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1.
Nature ; 577(7790): 318, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937966
2.
Plant Dis ; 104(1): 168-178, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697224

RESUMEN

Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, is the most common fruit and foliar disease in commercial apple production worldwide. Early in the production season, preventative contact fungicide sprays are essential for protecting highly susceptible continuously unfolding and expanding young leaves. In South Africa, mancozeb is a key contact fungicide used for controlling apple scab early in the season. The current study developed deposition benchmarks indicative of the biological efficacy of mancozeb against apple scab, using a laboratory-based apple seedling model system. The model system employed a yellow fluorescent pigment that is known to be an effective tracer of mancozeb deposition. A concentration range of mancozeb (0.15 to 1 times the registered dosage) and fluorescent pigment concentrations was sprayed onto seedling leaves, which yielded various fluorescent particle coverage (FPC%) levels. Modeling of the FPC% values versus percent disease control yielded different benchmark values when disease quantification was conducted using two different methods. Thermal infrared imaging (TIRI) disease quantification resulted in a benchmark model where 0.40%, 0.79%, and 1.35 FPC% yielded 50, 75, and 90% apple scab control, respectively. These FPC% values were higher than the benchmarks (0.10, 0.20, and 0.34 FPC%, respectively) obtained with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) disease quantification. The qPCR benchmark model is recommended as a guideline for evaluating the efficacy of mancozeb sprays on leaves in apple orchards since the TIRI benchmark model underestimated disease control. The TIRI benchmark model yielded 68% disease control at the lowest mancozeb dosage, yet no visible lesion developed at this dosage. Both benchmark models showed that mancozeb yielded high levels of disease control at very low concentrations; for the qPCR benchmark model the FPC% value of the FPC90 (90% control) corresponded to 0.15 times that of the registered mancozeb concentration in South Africa, i.e., 85% lower than the registered dosage.


Asunto(s)
Ascomicetos , Malus , Maneb , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Zineb , Ascomicetos/efectos de los fármacos , Benchmarking , Malus/microbiología , Maneb/química , Maneb/farmacología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/prevención & control , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología , Sudáfrica , Zineb/química , Zineb/farmacología
3.
Water Res ; 169: 115244, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707177

RESUMEN

Poor environmental technologies and gastrointestinal illnesses have been hypothesized to be a primary cause to the lack of impact of child health programs on child stunting rates (low height-for-age) in South Africa. This study assessed correlations between environmental exposures (water source, water treatment, sanitation, refuse), diarrheal occurrences, and systemic inflammation proxies among female and male children under five years of age in the Eastern Cape. A conceptual model was hypothesized using structural equation (SE) modeling and two sex-specific (female and male) datasets were subsequently generated from the data and applied to the hypothesized SE model. Results suggested that environmental exposure variables associated with diarrhea and systemic inflammation proxies were different between females and males. For diarrheal occurrences among females, an increase in local authority management of refuse (compared to household management) (0.161, p-value (p) = 0.007), sharing sanitation facilities (0.060, p = 0.023), and a decrease in the frequency of the treatment of drinking water (-0.043, p = 0.025) were correlated with an increase in diarrhea. For males, an increase in household use of flush toilets (as compared to ventilated pit latrines) was correlated with an increase in diarrhea (0.113, p = 0.027). For systemic inflammation among both sexes, an increase in household use of water pumped into the premises (as compared to a public water tap) and an increase in diarrheal occurrences were correlated with an increase in systemic inflammation. The data support an increased focus on sex and gender specific factors among field practitioners and policy makers working in the environmental health field in South Africa.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea , Saneamiento , Niño , Preescolar , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Inflamación , Masculino , Sudáfrica
4.
Plant Dis ; 104(1): 147-153, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729931

