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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 209, 2020 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128626

RESUMEN

A comprehensive study on various pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) under different rice-based cropping systems is necessary for predicting their effect on soil quality through carbon build-up in soil and their impact on global climate change. The present investigation was undertaken to study the long-term effect of six different rice-based cropping systems (continuously followed by farmers > 10 years) on various SOC pools viz., total organic carbon (TOC), oxidizable organic carbon (Coc) and its different fractions [Cfrac1 (very labile), Cfrac2 (labile), Cfrac3 (less labile) and Cfrac4 (non-labile)], soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and lability index (LI) and SOC stock at the farmer's field of Kakching district under hilly ecosystems of Manipur, India. In every cropping system, all the fractions of Coc were significantly decreased with increasing soil depth. Among all the fractions, Cfrac4 (non-labile) constituted the largest percentage of TOC for both surface (0-20 cm) and sub-surface (20-40 cm) soil varying from 47.95-58.45% and 55.76-64.83% with average values of 51.87 and 59.73% respectively. Results also revealed that the Cfrac1 (very labile) of Coc constituted highest (42.79%) percentage of Coc and that of Cfract4 constituted highest percentage (55.80%) of TOC. In both soil depths, rice-pea cropping system recorded highest TOC, Coc and SMBC followed by rice-French bean and rice-potato. In surface soil, the lowest TOC, Coc and SMBC were recorded in rice-mustard which was statistically at par with rice-cabbage. The SOC stock of both soil layers was also recorded highest in rice-pea. The highest LI of surface soil was recorded in rice-potato which was statistically equal with rice-pea and rice-French bean. Significant correlations among different pools/fractions of C and with available nutrients indicate their importance in improving soil quality. Long-term combination of rice with the leguminous crops and/or potato enhanced Coc, TOC, SMBC, LI and active pools (Cfrac1 + Cfrac2) of rapid turnover rate that may influence the quality and productivity of soil. Long-term cultivation of rice-French bean with high passive C along with good active C and LI is proved to be a good cropping system for sustaining soil and environment by enhancing quality and C reserve of degraded soils of hilly agroecosystem.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Oryza , Suelo , Agricultura , Carbono/análisis , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agricultores , Humanos , India
2.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 109944, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148252

RESUMEN

This study aims to investigate the sewage sludge (SS) drying process by incorporating a by-product formed in the pulp and paper industry (green liquor dregs - GLD) as drying adjuvant. Through an innovative approach, the drying kinetics was modelled, and the final dried product was tested for soil applications. After the characterization phase, small cylinders of SS without and with 0.15 g GLD g SS-1wb (SS_GLD) were dried in isothermal conditions at 70, 100, and 130 °C. The experimental data were fitted by Fick's second law and thin-layer models, and good results were achieved in both cases (R2 > 0.98 and RMSE <0.05). Although only a slight improvement was observed, the best conditions for drying biosolids were found with the addition of GLD at 130 °C, where the drying rate was 30.88 gH2O kg-1 SSwb min-1. In this condition, a decrease of 8% in the energy required for moisture evaporation was observed. Regarding the phytotoxicity tests with Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress), 60% improvement in EC50 was noticed for the sample with GLD when compared to the raw SS. The dried product SS_GLD complied with the regulations for soil applications regarding the potentially toxic metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd), and promoted an increase in soil organic matter and pH. However, further and in-depth studies should be conducted to assess the potential of SS_GLD application in agricultural soil.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Deshidratación , Humanos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Suelo
3.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 109958, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148253

