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2.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e8, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551011

RESUMEN

In the midst of the COVID-19 epidemic, Spain was one of the countries with the highest number of infections and a high mortality rate. The threat of the virus and consequences of the pandemic have a discernible impact on the mental health of citizens. This study aims to (a) evaluate the levels of anxiety, depression and well-being in a large Spanish sample during the confinement, (b) identify potential predictor variables associated to experiencing both clinical levels of distress and well-being in a sample of 2,122 Spanish people. By using descriptive analyses and logistic regression results revealed high rates of depression, anxiety and well-being. Specifically, our findings revealed that high levels of anxiety about COVID-19, increased substance use and loneliness as the strongest predictors of distress, while gross annual incomes and loneliness were strongest predictors of well-being. Finding of the present study provide a better insight about psychological adjustment to a pandemic and allows us to identify which population groups are at risk of experiencing higher levels of distress and which factors contribute to greater well-being, which could help in the treatments and prevention in similar stressful and traumatic situations.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Salud Mental , Distrés Psicológico , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Trastorno Depresivo/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Renta , Internet , Soledad/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , España/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/diagnóstico , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 15, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532922

RESUMEN

This note introduces a framework incorporating multiple sources of evidence into the response to COVID-19 to overcome the neglect of social and psychological causes of illness. By using the example of psychological research on loneliness and its effects on physical and mental health with particular focus on aging and disability, I seek to open further inquiry into how relevant psychological and social aspects of health can be addressed at policy level.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Política de Salud , Soledad/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406588

RESUMEN

The restrictions enacted during lockdown to limit the spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have led to changes in people's lifestyle habits. In Italy, these restrictions have dramatically changed the way people work and spend their leisure time, also with repercussions on diet and physical activity. An anonymous survey was disseminated via websites and social media to a convenience sample of the Italian population during and immediately after the first lockdown (10 March-18 May 2020). Data collected on 1826 individuals show that lockdown might have worsened the quality of sleep of almost half of the participants in this cross-sectional study. This worsening was associated with a deterioration in crucial determinants of health, such as physical activity and diet (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.18-2.40 and OR 4.19; 95% CI 2.51-6.96, respectively), with symptoms of psychological distress, such as tension (OR 3.88; 95% CI 2.74-5.52) and loneliness (OR 3.27; 95% CI 2.23-4.79), and with the presence of financial problems (some OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.27-2.72; many OR 7.27; 95% CI 3.59-14.73). The multivariate regression analysis models confirmed these associations. This impact on sleep quality was seen especially among females, those with low education level, and those who experienced financial problems.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Pandemias , Sueño , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Soledad , Masculino , Cuarentena , Estrés Psicológico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245057, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411843

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and loneliness in the general population. More specifically, the study focused on prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms, the extent to which individuals with existing symptoms recovered or not, the prevalence of subtypes of loneliness, and the extent to which loneliness before and during this pandemic was associated with anxiety and depression symptoms. METHODS: Data was extracted from the longitudinal LISS panel, based on a probability sample of the Dutch population, with assessments on loneliness in October 2019 (T1) and June 2020 (T4), and anxiety and depression symptoms in November 2019 (T2), March 2020 (T3) and June 2020 (T4; Ntotal = 4,084). Loneliness was examined with the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale and anxiety and depression symptoms with the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5). RESULTS: Repeated measures multivariate logistic regression analyses (RMMLRA) showed a statistical significant lower prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms after the outbreak (T4 = 15.3%) than before (T2 = 16.8%) and during the COVID-19 outbreak (T3 = 17.2%). According to the Reliable Change Index, the distribution of recovery categories (remission, improvement, unchanged and worsening symptoms) after the outbreak did not differ significantly from the distribution of these categories before the outbreak. RMMLRA revealed that the prevalence of emotional loneliness increased significantly after the outbreak (T1 = 18.4%, T4 = 24.8%). Among individuals who were not lonely before and after the outbreak the prevalence of symptoms decreased significantly (T2 = 7.0%, T4 = 4.4%) and, likewise, among those who were not lonely anymore after the outbreak (T2 = 21.5%, T4 = 14.5%). However, the prevalence of symptoms increased significantly among those who became lonely during the pandemic (T2 = 17.9%, T4 = 26.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that this pandemic did not negatively affect the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms nor the normal recovery of symptoms among the general population during the first four months, but that emotional loneliness increased.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , /psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Soledad , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419194

