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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734952

RESUMEN

Introduction. Oral tissues are generally homeostatic despite exposure to many potential inflammatory agents including the resident microbiota. This requires the balancing of inflammation by regulatory mechanisms and/or anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria. Thus, the levels of anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria in resident populations may be critical in maintaining this homeostatic balance.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. The incidence of immunosuppressive streptococci in the oral cavity is not well established. Determining the proportion of these organisms and the mechanisms involved may help to understand host-microbe homeostasis and inform development of probiotics or prebiotics in the maintenance of oral health.Aim. To determine the incidence and potential modes of action of immunosuppressive capacity in resident oral streptococci.Methodology. Supragingival plaque was collected from five healthy participants and supragingival and subgingival plaque from five with gingivitis. Twenty streptococci from each sample were co-cultured with epithelial cells±flagellin or LL-37. CXCL8 secretion was detected by ELISA, induction of cytotoxicity in human epithelial cells by lactate dehydrogenase release and NFκB-activation using a reporter cell line. Bacterial identification was achieved through partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and next-generation sequencing.Results. CXCL8 secretion was inhibited by 94/300 isolates. Immunosuppressive isolates were detected in supragingival plaque from healthy (4/5) and gingivitis (4/5) samples, and in 2/5 subgingival (gingivitis) plaque samples. Most were Streptococcus mitis/oralis. Seventeen representative immunosuppressive isolates all inhibited NFκB activation. The immunosuppressive mechanism was strain specific, often mediated by ultra-violet light-labile factors, whilst bacterial viability was essential in certain species.Conclusion. Many streptococci isolated from plaque suppressed epithelial cell CXCL8 secretion, via inhibition of NFκB. This phenomenon may play an important role in oral host-microbe homeostasis.


Asunto(s)
Inmunomodulación , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Microbiota/inmunología , Boca/microbiología , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Streptococcus/inmunología , Células A549 , Línea Celular , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Encía/microbiología , Gingivitis/microbiología , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Streptococcus/clasificación , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750514

RESUMEN

Bacteria of the genus Streptococcus, earlier considered typically animal, currently have also been causing infections in humans. It is necessary to make clinicians aware of the emergence of new species that may cause the development of human diseases. There is an increasing frequency of isolation of streptococci such as S. suis, S. dysgalactiae, S. iniae and S. equi from people. Isolation of Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex bacteria has also been reported. The streptococcal species described in this review are gaining new properties and virulence factors by which they can thrive in new environments. It shows the potential of these bacteria to changes in the genome and the settlement of new hosts. Information is presented on clinical cases that concern streptococcus species belonging to the groups Bovis, Pyogenic and Suis. We also present the antibiotic resistance profiles of these bacteria. The emerging resistance to ß-lactams has been reported. In this review, the classification, clinical characteristics and antibiotic resistance of groups and species of streptococci considered as animal pathogens are summarized.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus/fisiología , Streptococcus/patogenicidad , Zoonosis/microbiología , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/transmisión , Streptococcus/clasificación , Streptococcus/efectos de los fármacos , Virulencia , Zoonosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Zoonosis/transmisión
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526521

RESUMEN

Vertebral osteomyelitis is an infection of the vertebrae that can lead to spinal degeneration, most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus Here, we report an unusual case of pyogenic osteomyelitis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis and Streptococcus parasanguinis in a 61-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient presented with a 2-week history of worsening lower back pain and fever and a recent episode of cystitis following re-engagement of sexual activity. Imaging revealed a deterioration of vertebrae discs and spinal canal stenosis at the L3-L4 levels with a formation of abscess in the right psoas muscle. Needle aspiration of the abscess identified G. vaginalis and S. parasanguinis and the patient was successfully treated with a 6-week course of ceftriaxone and metronidazole. This case describes an unusual coinfection of two pathogens that normally reside in the urogenital tract and oral cavity, respectively, and highlights the risk posed when these organisms breach the body's normal barriers.