RESUMEN

Small reservoirs, as the preferred blue-green engineering infrastructure for use against intensive runoff processes, have risen in number in Central Europe during the past three decades. However, the modelling of sediment siltation is not included in reservoir planning. The unknown temporal sedimentation of a reservoir can lead to the lifespan of the construction being uncertain. The aim of this study is to present a relatively simple process for local managers to model siltation and, consequently, accurately estimate the lifetime of a small reservoir. Three empirical models (USLE, RUSLE and USPED) were applied to two small catchments in Central Europe. This paper takes advantage of real measured and modelled sedimentation during 2012 and 2017, presenting two different terrain measurement approaches. Our study emphasizes the importance of the R-factor value. The temporal development of the R-factor is dependent on climate change, and the R-factor value has been rising steadily during the last decades. The annual mean R-factor has increased 1.04-times due to changes in precipitation patterns between the periods 1961-1980 and 1997-2016. These changes can explain possible growth in the levels of incoming sediment into reservoirs. We identified the correlation (R > 0.7) between observed sedimentation, the R-factor, and precipitation, and we concluded that the supposed rise of precipitation in Central Europe due to climate change will lead to an increase in the levels of stored sediment in reservoirs. Therefore, it is recommended for reservoir managers to use USPED model and to include the estimation of modelling of siltation rate into reservoirs' maintenance projects.


Asunto(s)
Sedimentos Geológicos , Suelo , Ciudades , Cambio Climático , Europa (Continente)
4.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110151, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148257

RESUMEN

A disconnect between community perceptions and officially documented Superfund remedial actions and health outcomes may hinder the essential community engagement at Superfund sites. This study evaluates the extent of one such potential disconnect in Butte, Montana, which is part of the largest U.S. Superfund site in the U.S. Since the 1860s, when mining began in Butte, mine waste disposal practices in Butte and surrounding areas have left behind massive deposits that have contaminated the area's soil, sediment, groundwater and surface water with arsenic and heavy metals. Over the last four decades, a substantial amount of remediation work has been completed along with requisite community engagement and health studies at this Superfund site. The potential disconnect was evaluated using a new survey instrument that covered: (a) general environmental health perceptions, (b) mine-waste specific environmental health perceptions, (c) effectiveness of community engagement, (d) knowledge of health outcomes, and (e) demographics. The survey results demonstrated a disconnect in many instances where objective remedial improvements may not have resulted in improved environmental health perceptions in the community. The disconnect was most pronounced in the case of drinking water protection from mine waste and knowledge of health outcomes (cancer incidence rates and children's blood levels). The use of similar environmental health perception measurements may aid responsible agencies in monitoring for and addressing environmental health perception disconnects through better community engagement for the benefit of the impacted communities.


Asunto(s)
Salud Ambiental , Minería , Niño , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sustancias Peligrosas , Humanos , Montana , Suelo
5.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110169, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148261

RESUMEN

The bioremediation of an oily sludge (321 ± 30 mg of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/kgDRY SLUDGE and 13420 ± 1300 mg of aliphatic hydrocarbons/kgDRY SLUDGE) by mixture with contaminated soil (23 ± 2 mg of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/kgDRY SOIL and 98 ± 10 mg of aliphatic hydrocarbons/kgDRY SOIL) was studied. Furthermore, the effect of oxidative pretreatments (persulfate and permanganate) on the performance of the global process was examined. The treatments reached contamination levels lower than the original residues, indicating the presence of synergic processes between a highly contaminated sludge and soil with a selected hydrocarbon-degrading community. Pretreatment with permanganate significantly improved biodegradation, possibly due to the increase in bioavailability and biodegradability of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two months of incubation was enough to reach the complete elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 92% elimination of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Monitoring using five parameters (concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons, total cultivable heterotrophic bacteria count, lipase and dehydrogenase activities, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria count) as an approach for a preliminary scanning of the effectiveness of a treatment is proposed based on principal components analysis.


Asunto(s)
Petróleo , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Hidrocarburos , Compuestos de Manganeso , Óxidos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo
6.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110190, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148266

