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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 43(2): 180-186, 2023 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36281512

RESUMEN

Background: The incidence of early- and late-onset sepsis and meningitis in neonates due to maternal rectovaginal group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization may differ with serotype distribution and clonal complex (CC). CC17 strains are associated with hypervirulence and poor disease outcomes. GBS serotypes are distinguished based on the polysaccharide capsule, the most important virulence factor. We determined the sequence type distribution of GBS isolates from pregnant women in Korea and validated whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-based prediction of antimicrobial susceptibility and capsular serotypes in GBS isolates. Methods: Seventy-five GBS isolates collected from pregnant Korean women visiting Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Wonju, Korea between 2017 and 2019 were subjected to WGS using the NovaSeq 6000 system (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). Multilocus sequence types, serotypes, antimicrobial resistance genes, and hemolysin operon mutations were determined by WGS, and the latter three were compared with the results of conventional phenotypic methods. Results: The predominant lineage was CC1 (37.3%), followed by CC19 (32.0%), CC12 (17.3%), and CC17 (4.0%). All isolates were cps typeable (100%, (75/75), and 89.3% of cps genotypes (67/75) were concordant with serotypes obtained using latex agglutination. The cps genotypes of the 75 isolates were serotypes III (24.0%), V (22.7%), and VIII (17.3%). All isolates harboring intact ermB and tet were non-susceptible to erythromycin and tetracycline, respectively. Three non-hemolytic strains had 1-bp frameshift insertions in cylE. Conclusions: The low prevalence of CC17 GBS colonization may explain the low frequency of neonatal GBS infections. WGS is a useful tool for simultaneous genotyping and antimicrobial resistance determination.


Asunto(s)
Mujeres Embarazadas , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Streptococcus agalactiae , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Eritromicina , Tetraciclina , Factores de Virulencia/genética
2.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 21(1): 50, 2022 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401296

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of group B streptococcus (GBS) was different among different clonal complexes (CCs), accurate strain typing of GBS would facilitate clinical prognostic evaluation, epidemiological investigation and infection control. The aim of this study was to construct a practical and facile CCs prediction model for S. agalactiae. METHODS: A total of 325 non-duplicated GBS strains were collected from clinical samples in Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai, China. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method was used for molecular classification, the results were analyzed to derive CCs by Bionumeric 8.0 software. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using Vitek-2 Compact system combined with K-B method. Multiplex PCR method was used for serotype identification. A total of 45 virulence genes associated with adhesion, invasion, immune evasion were detected by PCR method and electrophoresis. Three types of features, including antibiotic susceptibility (A), serotypes (S) and virulence genes (V) tests, and XGBoost algorithm was established to develop multi-class CCs identification models. The performance of proposed models was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). RESULTS: The 325 GBS were divided into 47 STs, and then calculated into 7 major CCs, including CC1, CC10, CC12, CC17, CC19, CC23, CC24. A total of 18 features in three kinds of tests (A, S, V) were significantly different from each CC. The model based on all the features (S&A&V) performed best with AUC 0.9536. The model based on serotype and antibiotic resistance (S&A) only enrolled 5 weighed features, performed well in predicting CCs with mean AUC 0.9212, and had no statistical difference in predicting CC10, CC12, CC17, CC19, CC23 and CC24 when compared with S&A&V model (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The S&A model requires least parameters while maintaining a high accuracy and predictive power of CCs prediction. The established model could be used as a promising tool to classify the GBS molecular types, and suggests a substantive improvement in clinical application and epidemiology surveillance in GBS phenotyping.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Humanos , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , China , Aprendizaje Automático , Antibacterianos/farmacología
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e184, 2022 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408537

