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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255485, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350312

RESUMEN

Abstract The current focus is on the overall pattern of seed storage present in the fragments of the soil of piedmont and alluvial landscapes of the environment. The present study predicted the seed banks of both soils of alluvial and piedmont zones in different ecological conditions and evaluate the potential of seeds in the restoration of both environments. The composition of the seed bank of soil is mainly affected by the alluvial environment and the structure of cleared area shows that more species of germinating annual grasses and growable seeds with the higher total number. Extant vegetation structures have an important role in the diversity of soil seed reservoirs, whose composition corresponded with the openness of the site. When in situ soil seed bank is recruited, it helps to restore only some components of the plant community in an alluvial environment. In our current research, it was confirmed that seed richness was higher in number at lower elevation (alluvial) than that at high elevation (piedmont). Seed richness showed a significant negative correlation with anions, cations, while significantly positive with altitude that suggests the richness pattern of the overall seed bank of the area is influenced by various environmental factors.


Resumo O foco atual está no padrão geral de armazenamento de sementes presente nos fragmentos de solo do Piemonte e nas paisagens aluviais do meio ambiente. O presente estudo previu os bancos de sementes de ambos os solos das zonas aluvial e piemontesa em diferentes condições ecológicas e avaliou o potencial das sementes na restauração de ambos os ambientes. A composição do banco de sementes do solo é afetada principalmente pelo ambiente aluvial e a estrutura da área desmatada mostra que mais espécies de gramíneas anuais em germinação e sementes cultiváveis ​​apresentam o maior número total. As estruturas da vegetação existente têm um papel importante na diversidade dos reservatórios de sementes do solo, cuja composição correspondeu à abertura do local. Quando o banco de sementes do solo in situ é recrutado, o mesmo ajuda a restaurar apenas alguns componentes da comunidade de plantas em um ambiente aluvial. Em nossa pesquisa atual, foi confirmado que a riqueza de sementes era maior em número em altitudes mais baixas (aluviais) do que em altitudes elevadas (Piemonte). A riqueza de sementes mostrou uma correlação negativa significativa com ânions, cátions, enquanto significativamente positiva com a altitude, o que sugere que o padrão de riqueza do banco geral de sementes da área é influenciado por vários fatores ambientais.


Asunto(s)
Suelo , Banco de Semillas , Pakistán , Plantas , Semillas , Ecosistema , Poaceae
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246230, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339369

RESUMEN

Abstract Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x 108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.


Resumo A dengue transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti é uma das doenças transmitidas por insetos de propagação mais rápida. A dependência atual do controle do vetor da dengue é principalmente de inseticidas químicos. O aumento da resistência a inseticidas no principal vetor do mosquito, Aedes aegypti, limita a eficácia do controle do vetor por meio de inseticidas químicos. Esses inseticidas químicos também têm impactos ambientais negativos sobre os animais, plantas e saúde humana. Os agentes de micobiocontrole são organismos que ocorrem naturalmente e são menos prejudiciais ao meio ambiente em comparação com os inseticidas químicos. No presente estudo, avaliou-se o potencial entomopatogênico de cepas locais de fungos isolados do solo para o controle do vetor da dengue. Isolados de fungos locais apresentam melhor alternativa para a introdução de uma cepa de biocontrole estrangeira, pois podem ser mais bem adaptados às condições ambientais da área para sobreviver e podem ter maior eficácia entomopatogênica contra o organismo-alvo. A eficácia larvicida de Fusarium equiseti e Fusarium proliferatum foi avaliada contra Aedes aegypti. Cepas locais de F. equiseti (MK371718) e F. proliferatum (MK371715) foram isoladas do solo de Changa Manga Forest, Paquistão, usando o método de isca para insetos. Atividade larvicida de dois Fusarium spp. foi testado contra larvas de quarto ínstar de A. aegypti em laboratório, nas concentrações 105, 106, 107 e 108 conídios / ml. Os valores de LC50 para F. equiseti após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição foram registrados como 3,8x 108, 2,9x107, 2,0x107 e 7,1x106 conídios / ml, respectivamente, enquanto os valores de LC50 para F. proliferatum foram registrados como 1,21x108, 9,6 x107, 4,2x107, 2,6x107 conídios / ml, respectivamente, após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição. Os resultados indicam que entre duas cepas de fungos F. equiseti se mostrou mais eficaz em termos de atividade larvicida do que F. proliferatum contra larvas de A. aegypti.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Aedes , Fusarium , Insecticidas/farmacología , Pakistán , Suelo , Extractos Vegetales , Bosques , Mosquitos Vectores , Larva
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240015, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285624