RESUMEN

Quality of soils of the arid zones with low organic matter can be improved through the application of natural amendments especially biochar from various available feedstocks. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of corn residue and poultry manure and their biochars on soil organic carbon (SOC), hot-water soluble carbohydrates (HWSC), basal soil respiration (BSR),and structural stability determined by HEMC (high-energy moisture characteristic). A sandy loam soil in pots were thoroughly mixed with 1, 2 and 4% w/w of corn residues (CR) and poultry manure (PM) feedstock and their biochars prepared at 350 and 650 °C of slow pyrolysis. Maize seeds were planted in pots and grown until physiological maturity when soil characteristics were measured. Treatments considerably altered the means of studied soil quality indicators, and increased SOC (1.5-10 times) and HWSC (1-7 times), and HEMC indices: volume of drainable pores ratio (VDPR, 1.5- 3.5 times), and stability ratio (SR, 1-3 times). Increasing pyrolysis temperature, regardless of the type and rate of feedstock, significantly decreased the SOC, BSR and percent of water-stable aggregates, and consequently structural stability indices. Contribution of both PM feedstock and its biochars was less effective than the CR ones (particularly the biochar produced at higher pyrolysis temperature), due to elevated sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) associated with higher slaking, physico-chemical dispersion and lower aggregate and structural stability.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Suelo , Animales , Carbón Orgánico , Pirólisis , Temperatura Ambiental
7.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110192, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148267

RESUMEN

Understanding the drivers of soil organic carbon (SOC) change over time and confidence to predict changes in SOC are essential to the development and long-term viability of SOC trading schemes. This study investigated temporal changes in total SOC, total nitrogen (N), and carbon (C) fractions (particulate organic carbon - POC, resistant organic carbon - ROC and humus organic carbon - HOC) over a 16-year period for four contrasting farming systems in a low rainfall environment (424 mm) at Condobolin, Australia. The farming systems were 1) conventional tillage mixed farming (CT); 2) reduced tillage mixed farming (RT); 3) continuous cropping (CC); and 4) perennial pasture (PP). The SOC dynamics were also modelled using APSIM C and N modules, to determine the accuracy of this model. Results are presented in the context of land managers participating in Australian climate change mitigation schemes. There was an increase in SOC for all farming systems over the first 12 years (total organic C, TOC% at 0-10 cm increased from 1.33% to 1.77%), which was predominately in the POC% fraction (POC% at 0-10 cm increased from 0.14% to 0.5%). Between 2012 and 2015, there was a decrease in SOC back to starting levels (TOC = 1.22% POC = 0.12% at 0-10 cm) in all systems. The PP system had higher TOC%, POC% and HOC% levels on average and higher SOC stocks to 30 cm depth at the final measurement in 2015 (PP = 30.43 t C ha-1; cropping systems = 23.71 t C ha-1), compared to the other farming systems. There was a decrease in TN% over time in all farming systems except PP. The average C:N increased from 14.1 in 1999 to 19.7 in 2012, after which time the SOC levels decreased and C:N dropped back to 15.8. The temporal change in SOC was not able to be represented by the AusFarm model. There are three important conclusions for policy development: 1) monitoring temporal changes in SOC over 12 years did not indicate long-term sequestration, required to assure "permanence" in SOC trading (i.e. 25-100 years) due to the susceptibility of POC to degradation; 2) without monitoring SOC in reference land uses (e.g. CT cropping system as a control in this experiment) it is not possible to determine the net carbon sequestration, and therefore the true climate change mitigation value; and 3) modelling SOC using AusFarm/APSIM, does not fully represent the temporal dynamics of SOC in this low rainfall environment.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Suelo , Agricultura , Australia , Secuestro de Carbono , Productos Agrícolas
8.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110205, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148274

RESUMEN

Winter cover crops could contribute to more sustainable agricultural production and increase resiliency to climate change; however, their adoption remains low in California. This paper seeks to understand barriers to winter cover crop adoption by monetizing their long-term economic and agronomic impacts on farm profitability in two of California's specialty crop systems: processing tomatoes and almonds. Our modeling effort provides a present, discounted valuation of the long-term use of winter cover crops through a cost-benefit analysis. A net present value model estimates the cumulative economic value of this practice. We then explore how the long-term trade-offs associated with winter cover crops can affect an operation's profits under a spectrum of hypothetical changes in California's agricultural landscape. Our analysis sheds light on the barriers to adoption by reporting benefit-cost ratios that indicate profitability across several scenarios; however, benefits and costs accrue differently over time and with long planning horizons. At the same time, a small portion of gained benefits are external to the grower. Findings from this study reveal that winter cover crops in California can be profitable in the long-term, but the extent of profit depends on the cropping system, extent of irrigation savings due to improved soil function, access to financial subsidies and climate change. Winter cover crops can return positive net benefits to growers who have flexible contractual obligations, can wait for the long-term return on investment and manage cover crops as closely as cash crops. This analysis contributes to the study of conservation agriculture practices by explaining possible reasons for low adoption through an economic valuation of the implications of soil management choices and policy counterfactuals.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Productos Agrícolas , California , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Suelo
9.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110209, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148279