RESUMEN

This is the first report on a population-based prospective study of invasive group B streptococcus (GBS) disease among children aged <15 years conducted over a period of 11 years in Japan. This study investigated the incidence and clinical manifestations of invasive GBS disease in children in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, and analysed the serotypes and drug susceptibility of GBS strains isolated during the study period. Overall, 127 episodes of invasive GBS disease were reported in 123 patients. Of these, 124 were observed in 120 patients aged <1 year, and the remaining three episodes were reported in a 9-year-old child and two 14-year-old children with underlying disease. For patients aged <1 year, the incidence rate per 1000 live births was 0.24 (0.15-0.36). The incidences of early-onset disease and late-onset disease were 0.04 (0.0-0.09) and 0.17 (0.08-0.25), respectively. The rate of meningitis was 45.2%, and the incidence of GBS meningitis was higher than that of other invasive diseases among children in Japan. Of the 109 patients for whom prognosis was available, 7 (6.4%) died and 21 (19.3%) had sequelae. In total, 68 strains were analysed. The most common were serotype III strains (n = 42, 61.8%), especially serotype III/ST17 strains (n = 22, 32.4%). This study showed that the incidence of invasive GBS disease among Japanese children was constant during the study period. Because of the high incidence of meningitis and disease burden, new preventive strategies, such as GBS vaccine, are essential.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Humanos , Niño , Japón/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Serogrupo
4.
Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol ; 73(3): 265-273, 2022 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331302

RESUMEN

Objectives: To assess adherence to screening recommendations for the prevention of neonatal sepsis, and describe the prevalence of colonization by Group B streptococcus (GBS) as well as the perinatal outcomes associated with colonization by this bacterium. Material and methods: Retrospective cohort study that included pregnant women at term and their newborns, seen at a private high-complexity clinic in Bogota, between July 1 and December 31, 2019. Adherence to screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in pregnant women colonized with group B streptococcus, as well as the prevalence of colonization and early adverse perinatal outcomes were assessed. Results: Overall, 1928 women were included. Adherence to screening was 68.0 % (95 % CI: 66-70.1) and 87.9 % to intrapartum antibiotic administration (95 % CI: 87.8-88); non-indicated use of antibiotics occurred in 14.7 % of the women, for 86.3 % final adherence to antibiotic prophylaxis. The prevalence of GBS colonization was 12.5 % (95 % CI: 10.7-14.3); the incidence of neonatal hospitalization was 27.5 % (95 % CI: 16.3-33.7). There were no cases of mortality or early neonatal sepsis attributable to screening status, colonization or prophylactic antibiotics for GBS. Conclusions: Additional studies in other centers are required in order to determine adherence to this guideline, particularly in those that receive users affiliated to the subsidized regime which covers the most vulnerable population. Also, new population studies of GBS prevalence and cost-effectiveness of universal screening compared to risk factor-based antibiotic prophylaxis are needed.


Objetivos: evaluar la adherencia a las recomendaciones de tamización para la prevención de la sepsis neonatal, describir la prevalencia de colonización por estreptococo del grupo B y los desenlaces perinatales asociados a la colonización por esta bacteria. Materiales y métodos: estudio de cohorte retrospectiva que incluyó gestantes a término y sus recién nacidos, en una clínica universitaria privada de alta complejidad en Bogotá, entre el 1 de julio y el 31 de diciembre de 2019. Se evaluó la adherencia a la tamización y a la profilaxis antibiótica intraparto para las gestantes colonizadas con EGB, la prevalencia de colonización y los desenlaces perinatales adversos tempranos. Resultados: se incluyeron 1.928 mujeres. La adherencia a la tamización fue de 68,0 % (IC 95%: 66-70,1), a la administración de antibióticos intraparto de 87,9 % (IC 95 %: 87,8 -88), pero hubo uso no indicado de antibióticos en 14,7 % de mujeres para una adherencia final a profilaxis antibiótica de 86,3 %. La prevalencia de colonización por EGB fue 12,5 % (IC 95 %: 10,7-14,3), la incidencia de hospitalización neonatal fue de 27,5 % (IC 95 %: 16,3-33,7); no hubo casos de mortalidad ni sepsis neonatal temprana atribuibles al estado de tamización, colonización o profilaxis antibiótica para EGB. Conclusiones: se requieren nuevos estudios en otras instituciones para determinar la adherencia a esta guía, en especial en aquellas regiones que atienden usuarias adscritas al régimen subsidiado, con cobertura a la población más vulnerable, así como nuevos estudios poblacionales de prevalencia de EGB y costo-efectividad de la estrategia de tamización universal en comparación con la profilaxis antibiótica basada en factores de riesgo.