Asunto(s)
Discitis/microbiología , Gardnerella vaginalis/aislamiento & purificación , Vértebras Lumbares , Osteomielitis/microbiología , Absceso del Psoas/microbiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Técnicas de Cultivo , Discitis/diagnóstico por imagen , Discitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Discitis/fisiopatología , Femenino , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/microbiología , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteomielitis/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteomielitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Osteomielitis/fisiopatología , Posmenopausia , Absceso del Psoas/diagnóstico por imagen , Absceso del Psoas/tratamiento farmacológico , Estenosis Espinal/fisiopatología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616518

RESUMEN

Introduction. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important human pathogen. Recurrent bacteremia with SDSE has been described previously.Aim. The aims of the study were to establish the genetic relatedness of SDSE isolates with emm-type stG643 that had caused recurrent bacteraemia in three patients and to search for signs of horizontal gene transfer of the emm gene in a collection of SDSE stG643 genomes.Hypothesis. Recurring SDSE bacteremia is caused by the same clone in one patient.Methodology. Whole genome sequencing of 22 clinical SDSE stG643 isolates was performed, including three paired blood culture isolates and sixteen isolates from various sites. All assemblies were aligned to a reference assembly and SNPs were extracted. A total of 53 SDSE genomes were downloaded from GenBank. Two phylogenetic trees, including all 75 SDSE isolates, were created. One tree was based on the emm gene only and one tree was based on all variable positions in the genomes.Results. The genomes from the three pairs of SDSE isolates showed high sequence similarity (1-17 SNPs difference between the pairs), whereas the median SNP difference between the 22 isolates in our collection was 1694 (range 1-11257). The paired isolates were retrieved with 7-53 months between episodes. The 22 SDSE isolates from our collection formed a cluster in the phylogenetic tree based on the emm gene, while they were more scattered in the tree based on all variable positions.Conclusions. Our results show that the paired isolates were of the same clonal origin, which in turn supports carriage between bacteraemia episodes. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that horizontal gene transfer of the emm-gene between some of the SDSE isolates has occurred.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriemia/microbiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus/genética , Antígenos Bacterianos/genética , Proteínas de la Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas Portadoras/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Streptococcus/clasificación , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación
5.
Gene ; 779: 145510, 2021 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600956

RESUMEN

The human gut microbiota in long-living people has been characterized, however, its metabolic potential is still largely unknown in this group. In this study, the gut microbiota was assessed in 37 Chinese long-living participants (aged 90 + years) by metagenomic sequencing of stool samples. Participants were categorized into two groups, healthy long-living (n = 28) and unhealthy long-living (n = 9). Gut microbiota composition and function were compared among these two groups. We found that the gut microbiota in the healthy long-living group was significantly separated from the unhealthy group. The healthy long-living group contained a higher abundance of Bacteroidetes and more functional pathways in energy metabolism, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites. The unhealthy group contained a higher abundance of Streptococcus and other pathogenic bacteria, and also contained more functional pathways for xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism than the healthy group. Additionally, the unhealthy group had decreased levels of carbohydrate-active enzymes, including host-glycan and fiber degrading enzymes, and an increase in starch-degrading enzymes. In conclusion, the gut microbiota of unhealthy long-living people contains more pathogenic bacteria, and the overall gut microbiota may be in an unhealthy state, "dysbiosis", which leads to a decrease in carbohydrate digestion, glycan and thiamine (B1) metabolites, and fatty acid biosynthesis.


Asunto(s)
Disbiosis/microbiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Metabolismo de los Hidratos de Carbono , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Enzimas/genética , Heces/microbiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Metagenoma , Streptococcus/patogenicidad , Factores de Virulencia/genética
6.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 143: 69-78, 2021 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570041

RESUMEN

Streptococcus lutetiensis and S. phocae have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality in northern sea otters Enhydra lutris kenyoni in Alaska, USA, but the route and mechanism(s) of transmission remain unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the competence of common northern sea otter prey to harbor 2 species of pathogenic Streptococcus bacteria. Prey items (bay mussels Mytilus trossulus, butter clams Saxidomus giganteus, Dungeness crab Metacarcinus magister and black turban snails Tegula funebralis) were exposed to known concentrations of exponential phase cultures of S. lutetiensis and S. phocae in seawater for 24 h. A quantitative PCR assay was developed targeting the sodA gene of both S. lutetiensis and S. phocae to quantify DNA in the prey samples. Results (mean ± SD) revealed that butter clams had the highest concentration of bacteria (4.32 × 107 ± 8.20 × 106 CFU ml-1 of S. lutetiensis, 1.20 × 108 ± 2.08 × 107 CFU ml-1 of S. phocae), followed by mussels (4.26 × 107 ± 1.66 × 107 CFU ml-1, 1.16 × 108 ± 5.39 × 107 CFU ml-1), snails (1.90 × 107 ± 5.26 × 106 CFU ml-1, 5.97 × 107 ± 2.07 × 107 CFU ml-1) and crab (1.46 × 107 ± 0 CFU ml-1, 1.64 × 107 ± 0 CFU ml-1). All prey species harbored higher concentrations of S. phocae than S. lutetiensis.


