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1.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 110-118, Ene-Abri, 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229033

RESUMEN

Objetivo: La soledad se asocia a la discapacidad funcional en la población mayor, aunque se sabe poco sobre el papel de la afectividad en esta relación. Nos proponemos explorar el efecto mediador de la afectividad en la relación entre funcionalidad y soledad, controlando el efecto de las variables relevantes. Métodos: Se administró la Escala de Soledad de la Universidad de California-16, la Escala de Funcionalidad Geriátrica, las Escalas de Afecto Positivo y Negativo-14 y la Escala de Depresión Geriátrica-8 a 489 adultos mayores (65–100 años), 428 de residencias geriátricas y 61 de la comunidad. Resultados: Los residentes en una institución, mujeres, viudos, con baja educación, más discapacidad funcional, más afecto negativo, menos afecto positivo y más síntomas depresivos reportaron más soledad. Controlando el efecto de los síntomas depresivos, género, situación residencial, estado civil y educación, solo el afecto positivo medió, parcialmente, la relación entre funcionalidad y soledad. Conclusión: Se sugieren intervenciones para aumentar la concienciación por parte de los adultos mayores en los perfiles personalizados de afecto positivo, aliviando así los sentimientos de soledad en los que sufren limitaciones funcionales (especialmente mujeres, con síntomas depresivos, viudos, residiendo en una institución y con bajo nivel educativo).(AU)


Objective: Research has shown that loneliness is associated with functional disability in the older population. However, little is known about the role of affectivity in this relationship. The present study explored a mediation model in which affectivity was hypothesized to mediate the re-lationship between functionality and loneliness, controlling for the effect of relevant variables.Methods:The University of California Loneliness Scale-16 items, Geriatric Functionality Scale, Positive and Negative AffectSchedule-14, and Geriatric Depression Scale-8 were administered to 489 old adults (65–100 years old), 428 from social care homes (SCH), and 61 from the community.Results:Those from SCH, women, widowed, withlow education, more functional disability, more negative affect, less posi-tive affect, and more depressive symptoms reported more loneliness. Con-trolling for the effect of depressive symptoms, gender, residential status, marital status, and education, only positive affect mediated, partially, the relationship between functionality and loneliness.Conclusion:We suggest implementing interventions that increase older adults' insights in personal-ized patterns of positive affect and, consequently, ease feelings of loneli-ness in older people suffering from functional limitations (especially wom-en, with depressive symptoms, widowed, residing in an institution, and with low educational level).(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Casas de Salud , Soledad/psicología , Salud del Anciano , Afecto , Envejecimiento/psicología
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299098, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564616

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, Sweden implemented social distancing measures to reduce infection rates. However, the recommendation meant to protect individuals particularly at risk may have had negative consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on very old Swedish peoples' mental health and factors associated with a decline in mental health. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among previous participants of the SilverMONICA (MONItoring of Trends and Determinants of CArdiovascular disease) study. Of 394 eligible participants, 257 (65.2%) agreed to participate. Of these, 250 individuals reported mental health impact from COVID-19. Structured telephone interviews were carried out during the spring of 2021. Data were analysed using the χ2 test, t-test, and binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 250 individuals (mean age: 85.5 ± 3.3 years, 54.0% women), 75 (30.0%) reported a negative impact on mental health, while 175 (70.0%) reported either a positive impact (n = 4) or no impact at all (n = 171). In the binary logistic regression model, factors associated with a decline in mental health included loneliness (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) (3.87 [1.83-8.17]) and difficulty adhering to social distancing recommendations (5.10 [1.92-13.53]). High morale was associated with positive or no impact on mental health (0.37 [0.17-0.82]). CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of very old people reported a negative impact on mental health from the COVID-19 pandemic, primarily from loneliness and difficulty adhering to social distancing measures, while high morale seemed to be a protective factor.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Masculino , COVID-19/epidemiología , Suecia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Soledad
4.
Yale J Biol Med ; 97(1): 93-98, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559456