RESUMEN

Pseudothecia development stages of Venturia inaequalis (apple scab) were investigated in two climatically different regions in the Western Cape of South Africa. The aim was to determine the pseudothecial density (PD; pseudothecia per fertile lesion [p/f]) and ascal density (AD; asci per pseudothecium [a/p]) that contributes to defining the potential ascospore dose in a common prediction model of the apple scab infection risk. The PD and AD were compared between Elgin (EL), now considered a warm winter apple-growing region because of climate warming, and Koue Bokkeveld (KB), a cold winter region. In 2012 and 2013, scabbed apple leaves were collected during leaf-drop in KB and EL and overwintered either in their region of origin or in the other region. PD was significantly higher in scabbed leaves collected and overwintered in KB (mean, 24.11 p/f) than in leaves collected in KB and overwintered in EL (mean, 17.11 p/f; P < 0.001). PD of scabbed leaves collected and overwintered in EL (mean, 15.27 p/f) or collected in EL and overwintered in KB (mean, 16.07 p/f) did not differ significantly. Ascal density did not differ significantly in any treatment or season. We concluded that the significantly higher PD of scabbed leaves collected from the cooler region of KB and overwintered in KB compared with scabbed leaves collected in EL or KB and overwintered in EL could be caused by adaptations of V. inaequalis populations to the respective climates. This implied long-term effects of climate warming on apple scab epidemiology and management.


Asunto(s)
Ascomicetos , Modelos Biológicos , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Temperatura Ambiental , Ascomicetos/fisiología , Malus/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología , Sudáfrica
5.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 37-45, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483501

RESUMEN

To address problems of reproducibility related to current age estimation methods, the enhanced computational Methods (ECM) were previously developed using a sample of white North American male pubic symphyses and showed promise in improving current techniques. However, given the evidence of sex and population differences in the onset of age markers, this study set out to test the ECM on a white South African sample. The sample consisted of 184 well-preserved os coxae from individuals of known age and sex. Pubic symphyseal surfaces were scanned using the Artec Spider 3D scanner, processed using Artec Studio 10 and analyzed using forAge. Point estimates of age were then compared to the true age of each individual. Results indicate that the ECM performed poorly in a white South African population, with consistent underestimation of age-at-death and weak positive correlations with true age. Despite the low correlations, the ECM did, however, reduce observer error.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Edad por el Esqueleto/métodos , Sínfisis Pubiana/diagnóstico por imagen , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Antropología Forense/métodos , Humanos , Imagen Tridimensional , Rayos Láser , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Sínfisis Pubiana/anatomía & histología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sudáfrica , Adulto Joven
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109868, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689623

RESUMEN

The occurrence of azole antifungals in the environment presents one of the emerging concerns due to their ecotoxicological threat as well as their potential contribution to the evolution of drug resistant fungi in the environment. In this study, the occurrence of eight commonly prescribed azole antifungal drugs was seasonally determined in influent and effluent water samples from three wastewater treatment plants and a drinking water treatment plant in South Africa. In addition, the risk quotient (RQ) method was employed to investigate the potential ecological and human health risks associated with their presence in the wastewater and/or drinking water. Clotrimazole, econazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole were detected at least once in the water samples, while posaconazole and voriconazole were not detected in any of the samples for all seasons at which the samples were collected. Fluconazole was detected at higher frequency (about 96%) with a concentration up to 9959.0 ng L-1. Clotrimazole had the second highest frequency of detection (about 33%) with a concentration up to 143.3 ng L-1. Statistically significant temporal variation in clotrimazole (p < 0.05) and spatial variation in fluconazole (p < 0.05) were observed. In general, the preliminary ecological risk assessment based on risk quotient (RQ) calculation indicated that there is currently no high risk against aquatic organisms (Algae, Daphnia and Fish) related to the azole antifungals. Meanwhile, human health risk assessment demonstrated that fluconazole represented high risk in drinking water. Furthermore, risk estimates showed a potential for the detected concentrations of fluconazole and itraconazole in water samples to pose moderate to high risk for development of antifungal drug resistance. Some of the azole antifungal drugs are ubiquitous in the wastewater and future monitoring and validation studies should be conducted for those drugs that seem to pose human health and ecological risks.