Asunto(s)
Nutrias , Alaska , Animales , Streptococcus
7.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533709

RESUMEN

Introduction . Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a ß-hemolytic streptococcus that causes severe invasive streptococcal infections, especially in the elderly and people with underlying diseases. SDSE strains are primarily characterized by Lancefield group G or C antigens.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. We have previously reported the prevalence of Lancefield group A SDSE (GA-SDSE) strains in Japan and have analysed the draft genome sequences of these strains. As GA-SDSE is a rare type of SDSE, only one complete genome has been sequenced to date.Aim. The present study is focused on genetic characteristics of GA-SDSE strains. In order to examine molecular characteristics, we also tested growth inhibition of other streptococci by GA-SDSE.Methodology. We determined the complete genome sequences of three GA-SDSE strains by two new generation sequencing systems (short-read and long-read sequencing data). Using the sequences, we also conducted a comparative analysis of GA-SDSE and group C/G SDSE strains. In addition, we tested multiplex and quantitative PCRs targeting the GA-SDSE, group G SDSE, and S. pyogenes.Results. We found a group-specific conserved region in GA-SDSE strains that is composed of genes encoding predicted anti-bacteriocin and streptococcal lantibiotic (Sal) proteins. Multiplex and quantitative PCRs targeting the GA-SDSE-specific region were able to distinguish between GA-SDSE, other SDSE, and S. pyogenes strains. The growth of GA-SDSE was suppressed in the presence of group G SDSE, indicating a possible explanation for the low frequency of isolation of GA-SDSE.Conclusion. The comparative genome analysis shows that the genome of GA-SDSE has a distinct arrangement, enabling the differentiation between S. pyogenes, GA-SDSE, and other SDSE strains using our PCR methods.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Técnicas de Cocultivo , Variación Genética , Islas Genómicas , Humanos , Japón , Especificidad de la Especie , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Streptococcus pyogenes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Streptococcus pyogenes/aislamiento & purificación
8.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 5, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397326

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Phlegmonous gastritis (PG) is a rare, suppurative bacterial infection of the gastric wall, which may rapidly evolve into fatal septicemia. The etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood; however, multiple risk factors have been cited in current literature. Most cases have been diagnosed at autopsy, and occasionally at laparotomy, as the clinical presentation is often variable. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 67-year-old male presenting with intractable nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain following an uneventful upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Diagnostic workup including contrast tomography (CT) and endoscopic assessment was in keeping with PG. This was subsequently followed by development of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and clinical deterioration necessitating surgical resection of the stomach. CONCLUSION: This case emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis of this potentially fatal infection that can follow endoscopic procedures and illustrates ACS and septic shock as serious complications. There is currently no consensus on the proper management of PG; however, in this case, a combination of surgery and antibiotics provided a favourable outcome. Limited number of cases of PG have been reported in literature, and to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PG with subsequent ACS as an acute complication.


Asunto(s)
Endoscopía Gastrointestinal/efectos adversos , Gastritis/complicaciones , Hipertensión Intra-Abdominal/etiología , Anciano , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gastritis/diagnóstico , Gastritis/tratamiento farmacológico , Gastritis/microbiología , Humanos , Hipertensión Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico , Masculino , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 27, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397904

RESUMEN

Bacteriophages (phages), or bacterial viruses, are very diverse and highly abundant worldwide, including as a part of the human microbiomes. Although a few metagenomic studies have focused on oral phages, they relied on short-read sequencing. Here, we conduct a long-read metagenomic study of human saliva using PromethION. Our analyses, which integrate both PromethION and HiSeq data of >30 Gb per sample with low human DNA contamination, identify hundreds of viral contigs; 0-43.8% and 12.5-56.3% of the confidently predicted phages and prophages, respectively, do not cluster with those reported previously. Our analyses demonstrate enhanced scaffolding, and the ability to place a prophage in its host genomic context and enable its taxonomic classification. Our analyses also identify a Streptococcus phage/prophage group and nine jumbo phages/prophages. 86% of the phage/prophage group and 67% of the jumbo phages/prophages contain remote homologs of antimicrobial resistance genes. Pan-genome analysis of the phages/prophages reveals remarkable diversity, identifying 0.3% and 86.4% of the genes as core and singletons, respectively. Furthermore, our study suggests that oral phages present in human saliva are under selective pressure to escape CRISPR immunity. Our study demonstrates the power of long-read metagenomics utilizing PromethION in uncovering bacteriophages and their interaction with host bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/virología , Bacteriófagos/genética , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/genética , Metagenómica , Boca/microbiología , Boca/virología , Repeticiones Palindrómicas Cortas Agrupadas y Regularmente Espaciadas/genética , Contaminación de ADN , ADN Viral/genética , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Genes Virales , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Integrasas/genética , Metagenoma , Profagos/genética , Proteómica , Streptococcus/virología
10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244283, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347487