RESUMEN

Background: Becoming a parent has been highlighted as a period associated with increased risks for loneliness, with around one-third of parents reporting feeling lonely often or always. However, as most understanding of loneliness is based on elderly or student cohorts, further insights into the costs of parental loneliness is needed. Method: We conducted a literature review of impacts of loneliness in pregnancy and parenthood and present a synthesis of the health, social, societal, and economic costs. We draw on evidence about impacts and costs of loneliness in other cohorts to help provide a wider context to understand the impacts and costs and how parental loneliness differs from other populations. Results: Similar to literature with elderly cohorts, parental loneliness has impacts on health and wellbeing, such as depression in new parents and increased general practitioner (GP) visits in pregnancy. But also has intergenerational impacts via its association with poor mental health and social competence and increased respiratory tract infections in the child. Physical health impacts widely associated with loneliness in other cohorts have yet to be examined in parents. Loneliness in parents is likely to result in social withdrawal further isolating parents and wider societal and economic costs relating to absence from employment and informal caring roles. Conclusion: Parental loneliness has the potential for negative and pervasive impacts. As parental loneliness has wide ranging and intergenerational impacts it is important that a multi-sectoral perspective is used when examining its costs.


Asunto(s)
Soledad , Trastornos Mentales , Niño , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Anciano , Soledad/psicología , Salud Mental , Depresión
5.
Age Ageing ; 53(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600849

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most longitudinal studies found heightened feelings of loneliness in older people in spring 2020 compared to times before the pandemic. However, longer-term effects are more disputed. We, therefore, investigated changes in loneliness in older people throughout the first 21 months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Switzerland and examined the association between the stringency of COVID-19 measures and feelings of loneliness. METHODS: We assessed loneliness (3-item University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) loneliness scale) in a nationally representative longitudinal observational online survey. Older people (65-79 years) were surveyed between March 2020 and December 2021. Proportions of people feeling lonely (UCLA loneliness scale >6) were compared in two stringent phases ('lockdown', Oxford University stringency index ≥55) and two less restricted phases. Additionally, we explored the situation of potentially more susceptible subgroups (living alone, women, chronic and mental diseases, low educational level and low income). RESULTS: Phases with stringent measures were associated with higher levels of loneliness in older people. People living alone, women, people with noncommunicable or mental disease diagnoses and lower income show consistently higher levels of loneliness. However, the differences are not accentuated in phases with more stringent measures. We found little differences between subgroups with varying educational levels. CONCLUSIONS: Even in a country with relatively less stringent COVID-19 measures like Switzerland, an increase in the proportion of older people that feel lonely could be found during phases with more stringent COVID-19 measures. Lockdown phases should, therefore, be accompanied by evidence-based interventions to relieve loneliness to avoid adverse short- and long-term consequences.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Soledad , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Pandemias , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Longitudinales
6.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e080399, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580366

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: There are around 20 studies identifying the prevalence of chronic loneliness and chronic social isolation in older adults. However, there is an absence of a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression that consolidates the available observational studies. Therefore, our objective was to address this knowledge gap. Here, we present the study protocol for this upcoming work. Such knowledge can help in addressing older individuals at risk for chronic loneliness and chronic social isolation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Established electronic databases will be searched. Observational studies reporting the prevalence of chronic loneliness and chronic social isolation among individuals aged 60 years and over will be included. Disease-specific samples will be excluded. The focus of data extraction will be on methods, sample characteristics and key findings. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) standardised critical appraisal instrument for prevalence studies will be used for assessing the quality of the studies. Two reviewers will be responsible for carrying out the study selection, data extraction and assessment of study quality. The results will be presented through the use of figures, tables, narrative summaries and a meta-analysis and meta-regression. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No primary data will be collected. Thus, there is no need for approval from an ethics committee. We intend to share our results through publication in a peer-reviewed journal.


Asunto(s)
Soledad , Aislamiento Social , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación , Prevalencia , Metaanálisis como Asunto
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8185, 2024 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589428

RESUMEN

People regularly form one-sided, "parasocial" relationships (PSRs) with targets incapable of returning the sentiment. Past work has shown that people engage with PSRs to support complex psychological needs (e.g., feeling less lonely after watching a favorite movie). However, we do not know how people rate these relationships relative to traditional two-sided relationships in terms of their effectiveness in supporting psychological needs. The current research (Ntotal = 3085) examined how PSRs help people fulfil emotion regulation needs. In Studies 1 and 2, participants felt that both their YouTube creator and non-YouTube creator PSRs were more effective at fulfilling their emotional needs than in-person acquaintances, albeit less effective than close others. In Study 3, people with high self-esteem thought PSRs would be responsive to their needs when their sociometer was activated, just as they do with two-sided relationships.