Asunto(s)
Antifúngicos/análisis , Azoles/análisis , Agua Potable/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Aguas Residuales/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Antifúngicos/toxicidad , Organismos Acuáticos/efectos de los fármacos , Azoles/toxicidad , Farmacorresistencia Fúngica , Ecotoxicología , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Sudáfrica , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
7.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124643, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473532

RESUMEN

Polychlorinated n-alkanes or chlorinated paraffins (CPs) contain a magnitude of structural isomers and are categorized as short-chain (SCCPs), medium-chain (MCCPs), and long-chain (LCCPs) CPs, according to the carbon chain lengths. In this study the Æ©SCCPs, Æ©MCCPs, and Æ©LCCP concentrations are reported for South African indoor dust and pet cat hair. The median concentrations of the Æ©CPs (C9-C37) ranged from 33 to 663 µg/g for freshly collected dust (FD), 36-488 µg/g for dust collected from household vacuum cleaner bags (VD), and 1.2-15 µg/g for cat hair (CH) samples. MCCPs were the dominant CP group, followed by SCCPs and LCCPs. The Æ©MCCP concentration ranged from 13 to 498 µg/g in dust and 0.6-6.5 µg/g in cat hair. SCCPs with shorter carbon chains and lower chlorine substitution were observed in cat hair. LCCPs with carbon chains > C20 were detected in dust and hair samples, possibly indicating the use of wax grade LCCP formulations. Non-traditional Kendrick mass defect plots were used to obtain information on the magnitude of CPs and provide evidence of possible interfering compounds. This is the first report on the occurrence of SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in the South African indoor environment.


Asunto(s)
Polvo/análisis , Cabello/química , Hidrocarburos Clorados/química , Parafina/química , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Animales , Gatos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Hidrocarburos Clorados/análisis , Parafina/análisis , Sudáfrica
8.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124784, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520976

RESUMEN

Little knowledge exists on the state of metal contamination in corals from the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Fragments of four soft and five hard coral genera were collected from five sites in the WIO- Sodwana Bay and Aliwal Shoal from South Africa, and Agalega, Rodrigues, and St. Brandon's Rock from the Mascarene Basin. Fragments were analysed for 31 metallic elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Corals from the WIO contained lower concentrations of most metals than corals from the Red Sea. South African corals contained higher concentrations of most of the metallic elements than the Mascarene corals. Sinularia was the coral with the most elements at the highest mean concentrations. A very high concentration of Ni was found in Sinularia (1300 mg/kg dm) from Sodwana Bay. Corals from the Mascarene Islands, especially Agalega, had comparatively low concentrations and could serve as a benchmark for corals from other regions.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos/química , Metales/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Océano Índico , Islas del Oceano Índico , Sudáfrica
9.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110095, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841934

RESUMEN

Manual landmarking is used in several manual and semi-automated prediction guidelines for approximation of the nose. The manual placement of landmarks may, however, render the analysis less repeatable due to observer subjectivity and, consequently, have an impact on the accuracy of the human facial approximation. In order to address this subjectivity and thereby improve facial approximations, we are developing an automated three-dimensional (3D) method based on an automatic dense landmarking procedure using non-rigid surface registration. The aim of this study was to validate the automatic landmarking method by comparing the intra-observer errors (INTRA-OE) and inter-observer errors (INTER-OE) between automatic and manual landmarking. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of adult South Africans were selected from the Oral and Dental Hospital, University of Pretoria, South Africa. In this study, the validation of the automatic landmarking was performed on 20 3D surfaces. INTRA-OE and INTER-OE were analyzed by registering 41 craniometric landmarks from 10 hard-tissue surfaces and 21 capulometric landmarks from 10 soft-tissue surfaces of the same individuals. Absolute precision of the landmark positioning (both on the samples as well as the template) was assessed by calculating the measurement error (ME) for each landmark over different observers. Systematic error (bias) and relative random error (precision) was further quantified through repeated measures ANOVA (ANOVA-RM). The analysis showed that the random component of the ME in landmark positioning between the automatic observations were on average on par with the manual observations, except for the soft-tissue landmarks where automatic landmarking showed lower ME compared to manual landmarking. No bias was observed within the craniometric landmarking methods, but some bias was observed for capulometric landmarking. In conclusion, this research provides a first validation of the precision and accuracy of the automatic placement of landmarks on 3D hard- and soft-tissue surfaces and demonstrates its utilization as a convenient prerequisite for geometric morphometrics based shape analysis of the nasal complex.