RESUMEN

Abstract Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is required for optimum plant growth. It is present in soil in insoluble forms. Bacterial solubilization of soil unavailable form of Zn into available form, is an emerging approach to alleviate the Zn deficiency for plants and human beings. Zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB) could be a substitute for chemical Zn fertilizer. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize bacterial species from the contaminated soil and evaluate their Zn solubilizing potential. Zn resistant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Zn. Among the 13 isolated bacterial strains ZSB13 showed maximum MIC value upto 30mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Zn was selected for further analysis. Molecular characterization of ZSB13 was performed by 16S rRNA gene amplification which confirmed it as Pseudomonas oleovorans. Zn solubilization was determined through plate assay and broth medium. Four insoluble salts (zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc carbonate (ZnCO3), zinc sulphite (ZnS) and zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) were used for solubilization assay. Our results shows 11 mm clear halo zone on agar plates amended with ZnO. Likewise, ZSB13 showed significant release of Zn in broth amended with ZnCO3 (17 and 16.8 ppm) and ZnO (18.2 ppm). Furthermore, Zn resistance genes czcD was also enriched in ZSB13. In our study, bacterial strain comprising Zn solubilization potential has been isolated that could be further used for the growth enhancement of crops.


Resumo O zinco é um micronutriente essencial necessário para o crescimento ideal das plantas. Ele está presente no solo em formas insolúveis. A solubilização bacteriana da forma indisponível de Zn no solo para a forma disponível é uma abordagem emergente para aliviar a deficiência de Zn em plantas e seres humanos. Bactérias solubilizadoras de zinco (ZSB) podem ser um substituto para fertilizantes químicos de Zn. O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e caracterizar espécies bacterianas de solo contaminado e avaliar seu potencial de solubilização de Zn. Bactérias resistentes ao Zn foram isoladas e avaliadas quanto ao seu MIC contra o Zn. Entre as 13 cepas bacterianas isoladas, ZSB13 apresentou valor máximo de MIC de até 30 mM/L. A cepa bacteriana com maior resistência ao Zn foi selecionada para análise posterior. A caracterização molecular de ZSB13 foi realizada por amplificação do gene 16S rRNA que o confirmou como Pseudomonas oleovorans. A solubilização do Zn foi determinada através de ensaio em placa e meio caldo. Quatro sais insolúveis (óxido de zinco (ZnO), carbonato de zinco (ZnCO3), sulfito de zinco (ZnS) e fosfato de zinco (Zn3 (PO4) 2) foram usados ​​para o ensaio de solubilização. Nossos resultados mostram uma zona de halo clara de 11 mm em placas de ágar corrigidas com ZnO. Da mesma forma, ZSB13 mostrou liberação significativa de Zn em caldo alterado com ZnCO3 (17 e 16,8 ppm) e ZnO (18,2 ppm). Além disso, os genes de resistência ao Zn czcD também foram enriquecidos em ZSB13. Em nosso estudo, a cepa bacteriana compreendendo potencial de solubilização de Zn foi isolada e poderia ser usada posteriormente para o aumento do crescimento de safras.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Pseudomonas oleovorans , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo , Zinc , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242676, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278552