Asunto(s)
Regulación Emocional , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Humanos , Emociones , Soledad , Amigos
8.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1374522, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584914

RESUMEN

Background: Mobile phone addiction has adverse influences on the physical and mental health of college students. However, few studies shed light on the effect of fear of missing out on mobile phone addiction and the underlying mechanisms among college students. Methods: To explore their associations, the present study used the Fear of Missing Out Scales (FoMOS), Loneliness Scale (USL-8), Mobile Phone Addiction Index Scale (MPAI), and Depression-Anxiety-Stress Questionnaire (DASS-21) to investigate 750 college students. Results: The results suggested that fear of missing out significantly positively predicted mobile phone addiction. This direct effect could be mediated by depression, and the indirect effect of fear of missing out on mobile phone addiction could be moderated by loneliness. Specifically, the indirect effect was stronger for students with high levels of loneliness. Conclusion: This study provides a theoretical basis for developing future interventions for mobile phone addiction in higher education students.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Soledad , Humanos , Miedo , Estudiantes , Adicción a la Tecnología
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1010, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605388

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Workplace social isolation and loneliness have been found to result in a decline in job satisfaction and an increase in burnout among working individuals. The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated feelings of loneliness and social isolation among healthcare workers. The majority of research on healthcare worker experiences is conducted in siloes which does not reflect the shared experiences of interprofessional teams. The purpose of this study is to understand stress from social isolation or loneliness across the entire clinical and non-clinical healthcare team over the course of the pandemic. METHODS: Data was acquired using a cross-sectional survey distributed to healthcare workers once a year at a large academic medical center in the Southeastern United States during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2022). Information pertaining to job role, work location, and demographic factors was collected. Participants were also asked to assess individual well-being and resilience, in addition to reporting stress derived from various sources including job demands and social isolation or loneliness. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were conducted to assess the association between stress from social isolation or loneliness and individual characteristics. RESULTS: Stress from social isolation or loneliness was found to decrease over the survey period across all measured variables. Trainees and physician-scientists were found to report the highest rates of this stressor compared to other job roles, while Hospital-Based ICU and Non-ICU work locations reported the highest rates of loneliness and social isolation stress. Younger workers and individuals from marginalized gender and racial groups were at greater risk for stress from social isolation or loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of social connections for well-being and job performance, organizations have a responsibility to create conditions and mechanisms to foster social connections. This includes establishing and reinforcing norms of behavior, and developing connection mechanisms, particularly for groups at high risk of loneliness and social isolation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Soledad , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Aislamiento Social , Personal de Salud
10.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230860

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was twofold: to validate the Watching TV Series Motives Questionnaire (WTSMQ) for the Portuguese population and to understand its relationship with loneliness. WTSMQ was validated through an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Besides, multi-group CFAs according to gender were conducted having been tested four levels of measurement invariance: configural, metric, scalar, and error variance. Several multiple linear regressions were carried out to estimate the relationship between sociodemographics, series preferences, loneliness and watching TV series motives. Results showed that the Portuguese version of WTSMQ presents good psychometric properties and that configural and metric were achieved, but not scalar and error variance invariance providing some evidence that the WTSMQ operates similarly in males and females. Results also showed that gender, age, TV series preferences, and loneliness contribute to explain different dimensions of Watching TV Series Motives. Also, sociodemographic variables, TV series preferences and WTSMQ subscales explain loneliness. The relationship between the motives for binge-watching and loneliness is bidirectional; sociodemographic variables and series preferences that explain those motives and loneliness overlap. Implications for tracking problematic Binge-watching situations are discussed. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Soledad/psicología , Televisión/tendencias , Motivación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis Factorial , Portugal
11.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 26(1): 22-30, mar. 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-231849