Asunto(s)
Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Nariz/diagnóstico por imagen , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Antropología Forense , Humanos , Imagen Tridimensional , Nariz/anatomía & histología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sudáfrica
10.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 601-609, 2020 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215037

RESUMEN

We compared invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence rates in Europe, South Africa, Latin and North America among women living with HIV who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 1996 and 2014. We analyzed cohort data from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) and the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe (COHERE) in EuroCoord. We used flexible parametric survival models to determine regional ICC rates and risk factors for incident ICC. We included 64,231 women from 45 countries. During 320,141 person-years (pys), 356 incident ICC cases were diagnosed (Europe 164, South Africa 156, North America 19 and Latin America 17). Raw ICC incidence rates per 100,000 pys were 447 in South Africa (95% confidence interval [CI]: 382-523), 136 in Latin America (95% CI: 85-219), 76 in North America (95% CI: 48-119) and 66 in Europe (95% CI: 57-77). Compared to European women ICC rates at 5 years after ART initiation were more than double in Latin America (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.27-4.68) and 11 times higher in South Africa (aHR: 10.66, 95% CI: 6.73-16.88), but similar in North America (aHR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.37-1.71). Overall, ICC rates increased with age (>50 years vs. 16-30 years, aHR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.03-2.40) and lower CD4 cell counts at ART initiation (per 100 cell/µl decrease, aHR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15-1.36). Improving access to early ART initiation and effective cervical cancer screening in women living with HIV should be key parts of global efforts to reduce cancer-related health inequities.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Comparación Transcultural , Detección Precóz del Cáncer , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Infecciones por VIH/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidencia , América Latina/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , América del Norte/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/complicaciones , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
11.
Water Res ; 171: 115391, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865125

RESUMEN

Excessive addition of nitrogen (N) has threatened aquatic ecosystems for decades. Traditional water quality and biological monitoring assessment tools are widely used for monitoring nutrient loads and ecosystem health, but most of these methods cannot distinguish between different types and sources of pollution. This is a challenge, particularly when dealing with non-point sources of anthropogenic nitrogen inputs into freshwater systems. Recent laboratory studies using stable isotopic ratios (δ15N and C/N) of aquatic macrophytes (duckweed: Spirodela spp.) have shown successful differentiation and mapping between different N-sources and further, showed abilities to act as early warning indicators for environmental N-loading. Therefore, the aim of this study was to field test the potential of stable isotopic values of transplanted Spirodela spp. to map temporal and spatial N-loading variation and determine the main sources of N-loading in two river systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, using previously grown, isotopically calibrated and transplanted Spirodela plants, collected over a 13-month sampling period. Nitrogen isotopic values (δ15N) of Spirodela plants traced environmental N-loading and identified pollution hotspots and sources through time and space over a wide range of nutrient gradients. δ15N isotopic values of Spirodela spp. provided detailed dynamics on N-loading, therefore supporting its utilisation in the biological monitoring of ecosystem health and the early detection of eutrophication in freshwater systems.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Ríos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Eutrofización , Agua Dulce , Nitrógeno , Nutrientes , Sudáfrica
12.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(1-2): 20-30, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531993