Asunto(s)
Sepsis Neonatal , Streptococcus agalactiae , Humanos , Colombia , Sepsis Neonatal/epidemiología
5.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364782

RESUMEN

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine if probiotic supplementation in pregnancy reduced maternal Group B streptococcus (GBS) recto-vaginal colonization in pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov, ScienceDirect, and the Cochrane Library) were searched from inception up to February 2022. We included RCTs assessing the effects of probiotic supplementation in pregnancy on GBS recto-vaginal colonization. The primary outcome was GBS-positive recto-vaginal cultures performed at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Secondarily, we evaluated obstetric and short-term neonatal outcomes. A total of 132 publications were identified; 9 full-length articles were reviewed to finally include 5 studies. Probiotic supplementation reduced vaginal GBS colonization: the GBS positive culture rate was estimated at 31.9% (96/301) in the intervention group compared to 38.6% (109/282) in the control group (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.40-0.94, I2 4.8%, p = 0.38). The treatment started after 30 weeks of gestation and was more effective in reducing GBS colonization (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21-0.78, I2 0%, p = 0.55). Probiotic administration during pregnancy, namely in the third trimester, was associated with a reduced GBS recto-vaginal colonization at 35-37 weeks and a safe perinatal profile. Whether this new strategy could reduce the exposition of pregnant women to significant doses of antibiotics in labor needs to be evaluated in other trials.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Probióticos , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Mujeres Embarazadas , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/prevención & control , Streptococcus agalactiae , Vagina , Probióticos/uso terapéutico
6.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(6): e264-e267, 2022 12.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374063

RESUMEN

Group B ß-hemolytic Streptococcus or Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially in premature infants. Current prevention strategies have been effective in reducing the frequency of early onset neonatal sepsis caused by vertical transmission. The incidence of late onset sepsis due to this microorganism has not changed and the route of infection is less clear. In breastfed infants, transmission through breast milk is possible. We report three cases of late group B ß-hemolytic streptococcal infection in breastfed preterm infants whose mothers had mastitis. In all cases, both the breast milk culture and the blood cultures of the neonates developed the same microorganism.


La infección por estreptococo ß-hemolítico del grupo B o Streptococcus agalactiae puede causar morbilidad grave y mortalidad en los recién nacidos, especialmente en prematuros. Las estrategias de prevención actuales han sido eficaces en reducir la frecuencia de sepsis neonatal temprana ocasionada por transmisión vertical. La incidencia de sepsis tardía por dicho microrganismo no se ha modificado y la vía de infección es menos clara. En niños amamantados, la transmisión a través de la leche materna es posible. Se presentan tres casos de infección tardía por estreptococo ß-hemolítico del grupo B en recién nacidos prematuros alimentados con leche materna cuyas madres tenían mastitis. En todos los casos, tanto en el cultivo de la leche materna como en los hemocultivos de los neonatos se desarrolló el mismo microrganismo.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Femenino , Leche Humana , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control
7.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(12): 941-946, 2022 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375095

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Invasive bacterial infection (IBI) causes a significant burden in infants. In this study, we analyzed changes in epidemiology of IBI among infants in Korea. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter-based surveillance for IBIs in infants <3 months of age was performed during 2006-2020. Cases were classified as an early-onset disease (EOD) (0-6 days) or late-onset disease (LOD) (7-89 days). The temporal trend change in proportion of pathogens was analyzed. RESULTS: Among 1545 cases, the median age was 28 days (IQR: 12, 53) and EOD accounted for 17.7%. Among pathogens, S. agalactiae (40.4%), E. coli (38.5%), and S. aureus (17.8%) were the most common and attributed for 96.7%. Among EOD (n = 274), S. agalactiae (45.6%), S. aureus (31.4%), E. coli (17.2%) and L. monocytogenes (2.9%) were most common. Among LOD (n = 1274), E. coli (43.1%), S. agalactiae (39.3%), S. aureus (14.9%) and S. pneumoniae (1.3%) were most common. In the trend analysis, the proportion of S. aureus (r s = -0.850, P < 0.01) decreased significantly, while that of S. agalactiae increased (r s = 0.781, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: During 2006-2020, among IBI in infants <3 months of age, S. agalactiae, E. coli, and S. aureus were most common and an increasing trend of S. agalactiae was observed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Lactante , Humanos , Adulto , Streptococcus agalactiae , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Bacterias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología
8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 39(1): 5, 2022 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346468