RESUMEN

La soledad es un factor social que afecta a personas de todas las edades, perjudicando su salud y aumentando la utilización de servicios sociosanitarios. Su abordaje requiere una perspectiva comunitaria integral, ya que es un sentimiento subjetivo con consecuencias complejas en la salud y en el bienestar. En una sociedad envejecida, la soledad se convierte en un problema de salud pública significativo, especialmente entre las personas mayores. Por ello, este estudio se centra en los servicios de ayuda en el hogar (Servicio de Axuda no Fogar, SAF) en Galicia y su papel en la lucha contra la soledad, con el objetivo de comprender este sentimiento entre las personas usuarias del SAF y recopilar sus opiniones para entender cómo abordarla y diseñar estrategias intersectoriales y participativas que permitan ayudar a disminuirla. Los resultados iniciales muestran que más del 50% de los usuarios del SAF se sienten solos. A través de la elaboración de un cuestionario propio y de mediciones utilizando la escala de soledad UCLA, el estudio destaca la importancia de la colaboración comunitaria y la necesidad de difundir los resultados para orientar intervenciones futuras. Se concluye que los SAF tienen un potencial significativo para mejorar el bienestar de los usuarios y abordar la soledad, un factor social determinante de la salud. (AU)


Loneliness is a social factor that impacts individuals of all ages, impairing their health and increasing the use of socio-health services. Tackling this requires a comprehensive community perspective, as it is a subjective feeling with complex consequences for health and well-being. In an aging society, loneliness becomes a significant public health issue, especially among the elderly. Therefore, this study focuses on Home Help Services (SAF) in Galicia and their role in responding to loneliness. The main aim is to understand this feeling among SAF users, gather their opinions on how to tackle this, and devise intersectoral and participatory strategies to reduce loneliness. Initial results reveal that over 50% of SAF users feel lonely. By means of a customized questionnaire and measurements using the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the study underscores the importance of community collaboration and the need to disseminate results to guide future interventions. It is concluded that SAF has significant potential to improve user well-being and tackle loneliness, a decisive social factor on health. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Soledad , Participación de la Comunidad , Atención Primaria de Salud , Envejecimiento , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5465, 2024 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443584

RESUMEN

Evidence on the intergenerational continuity of loneliness and on potential mechanisms that connect loneliness across successive generations is limited. We examined the association between loneliness of (G0) parents (859 mothers and 570 fathers, mean age 74 years) and their children (G1) (433 sons and 558 daughters, mean age 47 years) producing 991 parent-offspring pairs and tested whether these associations were mediated through subjective socioeconomic position, temperament characteristics, cognitive performance, and depressive symptoms. Mean loneliness across parents had an independent effect on their adult children's experienced loneliness (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.23-2.42). We also found a robust effect of mothers' (OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.17-2.29), but not of fathers' loneliness (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 0.96-2.25) on offspring's experienced loneliness in adulthood. The associations were partly mediated by offspring depressive (41-54%) and anxiety (29-31%) symptoms. The current findings emphasize the high interdependence of loneliness within families mediated partly by offspring's mental health problems.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Soledad , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Finlandia , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Madres
13.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 5(3): e214-e226, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432249

RESUMEN

Both frailty (reduced physiological reserve) and social vulnerability (scarcity of adequate social connections, support, or interaction) become more common as people age and are associated with adverse consequences. Analyses of the relationships between these constructs can be limited by the wide range of measures used to assess them. In this systematic review, we synthesised 130 observational studies assessing the association between frailty and social vulnerability, the bidirectional longitudinal relationships between constructs, and their joint associations with adverse health outcomes. Frailty, across assessment type, was associated with increased loneliness and social isolation, perceived inadequacy of social support, and reduced social participation. Each of these social vulnerability components was also associated with more rapid progression of frailty and lower odds of improvement compared with the absence of that social vulnerability component (eg, more rapid frailty progression in people with social isolation vs those who were not socially isolated). Combinations of frailty and social vulnerability were associated with increased mortality, decline in physical function, and cognitive impairment. Clinical and public health measures targeting frailty or social vulnerability should, therefore, account for both frailty and social vulnerability.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Fragilidad , Humanos , Vulnerabilidad Social , Soledad , Salud Pública
14.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 120, 2024 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439109

