that in most countries worldwide. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the main food sources of sodium in a representative sample of Brazilian population, considering sex, age group, and Brazilian macro-regions. Methods: 2,000 individuals aged 15-65 years were included in the Brazilian Nutrition and Health Study (EBANS). EBANS is part of the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS), a multicenter cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of urban populations from eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela). Results: The top 10 dietary food sources of sodium were beef and main dishes without processed meat (21.55%), white bread, approximately 50g (known as French bread in Brazil) (12.38%), rice (11.23%), processed meat products (8.38%), pasta (with or without sauce) (4.74%), beans (3.41%), salt (3.39%), butter or margarine (2.63%), crackers (white or whole) (2.59%), and milk (2.26%), accounting for 72.57% of the total contribution. Independent of sex, age group, or Brazilian macro-regions, the main contributors to sodium intake were beef and main dishes without processed meat, followed by French bread. Discussion: It is important to emphasize that the main described foods among Brazilians, are part of cultural and regional aspects that influence choices and food consumption and greatest contributors to sodium intake. Conclusions: These results highlight the need for implementation of public health policies to control the use of sodium in food industry and to aware the community about the addition of salt in food preparation and their food choices


Introducción: La ingesta diaria promedio de sodio en Brasil es 4.11 g / d, siendo mayor que en la mayoría de los países. Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los principales alimentos fuente de sodio en una muestra representativa de la población brasileña considerando sexo, grupo de edad y macrorregiones brasileñas. Métodos: se incluyeron 2.000 individuos de 15 a 65 años. en el Estudio Brasileño de Nutrición y Salud (EBANS). EBANS forma parte del Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud (ELANS), un estudio transversal multicéntrico de una muestra nacional representativa de poblaciones urbanas de ocho países latinoamericanos (Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela). Resultados: Las 10 principales fuentes alimenticias de sodio fueron: Carne de vacuno y platos principales sin carne procesada (21.55%). Pan blanco, aproximadamente 50g (12,38%), arroz (11,23%), productos cárnicos procesados (8.38%), pasta (con o sin salsa) (4.74%), frijoles (3.41%), sal (3.39%), mantequilla o margarina (2.63%), galletas saladas. (2.59%), y leche (2.26%), que representan el 72.57% del aporte total. Independientemente del sexo, edad grupo, o macro-regiones brasileñas, los principales contribuyentes a la ingesta de sodio fueron carne de res y platos principales sin procesar. seguido del pan francés. Discusión: Es importante enfatizar que los principales alimentos brasileños descritos como fuente de sodio son parte de las actividades culturales y regionales, aspecto que influye en las elecciones y el consumo de alimentos. Conclusiones: Estos resultados resaltan la necesidad de implementación. de políticas de salud pública para controlar el uso de sodio en la industria alimentaria y para dar a conocer a la comunidad sobre la adición de sal en la preparación de alimentos y la contenida en alimentos preparados


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Industria de Procesamiento de Alimentos/normas , Sodio en la Dieta/normas , Necesidades Nutricionales , Alimentos en Conserva/normas , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Política Nutricional/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Brasil/epidemiología
17.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513805

RESUMEN

While previous studies have reported the association between food portion size and health outcomes, the association between food seasonings and blood pressure (BP) has not been clarified. This study aimed to investigate the association between the portion sizes of traditional Japanese seasonings and BP. Data on 25,738 Japanese participants (10,154 men and 15,584 women) aged ≥20 years registered in the 2012⁻2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) were used for this cross-sectional study. The portion sizes of soy sauce or miso were calculated from the reported weight of soy sauce or miso, and the number of dishes. Regression models were used to estimate BP and prevalence of hypertension, and their 95% confidence intervals according to the portion size of soy sauce or miso. We did not observe an association between the portion sizes of soy sauce or miso and BP. A larger portion size of soy sauce or miso was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension in the crude model among women, but no significant associations were observed in the multivariate model in both sexes. Our findings suggest that the portion sizes of soy sauce or miso are not associated with BP among Japanese adults.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea , Encuestas Nutricionales , Tamaño de la Porción , Alimentos de Soja , Adulto , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/etiología , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumar/epidemiología , Sodio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Alimentos de Soja/análisis
18.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551575