RESUMEN

Incorporation of compost into soil can significantly alter soil physical properties, nutrient dynamics, and vegetation establishment. Strategic compost application to disturbed, degraded urban soil may provide benefits to soil properties. This review compared twenty-five peer-reviewed studies that evaluated changes in soil bulk density, infiltration rate, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention where compost was incorporated into urban soils. A wide range of compost rates and incorporation depths were evaluated in these studies across many soil types. Compost incorporation generally reduced bulk density, enhanced infiltration and hydraulic conductivity, and increased water content and plant available water, compared to unamended controls. In the four studies on runoff water quality, compost incorporation often resulted in higher initial nutrient content in runoff water, but also enhanced grass growth and reduced sediment loss. Few studies evaluated multiple compost application rates or incorporation depths, and the ways in which compost application rates were reported varied widely between studies making it difficult to directly compare them. Four studies investigated the long-term effects of compost incorporation, and there was no clear pattern of why some soils display enhanced physical properties over time and others do not. Compost was largely reported to have a positive effect on degraded urban soils. Little research has focused on the longevity of compost in urban soils after one application, and thus, this would be a valuable topic of further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Contaminantes del Suelo , Plantas , Suelo
10.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110221, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148292

RESUMEN

Taking into account the high mobility and environmental risks due to sulfonamide antibiotics as emerging pollutants, batch-type experiments were performed to study adsorption/desorption of three sulfonamides (sulfadiazine -SDZ-, sulfamethazine -SMT- and sulfachloropyridazine -SCP-) in three agricultural soils. The study was carried out both for un-amended and amended soil samples, using different doses (0, 12, 24 and 48 Mg ha-1) of three different by-products (mussel shell, oak ash and pine bark). Adsorption on un-amended soils was rather low, with percentages between 11 and 45% for SDZ, 20-64% for SMT, and 19-65% for SCP. Both the Linear and Freundlich models fitted well to adsorption curves. In the case of un-amended soils, and regarding the Linear model, the values of the coefficient of distribution (Kd, expressed in L kg-1) were between 0.6 and 1.3 for SDZ, between 0.7 and 1.1 for SMT, and between 0.6 and 2.6 for SCP. As regards the Freundlich model, the values of the adsorption constant (KF, expressed in L1/n µmol1-1/n kg-1), were in the range 0.4-1.9 for SDZ, 0.9-2.9 for SMT, and 1.2-3.8 for SCP. Simultaneously, desorption percentages were high, reaching 13.7-47.7% for SDZ, 12.6-35.1% for SMT, and 13.7-34.3% for SCP, when the highest initial antibiotic concentration (50 µmol L-1) was added, thus indicating low retention and high mobility for these compounds in soils. Mussel shell and oak ash amendments did not increase retention of any of the three sulfonamides. However, the incorporation of pine bark resulted in an increase in the adsorption and decrease in desorption for all three antibiotics. Specifically, for soils amended with pine bark at 48 Mg ha-1, Kd values (expressed in L kg-1) were between 2.1 and 2.9 for SDZ, between 3.4 and 3.6 for SMT, and between 2.5 and 8.2 for SCP. Regarding KF (expressed in L1/n µmol1-1/n kg-1), its values ranged from 5.6 to 6.3 for SDZ, 6.2-8.8 for SMT, and 5.3-7.1 for SCP. These scores were clearly higher than those of un-amended soils, and pine bark amendment also resulted in lower desorption percentages, ranging 8.7-11.4% for SDZ, 4.0-10.7% for SMT, and 6.5-16.9% for SCP. This positive effect on the retention of sulfonamides due to pine bark can be attributed to its high organic carbon content (48.6%), as well as to its acidic pHw (4.0). Therefore, pine bark amendment can be considered an effective alternative to increase the retention of sulfonamides in soils, thus reducing their bioavailability and transport to other environmental compartments, and subsequent risks of negative impacts on human and environmental health.