RESUMEN

AIM: To explore the impact of cultural beliefs of dementia as witchcraft in sub-Saharan Africa. BACKGROUND: The population of sub-Saharan Africa is ageing, which increases the number of those at risk of dementia. Mental health and physical diseases that affect behaviour have often been associated with witchcraft. Accusations of witchcraft leave individuals vulnerable and at risk. METHOD: A systematic review, which followed the Preferred Reporting for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and completed a PRISMA checklist. CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, PubMed and Science Direct databases were searched for relevant studies published from their inception to 31 May 2019 by applying appropriate Medical Subject Headings. Data analysis adhered to Thomas and Harding's thematic synthesis. RESULTS: The review identified limited literature on this topic, with only five papers meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies explored health provision, and knowledge and beliefs of dementia in Tanzania and South Africa. Three themes emerged as follows: (a) poor knowledge of dementia, including the belief of dementia as witchcraft; (b) challenges of supporting a family member with dementia in the community; and (c) health-seeking behaviours of and for people with dementia. CONCLUSION: There remains a need for dementia awareness and education across sub-Saharan Africa communities, including faith and traditional healers, and healthcare professionals to support pluralistic healthcare provision. Nurses are the best-placed healthcare professionals to support these initiatives and the development and implementation of low-resource nonpharmacological interventions to support people with dementia and their families living in the community. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses working in sub-Saharan Africa and those caring for patients from sub-Saharan Africa can only provide person-centred care and support for a person with dementia and their family if they understand their cultural beliefs, one of which may include witchcraft.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Demencia/enfermería , Hechicería/psicología , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente , Demencia/psicología , Familia/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Sudáfrica , Tanzanía
13.
J Environ Manage ; 253: 109741, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665691

RESUMEN

Pharmaceuticals are organic compounds used in medicines for alleviation of pain. Since 2017, there has been a steady increase on the availability of information on contamination of water resources caused by pharmaceuticals in some African countries. Thus far, most environmental monitoring studies of pharmaceuticals are conducted in South Africa while there is still no available data in majority of the African countries. Therefore, the knowledge on the presence of pharmaceuticals in African water resources is still lacking. In an attempt to provide more information in this aspect, this review article seeks to critically evaluate the progress made thus far by the African scientists in the environmental monitoring and assessment of pharmaceuticals. The most studied groups of pharmaceuticals in Africa are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antiretroviral drugs and steroid hormones. Various remediation studies for selected pharmaceuticals in Africa are documented in literature. In the present review, the challenges facing the African researchers or countries on providing more scientific data on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in water are discussed. Furthermore, the gaps and recommendations for future work are given.


Asunto(s)
Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sudáfrica , Agua
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 295: 122287, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669873

RESUMEN

Johannesburg-Sulfur autotrophic denitrification (JHB-SAD) system was investigated for the combined treatment of leachate and municipal wastewater with low strength and low COD/TN ratio. The average removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were 85.2%, 96.2% and 75.8%, respectively. The municipal wastewater and leachate (dosing of 2.1‰, v/v) can be treated via the JHB-SAD system to achieve efficient nutrients removal. The mass balance calculations suggested that 58.1-69.8% TN was removed in JHB unit and 32.9-41.2% TN in SAD unit. Further, the denitrifying phosphorus removal process occurred in the anoxic zone. EEM-PARAFAC analysis found that the protein-like materials were more efficiently removed than fulvic-like materials in JHB-SAD system. The tryptophan-like materials had the most positive linear relationship with the COD concentrations. The bacterial community was difference between JHB and SAD unit. Furthermore, bacteria abundance relating to nitrogen removal increased with additional leachate.