RESUMEN

Aureocin A53 is an N-formylated antimicrobial peptide (AMP) produced by Staphylococcus aureus. Aureocin A53 has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against human and animal pathogens. In the present study, its antagonistic activity was investigated towards 30 strains of S. aureus and 30 strains of Streptococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis cases in Brazil. Bovine mastitis is a disease that causes a major economic impact worldwide. Aureocin A53 inhibited the growth of all 60 strains tested, including multidrug-resistant streptococcal isolates and strains of S. aureus belonging to different pulsotypes. This AMP proved to be bactericidal against the six target strains randomly selected among staphylococci and streptococci, also exhibiting a lytic mode of action against the staphylococcal cells. Furthermore, it was determined that 2,048 AU/mL of the AMP were required to inhibit 99.99% of the cell growth of the strain less sensitive to aureocin A53. Aureocin A53 was not toxic to bovine mammary gland epithelial cells after a 24-h exposure and maintained its antimicrobial activity when tested in the excised-teat model against strains of S. aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae, the species responsible for most intramammary infections, not only in Brazil but in other countries as well. Therefore, the use of aureocin A53 in the development of new pharmacological products for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of bovine mastitis was considered promising.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Mastitis Bovina , Infecciones Estafilocócicas , Femenino , Humanos , Bovinos , Animales , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , Péptidos Antimicrobianos , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/veterinaria , Staphylococcus , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Streptococcus , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Adenosina Monofosfato/farmacología
9.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(12): 392, 2022 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329271

RESUMEN

Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a colonizing agent in pregnant women, the main cause of invasive neonatal infections, and the reason of serious diseases in non-pregnant adults. Several virulence determinants are involved in the pathogenesis. These include capsular polysaccharide, surface-localized proteins, and toxins. Penicillin is considered the first choice antibiotic for the treatment and prophylaxis; erythromycin, clindamycin and fluoroquinolones are recommended alternatives for penicillin-allergic GBS carriers or patients. Our objective was to investigate the virulence genetic characteristics and the antimicrobial susceptibility of 162 GBS colonizing and infective isolates recovered in Argentina. Serotypes Ia and III were the most prevalent ones, followed by Ib, II, V, IV and non-typeable. In relation to the 13 virulence genes screened, cpsA, cylE, hylB, lmb, and scpB were the most prevalent and could be postulated as vaccine epitopes; bca, rib, bac, hvgA, spb1, PI, PI-2a, and PI-2b were detected in lesser frequencies. No significant association was found between serotypes or virulence genes and colonizing or infective isolates but, on the contrary, significant association was observed between some genes and the most prevalent serotypes, la and III. The cluster analysis showed 52 virulence profiles and, antimicrobial resistance tests, 16 profiles, some with up to 4 resistances. Tetracycline resistance was significantly associated with colonizing isolates. Genes tetM and ermB conferring resistance to tetracyclines and macrolides, respectively, were the most commonly identified. Our findings show that GBS colonizing and infective isolates circulating in Argentina share similar features in terms of serotype and virulence genes and show a high level of antimicrobial resistance.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Adulto , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Virulencia/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Argentina , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Genotipo , Penicilinas , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
10.
Neurol India ; 70(5): 2145-2148, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352625

RESUMEN

Background: Bacterial meningitis (BM) is an inflammation of the meninges, associated with the invasion of bacteria. The etiologic agents vary by age group. BM because of Group B streptococcus (GBS) is common for the neonatal period but considered as rare in adult patients. Acute BM can have various presentations and adverse effects, such as ischemic stroke in 10% to 29% of the cases. Objective: This study aimed to present a rare case of GBS meningitis presented with cerebral infarction (CI) in an adult patient and to make a brief review of the etiology and incidence of GBS infections in adults. Case Report: We present a case of a 62-year-old female who presented with acute onset of central lesion of the right facial nerve, mild hemiparesis on the right, and partial sensorimotor aphasia. There were no signs of meningoradicular irritation. The pupils were equal, with slow reaction to light, and unaffected eye movements. There was a central lesion of the right facial nerve and mild hemiparesis on the right. Tendon reflexes were unremarkable and Babinski's sign was negative bilaterally. Discussion: This review shows an increasing incidence of cases in elderly patients. A higher risk of GBS is found in adults with more medical comorbidities. CI, as a rare adverse effect in BM, is both a sign for severity and a predictor of a poor clinical outcome with a high lethal rate. GBS infections are a growing problem in older adults and those with chronic medical conditions. The involvement of the central nervous system as meningitis is a less common manifestation with a high lethal rate. Conclusions: CI is a rare adverse effect of neuro infections leading to an even worse clinical outcome. Early recognition of the infection and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are the crucial moments of successful management of GBS disease.