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The selective impact of strategies for prevention of PD-related peritonitis (PDrP) may have modified, in the long term, the causal spectrum, clinical presentation and outcomes of these infections. OBJECTIVES: To compare trends in the incidence of PDrP by different microorganisms during a 30-year period, with a particular focus on streptococcal infections. To analyze the clinical presentation and outcomes of these infections. Secondarily, to investigate how the isolation of different species of streptococci can influence the clinical course of PDrP by this genus of bacteria. METHOD: Following a retrospective, observational design we investigated 1061 PDrP (1990-2019). We used joinpoint regression analysis to explore trends in the incidence of PDrP by different microorganisms, and compared the risk profile (Cox), clinical presentation and outcomes (logistic regression) of these infections. MAIN RESULTS: Our data showed a progressive decline in the incidence of PDrP by staphylococci and Gram negative bacteria, while the absolute rates of streptococcal (average annual percent change +1.6%, 95% CI -0.1/+3.2) and polymicrobial (+1.8%, +0.1/+3.5) infections tended to increase, during the same period. Remarkably, streptococci were isolated in 58.6% of polymicrobial infections, and patients who suffered a streptococcal PDrP had a 35.8% chance of presenting at least one other infection by the same genus. The risk profile for streptococcal infections was comparable to that observed for PDrP overall. Streptococcal PDrP were associated with a severe initial inflammatory response, but their clinical course was generally nonaggressive thereafter. We did not observe a differential effect of different groups of streptococci on the clinical presentation or outcome of PDrP. CONCLUSIONS: Time trends in the incidence of PDrP by different microorganisms have granted streptococci an increasing relevance as causative agents of these infections, during the last three decades. This behaviour suggests that current measures of prevention of PDrP may not be sufficiently effective, in the case of this genus of microorganisms.


Asunto(s)
Diálisis Peritoneal/efectos adversos , Peritonitis/epidemiología , Peritonitis/etiología , Adulto , Anciano , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Diálisis Peritoneal/tendencias , Peritonitis/microbiología , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Streptococcus
11.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371321

RESUMEN

The formation of bacterial biofilms has increased the resistance of bacteria to various environmental factors and is tightly associated with many persistent and chronic bacterial infections. Herein we design a strategy conjugating florfenicol, an antibiotic commonly used in the treatment of streptococcus, with the antimicrobial biomaterial, chitosan oligosaccharides. The results demonstrated that the florfenicol-COS conjugate (F-COS) efficiently eradicated the mature Streptococcus hyovaginalis biofilm, apparently inhibiting drug resistance to florfenicol. A quantity of 250 µg/mL F-COS showed effective inhibitory activity against planktonic cells and biofilm of the bacteria, and a 4-fold improvement of the F-COS compared to unmodified florfenicol was observed. Furthermore, the conjugate showed a broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It suggested that F-COS might have a potential for application in the treatment of biofilm-related infections.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Quitosano/química , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Oligosacáridos/química , Oligosacáridos/farmacología , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Plancton/efectos de los fármacos , Streptococcus/efectos de los fármacos , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Tianfenicol/química , Tianfenicol/farmacología
13.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(5): 576-582, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085245

RESUMEN

Veillonella species, known as the early colonizer of oral biofilm, are prevalent in oral microbiota. Seven Veillonella species have been isolated from oral cavity. Their distribution varies not only with different people but also with different sites in the oral cavity. Oral Veillonella are associated with oral diseases. They contribute to the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and consume the lactate generated by streptococci. Veillonella species play an important role in the occurrence and development of periodontal diseases by providing adhesion sites for Porphyromonas gingivalis and boosting immune responses. The production of lipopolysaccharide and H2S is related to other oral diseases, such as pulpitis, periapical periodontitis, and halitosis. Several studies have been conducted on the relationship between Veillonella and oral diseases and the interaction between Veillonella and other pathological microorganisms, but limited knowledge is available at the molecular level. This article reviews the research progress in the relationship between Veillonella and oral infectious diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal diseases.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Veillonella , Humanos , Streptococcus , Streptococcus mutans
15.
Intern Med ; 59(17): 2089-2094, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879200