Asunto(s)
Bivalvos , Quercus , Contaminantes del Suelo , Adsorción , Animales , Corteza de la Planta , Suelo , Sulfonamidas
11.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110232, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148302

RESUMEN

To protect fragile groundwater-dependent environments of arid zones, it is important to monitor soil moisture and groundwater evaporation. Hence, it is important to assess new methods to quantify these environmental variables. In this work, we propose a new method to determine groundwater evaporation rates by combining the actively heated fiber-optic (AHFO) method with vadose zone modeling, assuming that the evaporation front remains at the soil surface. In our study, the AHFO method yielded estimates of the soil moisture (θ) profile with a spatial resolution of ~6.5 mm and with an error of 0.026 m3 m-3. The numerical model resulted in a slightly different θ profile than that measured, where the largest differences occurred at the soil surface. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses highlighted that a better precision is required when determining the soil hydraulic parameters. To improve the proposed method, the soil heat-vapor-water dynamics should be included and the assumption that the evaporation front remains at the soil surface must be relaxed. Additionally, if the AHFO calibration curve is enhanced, the errors of the estimated θ profile can be reduced and thus, successful estimation of the evaporation rates for a wider range of soil textures can be achieved. The spatial scales measured are an important advantage of the proposed method that should be further explored to improve the analysis presented here.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Suelo , Calibración , Temperatura Ambiental , Agua
12.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110246, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148312

RESUMEN

Reclamation of degraded soils such as those with low organic carbon content and soils co-contaminated with toxic elements and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) is of great concern. Little is known about the efficiency of plant- and animal-derived biochars for improving plant growth and physicochemical and biological properties of co-contaminated soils, particularly under low content of organic matter. Hence, a pot trial was carried out by growing pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) to assess the influence of different doses (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4%) of animal (pig carcass) and wood (Platanus orientalis) derived biochars on soil properties, nutrient availabilities, plant growth, and soil enzyme activities in two soils containing low (LOC) and high (HOC) organic carbon contents and co-contaminated with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalic acid (DEHP) and cadmium (Cd). Biochar applications improved pH, salinity, carbon content, and cation exchange capacity of both soils. Addition of biochars significantly increased the bioavailability and uptake of phosphorus and potassium in the plants in both soils with greater effects from pig biochar than wood biochar. Biochar additions also significantly enhanced urease, sucrase, and catalase activities, but suppressed acid phosphatase activity in both soils. The impact of pig biochar was stronger on urease and acid phosphatase, while the wood biochar was more effective with sucrase and catalase activities. The biomass yield of pak choi was significantly increased after biochar addition to both soils, especially in 2% pig biochar treatment in the LOC soil. The positive response of soil enzymes activities and plant growth for biochar addition to the Cd and DEHP co-contaminated soils indicate that both biochars, particularly the pig biochar can mitigate the risk of these pollutants and prove to be eco-friendly and low-cost amendments for reclaiming these degraded soils.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes del Suelo , Suelo , Animales , Disponibilidad Biológica , Carbón Orgánico , Metales , Ácidos Ftálicos , Porcinos , Madera
13.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110247, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148313