Asunto(s)
Meningitis Bacterianas , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Humanos , Anciano , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Streptococcus agalactiae , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/complicaciones , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Meningitis Bacterianas/complicaciones , Meningitis Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Meningitis Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infarto Cerebral/etiología , Paresia
11.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(6)2022 10 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306123

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early onset sepsis (EOS) in neonates is a scourge that contributes to morbidity and mortality. Prominent stakeholders recommend universal screening of antenatal women for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for those who are carriers. However, there are controversies. Other guidelines allow region-specific protocols due to sociodemographic, geographical and ethnic differences. We planned to analyze the prevalence of GBS rectovaginal carriage at 36-37 weeks gestation and its effect on early neonatal status. METHODS: This prospective multidisciplinary study (Obstetrics, Perinatology, Neonatology, Microbiology and Infectious diseases) was conducted in our tertiary care center between February 2020 and May 2021. RESULTS: In our study group which included 966 mothers who delivered at the hospital, 4.8% of mothers who were screened by genito-rectal swabs were positive for GBS at 36-37 weeks gestation. All these mothers were given IAP as per protocol. Other organisms detected on screening mothers were Candida and Gram-negative bacteria. None of the neonates born to these mothers required any intensive care unit admission or therapy for systemic illness. There was no difference in clinically relevant outcomes between neonates who were born to GBS-positive mothers as compared to those born to negative screen result mothers. CONCLUSIONS: GBS prevalence in our cohort was lower than most scientific reports. The neonates born to carrier mothers did not present with signs of early-onset sepsis.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Sepsis , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Mujeres Embarazadas , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Prospectivos , Prevalencia , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Streptococcus agalactiae , Profilaxis Antibiótica , Sepsis/prevención & control , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico
12.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 74: 117037, 2022 11 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215812

RESUMEN

Adverse pregnancy outcomes affect 54 million people globally per year, with at least 50% of these attributed to infection during gestation. These include inflammation of the membranes surrounding the growing fetus (chorioamnionitis), preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM), preterm birth (PTB), early-onset disease (EOD) and late-onset disease (LOD), neonatal and maternal sepsis, and maternal or fetal demise. Although universal screening and implementation of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) has improved EOD outcomes, these interventions have not reduced the incidences of LOD or complications occurring early on during pregnancy such as PPROM and PTB. Thus, novel therapies are needed to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes and to ameliorate disease risk in vulnerable populations. Lactoferrin has recently been explored as a potential therapeutic as it demonstrates strong antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity. Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein capable of iron chelation found in a variety of human tissues and is produced in high concentrations in human breast milk. In recent studies, lactoferrin has shown promise inhibiting growth and biofilm formation of streptococcal species, including Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a prominent perinatal pathogen. Understanding the interactions between lactoferrin and GBS could elucidate a novel treatment strategy for adverse pregnancy outcomes caused by GBS infection.