Asunto(s)
Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno , Reactores Biológicos , Desnitrificación , Nitrógeno , Sudáfrica , Azufre , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
15.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 22(1): 3-9, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271050

RESUMEN

This study, investigated the salt excretion efficiency and the level of the physiological response to salt-induced stresses between the native and exotic Tamarix species as well as their hybrids (Tamarix chinensis × Tamarix ramosissima and Tamarix chinensis × Tamarix usneoides). Ten potted plants from each of the five taxa were exposed to salt at a concentration of 3% (w/w) (180 mM) for 3 weeks. Measurements of electro-conductivity (EC), physiological parameters such as stomatal conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence, and water pressure and plant growth were taken from salt-treated and control plants. The EC in the exotic T. chinensis significantly increased by >30% compared with all other Tamarix taxa, suggesting that it is the most effective taxon for phytoremediation. Although there was no significant difference in plant growth between T. chinensis and T. usneoides, they both showed a significantly greater plant growth than the other taxa. However, the plant physiological parameters indicated that T. usneoides was less stressed by the salt exposure than the T. chinensis and the others. Thus, considering the T. usneoides greater tolerance to salt-induced and/water stresses and the strict environmental regulations of planting exotic Tamarix, the native Tamarix remains the preferred plant of choice for phytoremediation in South Africa.


Asunto(s)
Tamaricaceae , Biodegradación Ambiental , Estrés Salino , Cloruro de Sodio , Sudáfrica , Estrés Fisiológico
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134403, 2020 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678873

RESUMEN

One of the key challenges noted in the sustainable development goals for good health and wellbeing (SDGs 3) is both ambient and household air pollution. Household solid fuel combustion represents one of the biggest threat to human health in South Africa. This study helps to understand the impact of solid fuel burning in an indoor and ambient environment. Continuous monitoring of particulate matter (PM4) was carried out in two houses, one used coal as a primary source of energy, while the other did not. For solid fuel burning (SFB) house the winter PM4 average 24-h concentration ranges between 60.9 µg m-3 and 207.5 µg m-3 while at non-solid fuel burning (NSFB) house it ranges between 15.3 µg m-3 and 84.2 µg m-3. In both houses, the national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for PM2.5 (40 µg m-3) were exceeded during winter. The summer PM4 levels ranged between 17.4 µg m-3 and 36.6 µg m-3 in the solid fuel burning house and between 14.2 µg m-3 and 39.9 µg m-3 at the non-solid fuel-burning house. During mornings and evenings, indoor concentrations were higher than the outdoor; these periods coincide with the fuel-burning pattern in this community. In the mid-afternoon, the outdoor PM levels sometimes went higher than the indoor levels, perhaps as a result of the pollution from the power plants in the neighbourhood. Using the linear regression model, there were no significant correlations between indoor/outdoor PM4 concentrations during the winter, but there were good correlations for both houses during the summer. There was an observed difference in the thermal comfort at the SFB and NSFB. The temperature at SFB went below the World Health Organisation standard in winter and above during the summer while at NSFB, the temperature was managed within the standard in both seasons.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/estadística & datos numéricos , Carbón Mineral , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado , Contaminación del Aire , Culinaria , Composición Familiar , Calefacción , Humanos , Centrales Eléctricas , Estaciones del Año , Sudáfrica , Madera
17.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e4, 2019 Nov 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793310

RESUMEN

Adenoviral infections may cause mild to severe morbidity or fatality in a large array of animal species. In crocodilians, hatchlings under 5 months of age are usually affected. However, there is a paucity of information on actual incidences in hatchlings originating from South Africa. Two cases of adenoviral hepatitis in crocodile hatchlings about 2 weeks old, bred on a commercial farm in South Africa, are described. Both hatchlings showed typical clinical signs of hepatitis. The identification of intranuclear inclusion bodies in the liver was used to differentiate between adenoviral hepatitis and chlamydial hepatitis. Although vertical transmission has never been proven in crocodiles, the young age of the affected hatchlings raises the possibility of vertical transmission. The lack of epidemiological information on adenoviral hepatitis in crocodiles highlights the need for further characterisation of the virus and targeted surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Adenoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Caimanes y Cocodrilos/virología , Hepatitis Animal/fisiopatología , Hepatitis Animal/virología , Animales , Autopsia/veterinaria , Sudáfrica
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 57, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803343