RESUMEN

Terracing and vegetation restoration are the basic measures to protect soil from water erosion and to combat land degradation. However, long-term quantitative evaluation on the erosion control benefits of different terracing techniques and vegetation types are still insufficient, particularly under variable rainfall. The aim of this article, therefore, is to evaluate the coupling effects of different terracing-vegetation combinations and rainfall types (RTs) on runoff retention and erosion reduction in a loess hilly catchment of China. Six types of terracing-vegetation combinations, including leveled benches-C. microphylla (LM), fish-scale pits-P. orientalis (FO), leveled ditches-P. armeniaca (LA), zig terraces-P. orientalis (ZO), fish-scale pits-P. tabulaeformis (FT), zig terraces-P. tabulaeformis (ZT) and the corresponding plots with same vegetation cover and non-terracing measures were designed and monitored. Based on five consecutive years of monitoring data, 69 rainfall events causing runoff and erosion were observed. Rainfall eigenvalues, including rainfall amount (RA), maximum 10-min intensity (I10), maximum 30-min intensity (I30) and rainfall duration (RD) dominated water erosion processes. Surface runoff and sediment reduction benefits differed with different terracing techniques. Mean runoff coefficients (Rc) among all kinds of terracing-vegetation combinations were FT > LM > FO > LA > ZO > ZT, while mean soil loss rates (Em) among all kinds of combinations were FT > FO > LM > LA > ZT > ZO. ZT showed the highest mean runoff reduction (44.03%), while ZO generated the highest sediment reduction (39.08%). The worst performance was observed in FT. With regards to the results, it is necessary to select the optimal terracing-vegetation measures for erosion control based on the dominant rainfall eigenvalues in different areas. Overall, ZT, ZO and LA combinations are recommended, while uncertainty was detected in combinations with fish-scale pits. Suitable terracing-vegetation measures should be selected after considering the micro-relief construction, the optimization of plant disposition and the efficiency of water erosion reduction. Management should focus on the construction standards, the threshold of resisting erosion for each terracing measure, and timely maintenance of the terraces.


Asunto(s)
Lluvia , Agua , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Suelo , Movimientos del Agua
14.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110255, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148317

RESUMEN

Vegetation Filters (VFs) can be a sustainable solution to treat wastewater and to recover resources such as nutrients, water and biomass from small municipalities and isolated dwellings. However, under certain conditions, the leakage of nutrients, especially of nitrate, can represent a limitation. The addition of two sustainable soil amendments, woodchips and biochar, has been tested as a strategy to improve nutrient attenuation in VFs increasing sorption sites and microbial activity. To this end, unsaturated infiltration and batch experiments have been carried out at laboratory scale. The systems for infiltration experiments contain natural soil, natural soil amended with woodchips and natural soil amended with biochar. To determine the sorption capacity of NH4+, batch tests were performed using an amendment/SWW ratio of 1:20 and an NH4+ initial concentration ranging from 30 to 600 mg L-1. Results from the infiltration experiments show a high attenuation (~95%) of total phosphorous (TP) independently of the amendments. Different behaviour is observed for total nitrogen (TN). The removal of this species is obtained only in the soil amended with woodchips (>85%) whereas the natural soil alone and the soil with biochar have no impact on TN attenuation. In these two porous media, all the NH4+ input concentration is transformed to NO3- that infiltrates without further reactions. According to batch experiment results, the potential role of biochar in the nutrient attenuation is limited to sorption processes (Kd (NH4+) = 21.37-193.18 L kg-1). Woodchips act primarily as a labile source of carbon promoting biodegradation, being more effective for nutrient attenuation than the sorption capacity of biochar.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes del Suelo , Aguas Residuales , Carbón Orgánico , Nitrógeno , Fósforo , Suelo
15.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110257, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148318

RESUMEN

The open disposal of groundwater treated soil containing arsenic (As) and iron (Fe) is a critical environmental issue in developing countries like Bangladesh. The current study attempts to use the arsenic-iron soil (AIS) as partial replacement of aggregate for preparing the sustainable solid mortar composite. Four dosages (2.5-10%) of AIS were applied as the substitution of fine aggregate for finding the optimum quantity of AIS, justifying by strength and nominal leaching content of As and Fe in pH solution 4.0 and 7.0 and curing temperatures of 25, 30, and 35 °C. Also, the external surfaces of solidified matrices were modified with cement grouting solution and cement plaster to resist the migration of concerned contaminants to curing media. The analytical compressive and flexural strength results showed that the solid mortars blended with 2.5 and 5% AIS obtained over 80% of the control specimens throughout the testing ages. Moreover, the study found that 5% AIS bearing hardened composition with exterior cement plaster exhibited the releasing contents of As and Fe below the drinking water standard in both pH solutions and adopted three curing temperatures, which is safe as well as economical to use as a construction material. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis also demonstrated the encapsulation patterns of target contaminants by forming hard microstructures of calcium silicate hydrate, ettringite and calcium-arsenic compounds. The outcomes of the study showed the potentiality of recycling the contaminated groundwater treatment soil as building materials in an eco-friendly way.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Agua Subterránea , Bangladesh , Materiales de Construcción , Países en Desarrollo , Hierro , Suelo
16.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110261, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148320