RESUMEN

Excessive dietary sodium is associated with elevated blood pressure (EBP). Bread products are identified as one of the main sources of daily sodium intake. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between bread and others cereal products consumption with EBP. Frequency intake of a standard serving of bread and other cereal products was recorded and categorized as: ≤3 times/month or never (reference category group) and ≥ once/week. EBP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥120 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg. Raw and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the association between consumption of the studied food products and blood pressure status were estimated. Overall, 2011 participants aged 37.3 ± 9.1 years old were included. In the models adjusted for relevant covariates, consumption of one piece of bolillo or telera (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.01⁻1.89) ≥ once/week was associated with an increased risk of EBP, compared to the reference category. Also, participants consuming one bowl of high-fiber breakfast cereal once/week were less likely to have EBP (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.53⁻0.98). Initiatives to reduce sodium levels in bread products such as bolillo and telera are needed in Mexico to help manage the cardiovascular risk at the population level.


Asunto(s)
Pan , Conducta Alimentaria , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/etiología , Adulto , Pan/análisis , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Factores de Riesgo , Sodio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos
19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(23 Pt B): 2996-3011, 2018 12 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522633

RESUMEN

Hypertension, the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease, originates from combined genetic, environmental, and social determinants. Environmental factors include overweight/obesity, unhealthy diet, excessive dietary sodium, inadequate dietary potassium, insufficient physical activity, and consumption of alcohol. Prevention and control of hypertension can be achieved through targeted and/or population-based strategies. For control of hypertension, the targeted strategy involves interventions to increase awareness, treatment, and control in individuals. Corresponding population-based strategies involve interventions designed to achieve a small reduction in blood pressure (BP) in the entire population. Having a usual source of care, optimizing adherence, and minimizing therapeutic inertia are associated with higher rates of BP control. The Chronic Care Model, a collaborative partnership among the patient, provider, and health system, incorporates a multilevel approach for control of hypertension. Optimizing the prevention, recognition, and care of hypertension requires a paradigm shift to team-based care and the use of strategies known to control BP.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/prevención & control , Antihipertensivos/administración & dosificación , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/tendencias , Ejercicio/fisiología , Promoción de la Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Factores de Riesgo , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos
20.
Ann Med ; 50(8): 694-703, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442022

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The association between dietary salt intake and hypertension has been well documented. We evaluated the association between dietary sodium intake and the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) during a mean follow-up of 19 years among 716 subjects from the Oulu Project Elucidating Risk of Atherosclerosis (OPERA) cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dietary sodium intake was evaluated from a seven-day food record. The diagnosis of AF (atrial flutter included) was made if ICD-10 code I48 was listed in the hospital discharge records during follow-up. RESULTS: In the Kaplan-Meier curves, when quartiles of sodium consumption were considered, the cumulative proportional probabilities for AF events were higher in the highest (4th) quartile (16.8%) than in the lower quartiles (1st 6.7%, 2nd 7.3% and 3rd 10.6%) (p = .003). In the Cox regression analysis, sodium consumption (g/1000 kcal) as a continuous variable was independently associated with AF events (Hazard Ratio = 2.1 (95% CI, 1.2 to 3.7) p =.015) when age, body mass index, smoking (pack-years), office systolic blood pressure, left atrium diameter, left ventricular mass index and the use of any antihypertensive therapy were added as covariates. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that sodium intake is associated with the long-term risk of new-onset AF. Further confirmatory studies are needed. Key messages Sodium consumption correlated positively with CV risk factors: age, smoking, SBP, BMI and LDL-cholesterol. When quartiles of sodium consumption were considered, the AF incidence was higher in the highest quartile compared to lower quartiles. Sodium consumption as a continuous variable was independently associated with AF events when age, BMI, smoking, SBP, LAD, LVMI and the use of any antihypertensive therapy were considered.


Asunto(s)
Fibrilación Atrial/epidemiología , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Fibrilación Atrial/sangre , Fibrilación Atrial/etiología , Fibrilación Atrial/fisiopatología , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología
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