RESUMEN

Abstract Trees occurring on the margins of agricultural areas can mitigate damage from residual herbicides. Rhizospheric microbial activity associated with trees is one of the main remedial capacity indicators. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rhizospheric microbiological activity in tree species subjected to the herbicides atrazine and sulfentrazone via the rhizosphere. The experiment was designed in four blocks and a 6 × 3 factorial scheme. The first factor consisted of six tree species from Brazil and the second of atrazine, sulfentrazone, and water solutions. Four herbicide applications were performed via irrigation. The total dry mass of the plants, mycorrhizal colonization, number of spores, basal respiration of the rhizospheric soil, and survival rate of bioindicator plants after phytoremediation were determined. Trichilia hirta had higher biomass when treated with atrazine and sulfentrazone. Herbicides decreased the microbial activity in Triplaris americana and did not affect the microbiological indicators of Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba, and Toona ciliata. Fewer bioindicator plants survived in soil with Triplaris americana and sulfentrazone. Microbiological indicators were influenced in different ways between species by the presence of herbicides in the rhizosphere.


Resumo As árvores que ocorrem nas margens das áreas agrícolas podem mitigar os danos dos herbicidas residuais. A atividade microbiana rizosférica associada às árvores é um dos principais indicadores de capacidade corretiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade microbiológica rizosférica em espécies arbóreas submetidas aos herbicidas atrazina e sulfentrazone via rizosfera. O experimento foi estruturado em quatro blocos e esquema fatorial 6 × 3. O primeiro fator consistiu em seis espécies de árvores do Brasil e o segundo em soluções de atrazine, sulfentrazone e água. Quatro aplicações de herbicidas foram realizadas via irrigação. Foram determinados a massa seca total das plantas, colonização micorrízica, número de esporos, respiração basal do solo rizosférico e taxa de sobrevivência de plantas bioindicadoras após fitorremediação. Trichilia hirta apresentou maior biomassa quando tratada com atrazina e sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas diminuíram a atividade microbiana em Triplaris americana e não afetaram os indicadores microbiológicos de Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba e Toona ciliata. Menos plantas bioindicadoras sobreviveram no solo com Triplaris americana e sulfentrazone. Os indicadores microbiológicos foram influenciados de formas distintas entre as espécies pela presença dos herbicidas na rizosfera.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes del Suelo , Micorrizas/química , Herbicidas , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo , Árboles , Brasil , Raíces de Plantas/química , Plantones , Rizosfera
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243245, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278547

RESUMEN

Abstract Although richness and distribution of woody species in the Cerrado physiognomies have been extensively studied, the shifts of woody species from savanna physiognomies to dry forests have not yet been addressed. Here, we investigate the effect of soil physical-chemical traits on the woody species turnover between adjacent cerrado stricto sensu and dry forest physiognomies. Woody species were surveyed, and soil and topographic variables measured, in 30 10×40 m plots systematically distributed, with 15 plots in each physiognomy. We found a spatially structured distribution of woody species, and differences of soil traits between cerrado stricto sensu and dry forest areas, mainly related to the aluminum saturation, base saturation, and available phosphorus. Aluminum saturation increased toward the savanna area, while base saturation increased toward the dry forest. Most woody species predominated in one physiognomy, such as Callisthene major in the cerrado stricto sensu and Anadenanthera colubrina in the dry forest. Only 20% of the species were widely distributed across both physiognomies or, not often, restricted to the intermediary values of the soil gradient. General results indicate that contrasting soil traits between cerrado stricto sensu and dry forest produce a strongly spatially organized and sharp transition in terms of species distribution between these physiognomies.