RESUMEN

Objective The relationship between gut microbiota and portal hypertension remains unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the gut microbiota in portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices and liver cirrhosis. Methods Thirty-six patients (12 patients with portal hypertension, 12 healthy controls, and 12 non-cirrhosis patients) were enrolled in this university hospital study. Intestinal bacteria and statistical analyses were performed up to the genus level using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method targeting 16S ribosomal RNA genes, with diversified regions characterizing each bacterium. Results Levels of Lactobacillales were significantly higher (p=0.045) and those of Clostridium cluster IV significantly lower (p=0.014) in patients with portal hypertension than in other patients. This Clostridium cluster contains many butanoic acid-producing strains, including Ruminococcace and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Clostridium cluster IX levels were also significantly lower (p=0.045) in portal hypertension patients than in other patients. There are many strains of Clostridium that produce propionic acid, and the effects on the host and the function of these bacterial species in the human intestine remain unknown. Regarding the Bifidobacterium genus, which is supposed to decrease as a result of cirrhosis, no significant decrease was observed in this study. Conclusion In the present study, we provided information on the characteristics of the gut microbiota of portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices due to liver cirrhosis. In the future, we aim to develop probiotic treatments following further analyses that include the species level, such as the intestinal flora analysis method and next-generation sequencers.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensión Portal/microbiología , Cirrosis Hepática/complicaciones , Adulto , Bacterias/genética , Bifidobacterium/aislamiento & purificación , Clostridium/aislamiento & purificación , Várices Esofágicas y Gástricas/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión Portal/etiología , Intestinos/microbiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Probióticos/uso terapéutico , ARN Bacteriano/análisis , ARN Ribosómico 16S/análisis , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación
16.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934151

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Although the airway microbiota is a highly dynamic ecology, the role of longitudinal changes in airway microbiota during early childhood in asthma development is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association of longitudinal changes in early nasal microbiota with the risk of developing asthma. METHODS: In this prospective, population-based birth cohort study, we followed children from birth to age 7 years. The nasal microbiota was tested by using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing at ages 2, 13, and 24 months. We applied an unsupervised machine learning approach to identify longitudinal nasal microbiota profiles during age 2 to 13 months (the primary exposure) and during age 2 to 24 months (the secondary exposure) and examined the association of these profiles with the risk of physician-diagnosed asthma at age 7 years. RESULTS: Of the analytic cohort of 704 children, 57 (8%) later developed asthma. We identified 4 distinct longitudinal nasal microbiota profiles during age 2 to 13 months. In the multivariable analysis, compared with the persistent Moraxella dominance profile during age 2 to 13 months, the persistent Moraxella sparsity profile was associated with a significantly higher risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio, 2.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-6.27). Similar associations were observed between the longitudinal changes in nasal microbiota during age 2 to 24 months and risk of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Children with an altered longitudinal pattern in the nasal microbiota during early childhood had a high risk of developing asthma. Our data guide the development of primary prevention strategies (eg, early identification of children at high risk and modification of microbiota) for childhood asthma. These observations present a new avenue for risk modification for asthma (eg, microbiota modification).


Asunto(s)
Asma/etiología , Microbiota , Nariz/microbiología , Aerococcaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Factores de Edad , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/microbiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Finlandia , Estudios de Seguimiento , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/métodos , Haemophilus/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Aprendizaje Automático , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Moraxella/aislamiento & purificación , Análisis Multivariante , Estudios Prospectivos , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/complicaciones , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Riesgo , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación
18.
S D Med ; 73(7): 318-322, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805782

RESUMEN

Cellulitis is an infection of the dermis and subcutaneous layers of the skin. One challenge in treating the disease is that it is often difficult to identify the causative agent; although ß-hemolytic Streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common causes. In addition, patients who recover from the disease are susceptible to recurrent infections. Here, we briefly review cellulitis and describe a patient's 24-year struggle with recurrent streptococcal cellulitis noting how the patient was negatively affected by changes in care.