RESUMEN

Loneliness is a pervasive problem recognised as a serious social issue, and the prevailing COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated loneliness to greater prominence and concern. We expect a rise of a massive group of 'lonely' consumers who are deeply entrenched in the social isolation caused by COVID-19. There is an urgent need to revisit the phenomenon of lonely consumers to better prepare academic researchers, public policy makers and commercial managers in the post-COVID-19 era. Thus, this study conducts a synthesised review on past studies of lonely consumers. Based on an inductive analysis of 56 articles, 74 key themes are identified. These key themes are further categorised into five major clusters by way of a co-occurrence network analysis. Respectively, the five clusters address the psychological implications related to the dynamics between nonhuman attachment and consumers' loneliness, the commercial implications related to the paradoxical motivations of affiliation and self-affirmation in product selection and the dual information processing mechanism in response to advertisement appeals, and the social implications related to consumers' well-being in an ageing society and the anthropomorphic companionship in a virtual world. A list of research questions is proposed that concludes the review study.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Soledad , Pandemias , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Humanos
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043590, 2021 01 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468529

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a national lockdown in India from midnight on 25 March 2020, with conditional relaxation by phases and zones from 20 April. We evaluated the impact of the lockdown in terms of healthcare provisions, physical health, mental health and social well-being within a multicentre cross-sectional study in India. METHODS: The SMART India study is an ongoing house-to-house survey conducted across 20 regions including 11 states and 1 union territory in India to study diabetes and its complications in the community. During the lockdown, we developed an online questionnaire and delivered it in English and seven popular Indian languages (Hindi, Tamil, Marathi, Telegu, Kannada, Bengali, Malayalam) to random samples of SMART-India participants in two rounds from 5 May 2020 to 24 May 2020. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the overall impact on health and healthcare provision in phases 3 and 4 of lockdown in red and non-red zones and their interactions. RESULTS: A total of 2003 participants completed this multicentre survey. The bivariate relationships between the outcomes and lockdown showed significant negative associations. In the multivariable analyses, the interactions between the red zones and lockdown showed that all five dimensions of healthcare provision were negatively affected (non-affordability: OR 1.917 (95% CI 1.126 to 3.264), non-accessibility: OR 2.458 (95% CI 1.549 to 3.902), inadequacy: OR 3.015 (95% CI 1.616 to 5.625), inappropriateness: OR 2.225 (95% CI 1.200 to 4.126) and discontinuity of care: OR 6.756 (95% CI 3.79 to 12.042)) and associated depression and social loneliness. CONCLUSION: The impact of COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on health and healthcare was negative. The exaggeration of income inequality during lockdown can be expected to extend the negative impacts beyond the lockdown.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Prestación de Atención de Salud/normas , Diabetes Mellitus/psicología , Salud Mental , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Servicios de Salud , Humanos , India , Modelos Logísticos , Soledad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042824, 2021 01 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472787

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19-related social isolation and stress may have significant mental health effects, including post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression. These factors are thought to disproportionately affect populations at risk of psychopathology, such as adolescents with a history of childhood adversity (CA). Therefore, examining which factors may buffer the impact of COVID-19-related stress and isolation in vulnerable adolescents is critical. The Resilience After the COVID-19 Threat (REACT) study assesses whether emotion regulation capacity, inflammation and neuroimmune responses to stress induced in the laboratory prior to the pandemic predict responses to COVID-19-related social isolation and stress in adolescents with CA. We aim to elucidate the mechanisms that enable vulnerable adolescents to maintain or regain good mental health when confronted with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We recruited 79 adolescents aged 16-26 with CA experiences from the Resilience After Individual Stress Exposure study in which we assessed emotion regulation, neural and immune stress responses to an acute stress task. Our sample completed questionnaires at the start of the UK lockdown ('baseline'; April 2020) and three (July 2020) and 6 months later (October 2020) providing crucial longitudinal information across phases of the pandemic progression and government response. The questionnaires assess (1) mental health, (2) number and severity of life events, (3) physical health, (4) stress perception and (5) loneliness and friendship support. We will use multilevel modelling to examine whether individual differences at baseline are associated with responses to COVID-19-related social isolation and stress. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Cambridge Psychology Research Ethics Committee (PRE.2020.037). Results of the REACT study will be disseminated in publications in scientific peer-reviewed journals, presentations at scientific conferences and meetings, publications and presentations for the general public, and through social media.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Salud Mental , Resiliencia Psicológica , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Estrés Psicológico , Adolescente , Humanos , Soledad , Proyectos de Investigación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113700, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422845