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Becoming a caregiver can be a transformative journey with profound, multifaceted implications for well-being. However, existing research predominantly emphasizes the negative aspects of caregiving, paying less attention to the positive sides. This study aims to explore the impact of transitioning into a caregiving role on various well-being indicators, such as negative hedonic, positive hedonic, eudaimonic, and social well-being. METHODS: We use Norwegian panel data (2019-2021) and employ a combination of nearest-neighbour matching and a difference-in-differences approach to analyse well-being trajectories among new caregivers (n = 304) and non-caregivers (n = 7822). We assess ten items capturing the dimensions of negative hedonic (anxiousness, sadness, and worriedness), positive hedonic (happiness and life satisfaction), eudaimonic (contributing to others' happiness, engagement, and meaning), and social (strong social relations and loneliness) well-being. RESULTS: Our results show a general increase in negative hedonic well-being and a decline in positive hedonic well-being for new caregivers. These impacts are larger for caregivers providing daily care, compared to those providing weekly and monthly care, and for those providing care inside rather than outside their own household. We observe only minor differences regarding gender and age. Interestingly, we also notice neutral or beneficial changes for eudaimonic aspects of well-being; of note, caregivers generally experience an increased sense of contributing to others' happiness. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals that adopting a caregiving role often leads to significant psychosocial challenges, especially in intensive caregiving situations. However, it also uncovers potential positive influences on eudaimonic aspects of well-being. Future research should explore underlying explanatory mechanisms, to inform strategies that enhance caregivers' well-being.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Cuidadores , Humanos , Noruega , Análisis por Conglomerados , Soledad
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 172, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429635

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Whether perceived stress is associated with loneliness and depressive symptoms in general adults, and to what extent sleep quality mediates the associations, remains unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the associations of perceived stress with loneliness and depressive symptoms, and the mediating role of sleep quality in these associations. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on 734 participants (aged 18-87 years) were analyzed. Perceived stress was assessed using the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10; range 0-40). Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI; range 0-21). Loneliness was assessed using the three-item short form of the Revised University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) loneliness scale (range 3-9). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD-10) Scale (range 0-30). General linear regression models, multivariable logistic regression models, and formal mediation analysis were performed. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and sex, we found that with each 1-point increment in the perceived stress score, both the loneliness score (ß = 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06, 0.08) and depression score (ß = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.49) increased significantly. Robust results were observed when adjusting for more confounders. Furthermore, sleep quality mediated 5.3% (95% CI: 1.3%, 10.0%; P = 0.014) and 9.7% (95% CI: 6.2%, 14.0%; P < 0.001) of the associations of perceived stress score with loneliness score and depression score, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In general Chinese adults, perceived stress was positively associated with loneliness and depressive symptoms, and sleep quality partially mediated these associations. The findings reveal a potential pathway from perceived stress to mental health through sleep behaviors, and highlight the importance of implementing sleep intervention programs for promoting mental health among those who feel highly stressed.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Soledad , Pruebas Psicológicas , Autoinforme , Adulto , Humanos , Depresión/psicología , Soledad/psicología , Calidad del Sueño , Estudios Transversales , Estrés Psicológico
16.
Psychol Rep ; 127(2): 786-806, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462852

RESUMEN

Reactive aggression is an aggressive response to a perceived threat or provocation. It has detrimental effects on individuals and society. Rejection sensitivity, a disposition that one tends to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and intensely react to social rejection, has been associated with reactive aggression. Considering that the mechanism underlying this link remains unclear, this study explores the mediating role of loneliness and maladaptive coping. Participants included 1104 early adults between the ages of 17-23 (Mage = 20.35, SD = 1.11, 33.6% men) in China who completed the Chinese version of the Tendency to Expect Rejection Scale, Loneliness Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and Reactive-Active Aggression Questionnaire. The serial mediation model revealed that loneliness and maladaptive coping independently mediated the association of rejection sensitivity with reactive aggression. More importantly, the chain mediating effect of "loneliness-maladaptive coping" also accounted for this link. The above findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the relationships among these factors and suggested that rejection sensitivity could positively be related to reactive aggression through loneliness and maladaptive coping.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Soledad , Pruebas Psicológicas , Autoinforme , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Femenino , Personalidad
17.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 12(2)2024 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479777

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing globally. Recent research suggests that loneliness could be a potential risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate the association between loneliness and type 2 diabetes and the modifying effect of mental disorders. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study including 465 290 adults (aged ≥16 years) who participated in either the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey or the Danish National Health Survey between 2000 and 2017. Loneliness was based on self-report, while type 2 diabetes was measured using an algorithm combining several health registers including type 2 diabetes patients treated both within the hospital sector and general practice. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up time of 6.3 years, 13 771 individuals (3%) developed type 2 diabetes. Feeling lonely once in a while was associated with a 14% increased risk of type 2 diabetes (95% CI 1.09 to 1.20), while feeling lonely often was associated with a 24% increased risk (95% CI 1.14 to 1.34), independent of sociodemographic factors and body mass index. The association was stronger among individuals without a mental disorder (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.34 among those feeling lonely often) compared with those with a mental disorder (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.23). CONCLUSIONS: Loneliness independently increased the risk of type 2 diabetes. The effect was more pronounced in individuals without a mental disorder, as having a mental disorder itself likely increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. These findings emphasize the importance of addressing loneliness as a modifiable risk factor in preventing type 2 diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Trastornos Mentales , Adulto , Humanos , Soledad , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
18.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299096, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478536