Asunto(s)
Nacimiento Prematuro , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Embarazo , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Lactoferrina/farmacología , Lactoferrina/uso terapéutico , Nacimiento Prematuro/tratamiento farmacológico , Factores de Riesgo , Streptococcus agalactiae , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/prevención & control
13.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol ; 2022: 6279343, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303949

RESUMEN

Background: Infection with group B Streptococcus (GBS) is still a neonatal life-threatening illness, especially in developing countries such as Yemen. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the vaginal colonization rate and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of GBS among Yemeni pregnant women. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study over a four-month period involving 210 pregnant women at the 35th to 39th gestational weeks who visited Gaza medical center in Sana'a city, Yemen. The collected vaginal swab specimen was inoculated in the Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth and incubated for 24 h and then subcultured on a 5% human blood agar plate. All positive cultures identified as GBS were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests using the disk diffusion method. Results: Out of 210 recruited pregnant women, 23 (10.95%) were GBS vaginal carriers. All GBS isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, levofloxacin, cefotaxime, and vancomycin. Conclusion: Based on the study's results, approximately eleven out of every 100 pregnant women in Sana'a city are vaginally colonized by GBS. Beta-lactam antibiotics remain the drug of choice to treat and prevent GBS infections. A prenatal screening policy is urgently needed for Yemeni pregnant women.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Mujeres Embarazadas , Estudios Transversales , Yemen/epidemiología , Streptococcus agalactiae , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Vagina , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1036821, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36311806

RESUMEN

Taurine has various biological functions in fish, playing an essential role in growth, resistance to oxidative stress, and intestine immunity. Here, we evaluated the effects of exogenous taurine added to low-fishmeal diets on the growth, anti-oxidative stress, intestine immunity, and Streptococcus agalactiae resistance in juvenile golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus). Our study showed that exogenous taurine supplementation of 1.2% (T3 group) greatly enhanced the weight gain rate and specific growth rate (SGR) of juvenile golden pompano, significantly upregulating growth-related factor expression in the brain and liver, as well as the levels of growth-related parameters in the serum. Polynomial regression analysis using SGR estimated the optimal dietary taurine level for golden pompano at 1.18%. Moderate exogenous taurine also increased the muscular thickness and villus length within the intestine, maintained intestinal physical barrier stability, activated the Nrf2/Keap-1/HO-1 signaling pathway, increased intestinal antioxidant enzyme gene expression and antioxidant enzyme activity in the serum, and upregulated immunoglobulin and complement levels in parallel with declining reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the serum. Antioxidant factor expression was also upregulated in the intestine. Furthermore, supplementation suppressed NF-κB signaling and intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression, increased anti-inflammatory cytokine gene expression, and improved intestine immunity. Finally, taurine supplementation improved the survival rate of golden pompano challenged with S. agalactiae. Overall, our findings provide additional information and support for the rational use of taurine in healthy aquatic animal farming.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Perciformes , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Streptococcus agalactiae , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Perciformes/genética , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Taurina/farmacología , Inmunidad Innata , Dieta/veterinaria , Peces/metabolismo , Intestinos , Citocinas/farmacología
15.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 21(1): 43, 2022 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229877

RESUMEN

Group B streptococci (GBS) are bacteria that can cause preterm birth and invasive neonatal disease. Heterogeneous expression of virulence factors enables GBS to exist as both commensal bacteria and to become highly invasive. A molecular epidemiological study comparing GBS bacterial traits, genotype and host characteristics may indicate whether it is possible to predict the risk of perinatal invasive GBS disease and more accurately target intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. A total of 229 invasive GBS isolates from Swedish pregnant women or neonates were assessed for virulence and phenotypic traits: hemolysis zone, hemolytic pigment (Granada agar), Streptococcus B Carrot Broth (SBCB) assay, CAMP factor, and hyaluronidase activity. Genes regulating hemolytic pigment synthesis (covR/covS, abx1, stk1, stp1) were sequenced. Of the virulence factors and phenotypes assessed, a Granada pigment or SBCB score ≥ 2 captured more than 90% of EOD isolates with excellent inter-rater reliability. High enzyme activity of hyaluronidase was observed in 16% (36/229) of the invasive GBS isolates and notably, in one case of stillbirth. Hyaluronidase activity was also significantly higher in GBS isolates obtained from pregnant/postpartum individuals versus the stillbirth or neonatal invasive isolates (p < 0.001). Sequencing analysis found that abx1 (g.T106I), stk1 (g.T211N), stp1 (g.K469R) and covS (g.V343M) variants were present significantly more often in the higher (Granada pigment score ≥ 2) versus lower pigmented isolates (p < 0.001, each variant). Among the 203 higher Granada pigment scoring isolates, 22 (10.8%) isolates had 3 of the four sequence variants and 10 (4.9%) had 2 of the four sequence variants. Although heterogeneity in GBS virulence factor expression was observed, the vast majority were more highly pigmented and contained several common sequence variants in genes regulating pigment synthesis. High activity of hyaluronidase may increase risk for stillbirth and invasive disease in pregnant or postpartum individuals. Our findings suggest that testing for GBS pigmentation and hyaluronidase may, albeit imperfectly, identify pregnant people at risk for invasive disease and represent a step towards a personalized medical approach for the administration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis.