RESUMEN

Introduction: Chronic suppurative otitis media is a global middle ear disease with quality of life as economic implications, which are worse felt in low and middle income (LAMI) countries; thus the need for myringoplasty. This study aimed to explore audiological function in a group of adults following myringoplasty in South Africa, with an exploration of the possible influence of factors such as HIV/AIDS and type of surgical technique on hearing outcomes. Methods: Within a retrospective chart review research design, 41 participant files for a six-year period from two academic hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa, were reviewed. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Participant files comprised of 16 males and 25 females between 18-63 years. Findings revealed that clinically, overall hearing improved post-operatively, as indicated by improved tympanometry findings, pure tone air-conduction and speech reception thresholds. Descriptively, the predictors of improved hearing outcomes post-operatively appeared to be HIV negative status and butterfly cartilage inlay surgery as a surgical technique adopted. Although clinically, hearing outcomes improved post-operatively at all air-conduction frequencies tested; these clinical improvements were only statistically significant at specific frequencies. Conclusion: Current findings provide useful initial evidence on the benefits of myringoplasty from the South African context; particularly because of the HIV/AIDS prevalence and its potential influence on middle ear disease and its management. Prospective efficacy studies with bigger sample sizes are recommended, with early identification strategies for middle ear disease to reduce the need for myringoplasty seriously considered bearing in mind the resource constraints.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas de Impedancia Acústica/métodos , Miringoplastia/métodos , Otitis Media Supurativa/cirugía , Adolescente , Adulto , Enfermedad Crónica , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Otitis Media Supurativa/fisiopatología , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sudáfrica , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1185: 257-261, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884621

RESUMEN

There is a glaring disparity in the populations included in genetic research; the majority of work involves European-derived cohorts, while other global populations - including Africans - are underrepresented. This is also true for the study of inherited retinal diseases. Being the most ancient of extant populations, African samples carry more variation than others, making them valuable for novel gene and variant discovery. The inclusion of diverse populations in research is essential to gain a more comprehensive understanding of genetic variation and molecular mechanisms of disease.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Enfermedades de la Retina/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Análisis Mutacional de ADN , Genética de Población , Humanos , Enfermedades de la Retina/etnología , Sudáfrica
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(52): e18399, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876712

RESUMEN

Integration of psychiatric care at the Primary Health Care (PHC) could be an important strategy towards addressing the shortages of in-patient mental health care services in South Africa. This study describes the profiles of admitted psychiatric patients at the East London Mental Health Unit (ELMHU) of the Eastern Cape from January 2016 to December 2016.In this retrospective cross-sectional study, an audit of medical records of all psychiatric in-patients managed at the ELMHU during the study period was undertaken. Simple descriptive and inferential statistics were used to describe the profiles and examine the associations with the common psychiatric conditions.Of the participants with complete data (n = 186), the majority were males (n = 108); single (72.6%) and had secondary education (45.7%). The majority of in-patients were psychotic (38%), violent (31%), manic (16%) or suicidal (9.2%) at the time of admission. Patients who were 35 years and above, resided in urban areas, and presented with suicidal and depressive symptoms were more likely to be admitted voluntarily. Schizophrenia (31.6%), cannabis-related psychiatric disorders (31.6%), bipolar Type-1 disorder (21.9%) and alcohol related disorders (15.5%) were the main reasons for admission. There was a significant association between demographic characteristics and the common psychiatric disorders of the patients.Schizophrenia, bipolar 1 disorder, cannabis-related disorders and alcohol-related disorders are the predominant disorders leading to in- patient mental health care services being utilized in the study setting. Findings might inform training of health care workers at the PHCs with a view to integrating mental health care services in the Eastern Cape.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Servicio de Psiquiatría en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Derivación y Consulta/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Sudáfrica , Adulto Joven
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