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has transformed day-to-day functioning and exacerbated mental health concerns. The current study examines preliminary feasibility and acceptability of a VA CONNECT - a novel 10-session, manualized telehealth group intervention integrating skills training and social support to develop a Safety & Resilience Plan for Veterans experiencing COVID-related stress. Data from the first 20 participants support the intervention's feasibility and acceptability. Strengths, limitations, and suggestions for improvement of the intervention are noted. Collaboration with other VA researchers would aid in protocol dissemination and evaluation of VA CONNECT's utility for reducing COVID-19-related stress, loneliness, and mental health symptoms.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Evaluación de Necesidades , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Telemedicina , Adulto , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , Soledad/psicología , Masculino , Salud Mental , Apoyo Social , Veteranos
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435368

RESUMEN

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a challenge to global mental health. Loneliness and isolation may put people at higher risk for increased psychological distress. However, there is a lack of research investigating the development of COVID-19-related distress over time. Materials and Methods: We undertook an online survey among general population (N = 1903) in Germany throughout 6 months from the peak transmission period in April to the off-peak period by September 2020. Results: We found that the average prevalence of psychological distress caused by the COVID-19 pandemic significantly rose from 24% to 66% between the peak and off-peak transmission period, respectively. Unemployment rate and loneliness increased negative mental health outcomes, although the number of active COVID-19 cases decreased from April to September. Psychological distress scores increased mostly in female, young, and lonely people. Conclusions: Our results underline the importance of considering innovative alternatives to facilitate employment opportunities, distant contacts, and self-help over the course of the pandemic. Our study highlights the urgent need to pay attention to mental health services specifically targeting female, young, unemployed, and lonely people.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Soledad/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Escolaridad , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Distrés Psicológico , Factores Sexuales , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Desempleo/psicología , Adulto Joven
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e25848, 2021 01 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439851

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Senior centers and other types of clubs provide activities for older adults to address boredom, social isolation, and loneliness. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, most of these activities have been cancelled. A limited range of web-based activities have been offered as alternatives. However, the effectiveness of these web-based group activities for older adults has scarcely been researched. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to understand the extent to which web-based activities for older adults provide an adequate substitute for in-person activities. METHODS: In this telephone survey, we interviewed 105 older adults in Israel who had been offered the opportunity to participate in web-based activities after routine activities closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the total sample, 49/105 (46.7%) participated in the activities and 56/105 (53.3%) did not. We inquired about the respondents' background characteristics, satisfaction with the activities, and reasons for participation or nonparticipation. RESULTS: The respondents who participated in the web-based activities tended to be highly satisfied with at least some of them. They rated the enjoyment derived from the content of the activity as the most important motivator, followed by maintaining a routine and by enjoying the group and the presence of others. Over 50% of the participants (28/49, 57%) wished to continue with the exercise programming after the end of the COVID-19 pandemic, and 41% (20/49) wished to continue with the web-based lectures. Participants were more likely to report partaking in alternative activities than nonparticipants (P=.04). The most common reasons cited by nonparticipants were being unaware of the web-based program (24/56, 43%) despite a notification having been sent to the entire sample, lack of interest in the content (18/56, 32%), and technical issues (13/56, 23%), such as not owning or being able to fully use a computer. Both participants and nonparticipants were interested in a wide range of topics, with many being very particular about the topics they wished to access. Approximately half expressed willingness to pay for access; those who were willing to pay tended to have more years of education (P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a need for web-based activities for countering boredom and feelings of isolation. The main factors that influence the use, efficacy, and sustainability of online activities are access, motivational and need-fulfilling factors, and whether the activities are sufficiently tailored to individuals' preferences and abilities. Challenges in substituting in-person services are promoting social relationships that are currently not sufficiently incorporated into most web-based programs, accommodating a wider range of topics, and increasing the accessibility of current programs to older adults, especially those who are homebound, both during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Internet , Satisfacción Personal , Conducta Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Tedio , Femenino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiología , Soledad , Masculino , Motivación , Pandemias , Aislamiento Social , Teléfono
12.
Am J Nurs ; 121(2): 72, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497137

RESUMEN

As stories of dying alone from COVID-19 pervade the news, a reminder of the intimacy and love that can surround a hospice patient's last moments.