Asunto(s)
Nacimiento Prematuro , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Agar/metabolismo , Agar/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Hialuronoglucosaminidasa/genética , Hialuronoglucosaminidasa/metabolismo , Hialuronoglucosaminidasa/uso terapéutico , Recién Nacido , Fenotipo , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Nacimiento Prematuro/tratamiento farmacológico , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Mortinato , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus agalactiae , Suecia/epidemiología , Virulencia/genética , Factores de Virulencia/genética , Factores de Virulencia/metabolismo
17.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0112822, 2022 Oct 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36214699

RESUMEN

Streptococcus agalactiae is a common pathogen in aquaculture that disrupts the balance of the intestinal microbiota and threatens fish health, causing enormous losses to the aquaculture industry. In this study, we isolated and screened a Lactococcus lactis KUST48 (LLK48) strain with antibacterial effect against S. agalactiae in vitro and used it as a potential probiotic to explore its therapeutic effect on zebrafish (Danio rerio) infected with S. agalactiae. This study divided zebrafish into 3 groups: control group, injected with phosphate-buffered saline; infection group, injected with S. agalactiae; and treatment group, treated with LLK48 after S. agalactiae injection. Then, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the intestinal microbiota of these 3 groups were sequenced using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that the relative abundance of intestinal bacteria was significantly decreased in the infection group, and a high relative abundance of S. agalactiae was observed. The relative abundance of the intestinal microbiota was increased in the treatment group, with a decrease in the relative abundance of S. agalactiae compared to that in the control group. In the Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins function classification, the relative abundance of each biological function in the infection group was significantly lower than that of the control and treatment groups, showing that LLK48 has a positive therapeutic effect on zebrafish infected with S. agalactiae. This study provides a foundation for exploring the pathogenic mechanism of S. agalactiae on fish and their intestinal symbionts, and also presents a new approach for the treatment of S. agalactiae infections in fish aquaculture systems. IMPORTANCE L. lactis KUST48 (LLK48) with a bacteriostatic effect against S. agalactiae was isolated from tilapia intestinal tracts. S. agalactiae infection significantly reduced the relative abundance of intestinal bacteria and various physiological functions in zebrafish intestines. LLK48 demonstrated infection and subsequent therapeutic effects on the S. agalactiae infection in the zebrafish intestine. Therefore, the potential probiotic LLK48 can be considered as a therapeutic treatment for S. agalactiae infections in aquaculture, which can reduce the use of antibiotics and help maintain fish health.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Peces , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactococcus lactis , Animales , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Pez Cebra/genética , Lactococcus lactis/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Antibacterianos , Fosfatos , Enfermedades de los Peces/microbiología
19.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(10): 1045-1053, 2022 Oct 02.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207852