RESUMEN

Given a well-known overlapping prevalence of social isolation with loneliness and depression among older adults, this study aimed to contextually investigate the relationship of these constructs with weight loss of more than 5kg in a year, with a special focus on the intersection of living alone and marital dissolution as key dimensions of isolation. The data were obtained from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) from 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016, and 2018, with an adult sample of those aged 65 and older (n = 5,481). The study evaluated several critical dimensions of social isolation: living alone, transition to living alone, infrequent social contact with children or friends, and infrequent social participation. These dimensions were examined individually and as a composite scale, along with loneliness and depressive symptoms, to determine their association with weight loss of 5kg or greater among older men and women. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) regression models enabled investigation of whether socially isolated men and women tended to lose 5kg or more in weight, given other confounding factors. Surprisingly, the results showed no evidence of such a trend. However, significant associations were found between weight loss and changes in living alone and marital status. For older men, transitioning to living alone without a change in marital status was linked to significant weight loss. For older women, transitioning to living alone following widowhood or divorce was the risk factor. These relationships remained significant even after adjusting for depression and a wide range of covariates. Additional analysis testing a cumulative effect revealed that only depression was a risk factor for being underweight at the last observation. Therefore, to prevent a clinically risky extent of weight loss, health policies for older Koreans should focus on those who transition to living alone, especially due to spousal bereavement or divorce (among women) and separation from living with children (among men).


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Aislamiento Social , Masculino , Niño , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Estudios Longitudinales , Depresión/etiología , Factores de Riesgo , Soledad , Pérdida de Peso , República de Corea/epidemiología
19.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 19(1): 2330233, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493492

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Being of working age while at the same time needing to help a partner with young onset dementia has specific consequences for spouses. Research to date has been sparse concerning this particular group of spouses. The aim of the study was to explore spouses' everyday experiences when living with a person with young onset dementia. METHOD: The study had a descriptive qualitative design with semi-structured interviews with nine spouses. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. RESULT: The interviewed spouses experienced emotions that varied from feelings of loneliness, frustration, and worry to peace of mind. They said that they used coping strategies, which included adopting a positive mindset, adapting to inabilities, adopting an avoidant approach, and finding ways to recharge. Spouses also felt that they could use more support, both formal and informal. CONCLUSION: The spouse of a person with young onset dementia has a range of emotional experiences and has resourceful ways of handling everyday life. Various types of support are offered to spouses, however, they seemed to desire more from health care services.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Humanos , Demencia/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Emociones , Esposos/psicología , Soledad , Cuidadores/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 335: 115826, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479194

RESUMEN

This study examined the effects of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and treatment history on changes in loneliness, social support, and mental health symptoms from before to during the pandemic, and tested loneliness and social support as mediators of the AUD-mental health associations. Participants (n = 427) enrolled in the NIAAA COVID-19 Pandemic Impact on Alcohol Study were categorized into three groups: healthy control (62.3%), nontreatment AUD (14.1%), and treatment AUD (23.7%). Multilevel generalized linear models were conducted to examine changes in loneliness, social support, and mental health symptoms by group. Path analyses tested the mediating roles of loneliness and social support. Loneliness increased during the pandemic, especially in the nontreatment AUD group. Social support decreased in the healthy control and AUD treatment group. Anxiety and depressive symptoms increased in the nontreatment AUD group. Individuals with a history of AUD regardless of treatment history reported greater loneliness, which was linked to higher anxiety and depressive symptoms. Loneliness, but not social support, mediated the AUD-mental health associations. Psychosocial interventions aimed at increasing positive social engagement among individuals with AUD may help alleviate feelings of loneliness and mitigate mental health symptoms. Study findings can also help improve preparedness for future public health crises.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , COVID-19 , Humanos , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Pandemias , Salud Mental , Soledad , Apoyo Social , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología
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