Asunto(s)
/enfermería , Cuidados Paliativos al Final de la Vida/psicología , Rol de la Enfermera/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Humanos , Soledad/psicología
14.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e16, 2021 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461639

RESUMEN

AIMS: It remains unclear whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having an impact on suicide rates (SR). Economic insecurity and mental disorders are risk factors for suicide, which may increase during the pandemic. METHODS: Data on suicide events in a major city in Germany, and the corresponding life years (LY) were provided by the local authorities. For the year 2020, periods without restrictions on freedom of movement and social contact were compared with periods of moderate and severe COVID-19 restrictions. To avoid distortions due to seasonal fluctuations and linear time trends, suicide risk during the COVID-19 pandemic was compared with data from 2010 to 2019 using an interrupted time series analysis. RESULTS: A total of 643 suicides were registered and 6 032 690 LY were spent between 2010 and 2020. Of these, 53 suicides and 450 429 LY accounted for the year 2020.In 2020, SR (suicides per 100 000 LY) were lower in periods with severe COVID-19 restrictions (SR = 7.2, χ2 = 4.033, p = 0.045) compared with periods without restrictions (SR = 16.8). A comparison with previous years showed that this difference was caused by unusually high SR before the imposition of restrictions, while SR during the pandemic were within the trend corridor of previous years (expected suicides = 32.3, observed suicides = 35; IRR = 1.084, p = 0.682). CONCLUSIONS: SR during COVID-19 pandemic are in line with the trend in previous years. Careful monitoring of SR in the further course of the COVID-19 crisis is urgently needed. The findings have regional reference and should not be over-generalised.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Pandemias , Cuarentena/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Suicidio/psicología , Suicidio/tendencias , /epidemiología , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Soledad/psicología , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Intento de Suicidio/psicología
15.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 92: 104254, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957019

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To examine the experiences and needs of Asian older adults who are socially isolated and lonely living in Asian and western countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six databases were searched for qualitative studies from each database's inception to December 2019. Qualitative data were meta-summarized and then meta-synthesized. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were included in this review. Five themes emerged: (1) association with older adults' well-being, (2) loss of social support, (3) dealing with social isolation and loneliness (4) unique experiences of Asian older adults in western countries, and (5) wish list of older adults. The older adults felt psychologically down and experienced a lack of social support from their family members. They coped using strategies such as religious reliance and social engagement with peers. Asian older adults in western countries faced cultural barriers and tried to form ethnic communities. The older adults wished for more community resources and care. CONCLUSION: There were multiple associations of social isolation and loneliness on the Asian older adults' well-being and social support. Coping mechanisms such as acceptance and social engagement were adopted. They expressed support needs such as social programs and healthcare services. More geographically distributed studies are needed to gather a more comprehensive and causality-related perspectives of socially isolated and lonely older adults. Lay-led programs, technology, and active coping strategies are proposed and can be incorporated in healthcare services and social programs to assist these older adults.


Asunto(s)
Soledad , Aislamiento Social , Anciano , Emociones , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Apoyo Social
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113658, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360428

RESUMEN

This is the first study to examine the association between COVID-19 related variables and loneliness among young adults in South Africa during COVID-19. Participants (N=337) were university students who completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and five selected subscales of the WHO COVID-19 Behavioural Insights Tool. The mean loneliness scores were significantly higher than previous studies in other contexts as well as studies conducted in the time of COVID-19. Correlational analysis found that greater perceived risk of infection, limited perceived knowledge of COVID-19 and lower appraisals of resilience were associated with increased loneliness. In a regression analysis, when all COVID-19 variables were considered simultaneously, only resilience, self-rated knowledge, and risk perception emerged as significant correlates of loneliness. These findings suggest that loneliness is a significant public health concern in South Africa in the time of COVID-19. It also suggests that self-efficacy and resilience can potentially be reinforced by public health campaigns that focus on enhancing COVID-19-related knowledge and preparedness.


Asunto(s)
Soledad/psicología , /psicología , Correlación de Datos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoeficacia , Sudáfrica , Adulto Joven
17.
Psychol Trauma ; 13(1): 9-15, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382329