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the clinical epidemiological characteristics including composition of pathogens , clinical characteristics, and disease prognosis acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in Chinese children. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical and laboratory data of 1 610 children <15 years of age with ABM in 33 tertiary hospitals in China from January 2019 to December 2020. Patients were divided into different groups according to age,<28 days group, 28 days to <3 months group, 3 months to <1 year group, 1-<5 years of age group, 5-<15 years of age group; etiology confirmed group and clinically diagnosed group according to etiology diagnosis. Non-numeric variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, while non-normal distrituction numeric variables were compared with nonparametric test. Results: Among 1 610 children with ABM, 955 were male and 650 were female (5 cases were not provided with gender information), and the age of onset was 1.5 (0.5, 5.5) months. There were 588 cases age from <28 days, 462 cases age from 28 days to <3 months, 302 cases age from 3 months to <1 year of age group, 156 cases in the 1-<5 years of age and 101 cases in the 5-<15 years of age. The detection rates were 38.8% (95/245) and 31.5% (70/222) of Escherichia coli and 27.8% (68/245) and 35.1% (78/222) of Streptococcus agalactiae in infants younger than 28 days of age and 28 days to 3 months of age; the detection rates of Streptococcus pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae were 34.3% (61/178), 14.0% (25/178) and 13.5% (24/178) in the 3 months of age to <1 year of age group; the dominant pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae and the detection rate were 67.9% (74/109) and 44.4% (16/36) in the 1-<5 years of age and 5-<15 years of age . There were 9.7% (19/195) strains of Escherichia coli producing ultra-broad-spectrum ß-lactamases. The positive rates of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and blood culture were 32.2% (515/1 598) and 25.0% (400/1 598), while 38.2% (126/330)and 25.3% (21/83) in CSF metagenomics next generation sequencing and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen detection. There were 4.3% (32/790) cases of which CSF white blood cell counts were normal in etiology confirmed group. Among 1 610 children with ABM, main intracranial imaging complications were subdural effusion and (or) empyema in 349 cases (21.7%), hydrocephalus in 233 cases (14.5%), brain abscess in 178 cases (11.1%), and other cerebrovascular diseases, including encephalomalacia, cerebral infarction, and encephalatrophy, in 174 cases (10.8%). Among the 166 cases (10.3%) with unfavorable outcome, 32 cases (2.0%) died among whom 24 cases died before 1 year of age, and 37 cases (2.3%) had recurrence among whom 25 cases had recurrence within 3 weeks. The incidences of subdural effusion and (or) empyema, brain abscess and ependymitis in the etiology confirmed group were significantly higher than those in the clinically diagnosed group (26.2% (207/790) vs. 17.3% (142/820), 13.0% (103/790) vs. 9.1% (75/820), 4.6% (36/790) vs. 2.7% (22/820), χ2=18.71, 6.20, 4.07, all P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the unfavorable outcomes, mortility, and recurrence between these 2 groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: The onset age of ABM in children is usually within 1 year of age, especially <3 months. The common pathogens in infants <3 months of age are Escherichia coli and Streptococcus agalactiae, and the dominant pathogen in infant ≥3 months is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Subdural effusion and (or) empyema and hydrocephalus are common complications. ABM should not be excluded even if CSF white blood cell counts is within normal range. Standardized bacteriological examination should be paid more attention to increase the pathogenic detection rate. Non-culture CSF detection methods may facilitate the pathogenic diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Absceso Encefálico , Hidrocefalia , Meningitis Bacterianas , Efusión Subdural , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Escherichia coli , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Meningitis Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Meningitis Bacterianas/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus pneumoniae , beta-Lactamasas
20.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(12): 1407-1413, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207553

RESUMEN

Invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections are increasing among adults with underlying health conditions; however, clinical manifestations and serotype distribution remain unclear. This study investigated the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of invasive GBS in Korean adults. GBS isolates from patients with invasive diseases during 2006-2015 were investigated for capsular serotype, multilocus sequence type (ST), antimicrobial susceptibility, and resistance genes. Among the 74 isolates analyzed, the most common serotype was Ib (31.1%), followed by III (21.6%), V (20.3%), Ia (12.2%), and VI (12.2%). Thirteen STs were detected, with ST1, ST10, ST19, and ST23 as the most prevalent. The dominant capsular serotype exhibited by ST1 was V, and those expressed by ST10, ST19, and ST23 were Ib, III, and Ia, respectively. Erythromycin and levofloxacin resistance were observed in 33.8% and 31.1% of the isolates, respectively. ST10-Ib (n = 11/11, 100%) and ST654-Ib (n = 3/3, 100%) were dominant levofloxacin-resistant strains. Serotypes Ib, III, and V were most common among adults, which is inconsistent with recent reports in Korea where III, V, and Ia were predominant in infants. The difference in the serotype distribution between adults and children may be associated with the selective pressure imparted by antibiotics.


Asunto(s)
Levofloxacino , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Lactante , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Epidemiología Molecular , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Streptococcus agalactiae , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Serogrupo , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Derivación y Consulta , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Serotipificación
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