Asunto(s)
Celulitis (Flemón) , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Celulitis (Flemón)/diagnóstico , Celulitis (Flemón)/microbiología , Humanos , Piel , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Streptococcus
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 610, 2020 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811432

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Episodes of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are associated with disease severity and progression. Although substantial progress has been made in understanding the dynamics of AECOPD, little is known about the sputum microbiome of AECOPD in the Chinese population. METHODS: In this study, we characterized the sputum microbiomes from sputum specimens collected from healthy controls (n = 10), stable (n = 4), AECOPD (n = 36), and recovery (n = 18) stages by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene with a HiSeq sequencer. RESULTS: Streptococcus was the most dominant genus among all the different types of sputum. A random forest model was developed to identify bacterial taxa that differentiate AECOPD samples from others. Most of the top predictors, except Pseudomonas, were less abundant in AECOPD samples. We also developed random forest models to differentiate subtypes of AECOPD based on blood eosinophil counts, the frequency of AECOPD, and sputum eosinophils. Bacterial taxa associated with Pasteurellaceae, Fusobacterium, Solobacterium, Haemophilus, Atopobium, Corynebacterium and Streptococcus, were enriched in the sputum microbiomes of eosinophilic AECOPD. Random forest models also demonstrate that a total of 2 bacterial OTUs were needed to differentiate frequent from non-frequent AECOPDs, and 23 OTUs were enough to accurately predict sputum-eosinophilic (sputum eosinophilic concentration ≥ 3%) AECOPD. CONCLUSION: This study expanded our understanding of the sputum microbiome associated with different subtypes and clinical status of patients with AECOPD in a Chinese cohort, which provides insights into novel and more targeted management of the different subtypes of AECOPD.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota/genética , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/microbiología , Esputo/microbiología , Streptococcus/genética , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Biomarcadores , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Eosinófilos , Femenino , Humanos , Recuento de Leucocitos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
20.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(5): 727.e1-727.e11, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791124

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous work has shown that the vaginal microbiome decreases in Lactobacillus predominance and becomes more diverse after menopause. It has also been shown that estrogen therapy restores Lactobacillus dominance in the vagina and that topical estrogen is associated with overactive bladder symptom improvement. We now know that the bladder contains a unique microbiome and that increased bladder microbiome diversity is associated with overactive bladder. However, there is no understanding of how quickly each pelvic floor microbiome responds to estrogen or if those changes are associated with symptom improvement. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if estrogen treatment of postmenopausal women with overactive bladder decreases urobiome diversity. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from postmenopausal participants in 2 trials (NCT02524769 and NCT02835846) who chose vaginal estrogen as the primary overactive bladder treatment and used 0.5 g of conjugated estrogen (Premarin cream; Pfizer, New York City, NY) twice weekly for 12 weeks. Baseline and 12-week follow-up data included the Overactive Bladder questionnaire, and participants provided urine samples via catheter, vaginal swabs, perineal swabs, and voided urine samples. Microbes were detected by an enhanced culture protocol. Linear mixed models were used to estimate microbiome changes over time. Urinary antimicrobial peptide activity was assessed by a bacterial growth inhibition assay and correlated with relative abundance of members of the urobiome. RESULTS: In this study, 12 weeks of estrogen treatment resulted in decreased microbial diversity within the vagina (Shannon, P=.047; Richness, P=.043) but not in the other niches. A significant increase in Lactobacillus was detected in the bladder (P=.037) but not in the vagina (P=.33), perineum (P=.56), or voided urine (P=.28). The change in Lactobacillus levels in the bladder was associated with modest changes in urgency incontinence symptoms (P=.02). The relative abundance of the genus Corynebacterium correlated positively with urinary antimicrobial peptide activity after estrogen treatment. CONCLUSION: Estrogen therapy may change the microbiome of different pelvic floor niches. The vagina begins to decrease in diversity, and the bladder experiences a significant increase in Lactobacillus levels; the latter is correlated with a modest improvement in the symptom severity subscale of the Overactive Bladder questionnaire.


Asunto(s)
Estrógenos Conjugados (USP)/uso terapéutico , Estrógenos/uso terapéutico , Lactobacillus/aislamiento & purificación , Microbiota , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva/tratamiento farmacológico , Vejiga Urinaria/microbiología , Orina/microbiología , Actinomyces/aislamiento & purificación , Administración Intravaginal , Anciano , Péptidos Catiónicos Antimicrobianos/orina , Biodiversidad , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Corynebacterium/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Posmenopausia , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva/fisiopatología , Incontinencia Urinaria de Urgencia/fisiopatología
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