RESUMEN

Objective: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic represents an acute worldwide public health crisis causing an immediate disruption to every demographic group. One group significantly affected both educationally and psychosocially is college students, as they experienced an abrupt cancellation of in-person courses, were forced to leave their dormitories, and witnessed a loss of social activities. Method: This study utilizes survey data from college students in the throes of COVID-19-based home schooling collected for a Belgium-based international study including more than 134,000 participants from 28 countries around the world. Two hundred fifty-seven college students from a U.S. university participated in this study. Results: Results indicate that college students are affected by COVID-19 on several levels, including fear of themselves or others in their social network contracting the virus, apprehension about the changes in coursework delivery and unclear instructional parameters, overall loneliness, compromised motivation, and sleep disturbances, as well as anxious and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Analyses reveal a positive relationship between academic frustrations and mental health symptoms, the latter also negatively related to trust in the government regarding the preventive measures being implemented. Worries about becoming infected were positively related to mental health symptoms and negatively related to trust in the government. Results and implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Académico , Salud Mental , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Miedo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Soledad/psicología , Masculino , Motivación/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338556

RESUMEN

AIMS: The objective is to conduct a longitudinal analysis of the effects of the pandemic and alarm situation on the mental health of the general population at three points in time: two weeks after beginning the confinement, after a month, and after two months, when the lockdown was lifted and the country returned to the new normality. METHODS: The evaluations were carried out by means of an online survey, with a sample of 3480 persons in the first data collection and 1041 and 569 persons in the successive evaluation periods. The presence of depressive symptoms, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was evaluated by means of screening tests. Sociodemographic data, Covid-19 variables, loneliness, psychological well-being, social support, discrimination and a sense of belonging, were collected. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms increased significantly throughout the confinement, decreasing at the last assessment but not dropping to previous levels. In anxiety, there are no significant changes between the three evaluations, but a downward trend can be seen over time. Regarding the symptomatology of PTSD, a downward trend is observed throughout the three evaluations, with significantly lower scores between the first and third assessments. The different regression models developed reveal the importance of perceived loneliness and spiritual well-being as the main predictors of mental health, as well as the importance of the lower age for depression and the female gender for anxiety and PSTD. CONCLUSIONS: This research shows that the pandemic has had a negative impact on our mental health, which still does not seem to be at pre-crisis levels, although it has improved as the emergency situation subsides. These results underline the importance of paying greater attention to mental health, and reveal key variables such as spiritual well-being and perceived loneliness in which to intervene from different care services, as well as younger people and women as vulnerable groups on which to focus more attention.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Salud Mental/tendencias , Cuarentena/psicología , Cuarentena/tendencias , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Soledad/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Apoyo Social , España/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113648, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348199

RESUMEN

This study sought to examine if mental health issues, namely depression and anxiety symptoms, and loneliness were experienced differently according to various demographic groups during the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., a societal stressor). An online survey, comprising demographic questions and questionnaires on depression, anxiety and loneliness symptoms, was distributed in Canada during the height of social distancing restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Respondents (N=661) from lower income households experienced greater anxiety, depression and loneliness. Specifically, loneliness was greater in those with an annual income <$50,000/yr versus higher income brackets. Younger females (18-29yr) displayed greater anxiety, depressive symptoms and loneliness than their male counterparts; this difference did not exist among the other age groups (30-64yr, >65yr). Moreover, loneliness scores increased with increasing depression and anxiety symptom severity category. The relationship between loneliness and depression symptoms was moderated by gender, such that females experienced higher depressive symptoms when encountering greater loneliness. These data identify younger females, individuals with lower income, and those living alone as experiencing greater loneliness and mental health challenges during the height of the pandemic in Canada. We highlight the strong relationship between loneliness, depression and anxiety, and emphasize increased vulnerability among certain cohorts.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Soledad/psicología , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Canadá , Costo de Enfermedad , Trastorno Depresivo/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348548

RESUMEN

As the number of older adults with dementia increases, early diagnosis and intervention are crucially important. The purpose of this study was to conduct dementia screening on older adults to determine whether there are differences in depression, loneliness, social support, daily activities of living, and life satisfaction between older adults at high-risk for dementia compared with low-risk older adults. We hypothesized a negative relationship between high-risk older adults and these factors. This study also hypothesized a moderating effect for social support on the relationship between daily living activities and life satisfaction. This study used a cross-sectional design with survey data. Participants were recruited at 15 public community health centers in South Korea. A total of 609 older adults (male 208, female 401) living in the community were screened for early dementia, and 113 participants (18.9%) were assigned to the high-risk group. As hypothesized, participants in the high-risk group showed significantly more negative results in terms of activities of daily living, depression, loneliness, social support, and life satisfaction compared with participants in the low-risk group. The findings of this study provide a theoretical basis for the importance of early screening for dementia and policies for effective dementia prevention.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Demencia/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Soledad , Satisfacción Personal , Apoyo Social , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , República de Corea
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