RESUMEN

Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission under different tillage methods in a crop residue-returned farming system may not be consistent with result from studies of the usual tillage researches because crop residues are important carbon sources with significant effects on soil carbon input and output. Herein, we address a knowledge gap over the "hot spot" research on tillage practices on SOC storage and CO2 emission in crop residue-returned farming systems. In this study, a long-term (2007-2019) field experiment was conducted, and the crop residues were returned to the soil after harvest; then, three tillage methods were conducted: no tillage (NT), subsoiling tillage (ST), and a moldboard plow tillage (CT). Our results showed that in the crop residue-returned farming system, NT and ST still showed advantages of lower CO2 flux compared with CT, as well as a reduced average CO2 flux of 14.5% and 8.5%, respectively, over a two-year average. The results of our long-term study suggest that the NT had advantages of SOC accumulation. In addition, as of June 2018, NT increased SOC stocks with 5.85 Mg hm-2 at a 0-60-cm soil depth compared with CT, whereas no significant difference was found between ST and CT. Overall, adopting NT in a crop residue-returned farming system improved SOC storage to 5.85 Mg hm-2 after 11 years as well as decreased CO2 flux by 14.5% in comparison with CT, which is meaningful in improving soil carbon pool and decreasing soil CO2 emission during agriculture production.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Suelo , Agricultura , Granjas
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 245, 2020 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198540

RESUMEN

Several strategies were undertaken to increase the fertility of landfill soil as rapid urbanization remarkably decreases the agricultural land, posing challenges to the fast-growing human population. Towards this direction, soil microcosms were prepared wherein the addition of nutrient or biofertilizer or the combination of both increased the soil nitrogen and phosphate content considerably. The maximum amount of nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization occurred in microcosm treated with biofertilizer and nutrient. To investigate the underlying cause, we observed that separate application of nutrient or biofertilizer or combined application of both increased the abundance of nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in the microcosms. However, the highest abundance of nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria was spotted in a microcosm challenged with nutrient and biofertilizer together. It was detected that with increasing population of nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, the soil nitrogen and phosphate level also got enhanced, respectively, thus establishing a strong positive correlation between them. The microcosm treated with biofertilizer and nutrient manifested the highest degree of heterotrophic microbial growth and microbial activity than the microcosms either treated with nutrient or biofertilizer. The microcosm treated with nutrient and biofertilizer was found to exhibit the highest functional diversity compared to others. A surface plot was constructed to demonstrate the association among microbial activity, functional diversity, and the availability of soil nitrogen and phosphate content of soil. The result indicates that the combined application of nutrient and biofertilizer increases the microbial activity leading to the formation of a heterogeneous ecosystem that enhances the nitrogen and phosphate content of landfill soil considerably.


Asunto(s)
Nitrógeno , Fosfatos , Suelo , Residuos Sólidos , Nitrógeno/análisis , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Fosfatos/análisis , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Suelo/química , Microbiología del Suelo , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos
18.
Waste Manag ; 105: 520-530, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145685

RESUMEN

Characterizing the waste generated from different agro-industrial segments enables the strategic management of residues, with the goal of maximizing recovery within the premises of a circular economy. This research aimed to determine the coefficient of waste generated in broiler chick hatcheries as well as to characterize the waste, taking into account the points of culling and the ages of the laying hens. Furthermore, the waste was used in composting with sheep manure (SM) at increasing inclusion rates (0:100, 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, and 50:50). On average, 0.16 kg (DM) of hatchery waste is generated per kg of broiler chicks born. At the hatchery, at least 79% of the total disposal occurs at the hatcher stage. This value is impacted by chicken age (P < 0.05), with birds of a late laying age generating waste with higher contents of carbon (C), volatile solids (VS), ether extract (EE), and nitrogen (N). Culling during egg reception and the manual transfer process account for only 1.8% of the total waste generated on average and thus contribute little to the composition of the overall residues. However, the mechanical transfer process may represent up to 19.0% of the total waste generated by hens of an intermediate laying age. According to the average of all the composting stages, the maximum reduction in solids and C from the hatchery waste was reached when the waste accounted for 50% of the windrow composition. Such conditions resulted in organic fertilizer with the highest N content (2.8%), equivalent to 40.0% more than that in the treatment with no added hatchery waste. The compost resulting from 50% hatchery waste inclusion also had the highest humic acid to fulvic acid (HA:FA) ratio and the highest calcium content due to the higher proportion of eggshells. These findings lead to the recommendation for the inclusion of hatchery waste in composting with SM at a 50% rate by mass.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Compostaje , Animales , Femenino , Estiércol , Nitrógeno , Ovinos , Suelo
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 1): e20180425, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159584

RESUMEN

The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of Eucalyptus trees in a silvopastoral system on the microclimate and the capacity of that to mitigate the effects of climate change on pasturelands. This study included an open pasture of Piatã palisadegrass and an adjacent pasture that contained both palisadegrass and East-to-West rows of Eucalyptus trees, with 15 m between rows, 2 m between trees within rows. The micrometeorological measurements were collected at several distances from the tree rows and in the open pasture. The silvopastoral system was associated with greater between-row shading when solar declination was high and greater near-tree shading when solar declination was around -22°. Both soil heat flux and temperature were influenced by solar radiation, wind speed, and the ability of tree canopies to reduce radiation losses. Wind speed was consistently lower in the silvopastoral system, owing to the windbreak effect of the Eucalyptus trees. The present study demonstrated that silvopastoral systems can be used to attenuate the effects of climate change, as trees can protect pastureland from intense solar radiation and wind, thereby reducing evapotranspiration and, consequently, improving soil water availability for the understory crop.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Eucalyptus , Agricultura Forestal , Pradera , Brasil , Eucalyptus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Humedad , Microclima , Estaciones del Año , Suelo , Luz Solar , Viento
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 211, 2020 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130540

RESUMEN

The potential of carbon (C) sequestration through photosynthesis depends on the nature of different plant species. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is an evergreen perennial plant and cultivated over a wide region in the world, and its potential to sequestrate atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in plant biomass is already evaluated. However, proportions of assimilated CO2 which tea plant can sequestrate in their biomass and in soil are not evaluated before. In this experiment, ten (10) 6-month old tea plants of four different cultivars (TV1, TV20, S3A/3, and TV23) were transplanted in the field and CO2 assimilation flux of tea plants was periodically measured under in situ condition using close-chamber method at 15 days interval throughout the year. The cumulative CO2 assimilation flux of young tea plants varied within 31.82-249.22 g CO2 plant-1 year-1; however, it was estimated that tea bushes also emitted 5.2-70.8 g CO2 plant-1 year-1 due to aerobic respiration. After 1 year, tea plants were uprooted and the changes in their biomass were compared as the measure of their C-sequestration within the study duration. The weight gain in the whole plant biomass was proportional to the CO2 assimilation potential of tea cultivars. Overall, tea plants sequestrated 50.8% of the assimilated atmospheric CO2 in their biomass. The study revealed that tea bushes release organic C through the root exudates, the amount of which was equivalent to 5.9-8.6% of the assimilated CO2. Those secreted root exudates have potential to increase organic C up to 44-48 kg ha-1 year-1 in tea-growing soil.


Asunto(s)
Camellia sinensis , Secuestro de Carbono , , Biomasa , Dióxido de Carbono , Monitoreo del Ambiente , India , Suelo
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