Resumo Embora a distribuição e a riqueza em espécies arbóreas nas fitofisionomias do Cerrado venham sendo bastante estudadas, a transição entre savanas e florestas deciduais ainda não foi abordada. Investigamos o efeito de características físico-químicas do solo sobre a distribuição de espécies arbóreas em região de contato entre cerrado sentido restrito e floresta estacional decidual (FED). As espécies arbóreas foram amostradas sistematicamente, e variáveis de topografia e características do solo foram medidas em 30 parcelas de 10×40 m, sendo 15 parcelas em cada fisionomia. A distribuição das espécies arbóreas foi espacialmente estruturada, e as características do solo diferiram entre as áreas de cerrado sentido restrito e FED, principalmente relacionadas à saturação de alumínio, saturação de bases e teores de fósforo. A saturação de alumínio aumentou em direção ao cerrado sentido restrito, enquanto a saturação de bases aumentou em direção à FED. A maioria das espécies arbóreas predominou em uma das fisionomias, como Callisthene major em cerrado sentido restrito e Anadenanthera colubrina em FED. Apenas 20% das espécies foram amplamente distribuídas em ambas as fisionomias ou, em poucos casos, restritas aos valores intermediários do gradiente de solo. Os resultados indicam um forte contraste de características do solo entre o cerrado sentido restrito e a FED, assim como uma transição acentuada e espacialmente organizada quanto à distribuição de espécies arbóreas.


Asunto(s)
Suelo , Pradera , Árboles , Brasil , Bosques
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540

RESUMEN

Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.


Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicidas/toxicidad , Aspergillus , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Organofosfonatos , Hongos , Glicina/análogos & derivados
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247384, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278539

RESUMEN

Abstract The colonization pattern of fish assemblages in streams is often studied in the context of environmental filters. On the other hand, when fish assemblages are subjected to anthropogenic effects, variables associated with environmental quality assume more importance. Therefore, this work evaluated the richness and composition of fish from streams sampled at different urbanization levels, aiming to determine any direct effects on the structure of fish assemblages. To accomplish this, samples were collected from 2003 to 2011 at 31 sites distributed among 3 microbasins in the Rio Ivinhema Basin, Alto Rio Paraná. Based on environmental variables, physicochemical of the water and analysis of the use and occupation of the soil, the microbasins were classified into different urbanization levels (low, medium and high). A total of 4,320 individuals were sampled, out of which 57 fish species were recorded. Sampled sites with medium urbanization level presented higher richness compared to sampled sites with high urbanization level which presented lower richness. Species richness in these sites was explained mainly by water temperature and water velocity. Results confirmed that urbanization does directly affect environmental integrity, which, in turn, can lead to the homogenization of stream assemblages.


Resumo Estudos sobre assembleias de peixes em riachos enfatizam o papel dos filtros ambientais associados ao padrão de colonização das assembleias, por outro lado, quando a assembleia está sujeita aos efeitos antropogênicos, as variáveis ambientais associadas à qualidade ambiental assumem maior importância. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a riqueza e a composição de peixes de riachos amostrados em diferentes níveis de urbanização, buscando evidenciar se o efeito reflete diretamente na estrutura das assembleias. As amostragens foram realizadas em 31 locais distribuídos em três microbacias na bacia Rio Ivinhema, Alto Rio Paraná, no período de 2003 a 2011. Com base nas variáveis ambientais, físico-químicos da água e análise do uso e ocupação do solo as microbacias foram classificadas em diferentes níveis de urbanização (baixo, médio e alto). Foram amostrados um total 4.320 indivíduos, dos quais foram registradas 57 espécies de peixes. Os locais amostrados com influência média da urbanização apresentaram maior riqueza de espécies, entretanto, os locais amostrados com alta influência da urbanização apresentaram menor riqueza de espécies. Dessa forma, constatamos que a urbanização influencia diretamente na integridade ambiental, que pode levar a homogeneização das assembleias de riachos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Urbanización , Ríos , Suelo , Brasil , Ecosistema , Peces
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244732, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278538

RESUMEN

Abstract Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.


Resumo Alguns estudos relatam o efeito positivo de resíduos orgânicos de formigueiros nas propriedades do solo e na estrutura da comunidade de plantas adjacentes em experimentos de campo, mas há uma lacuna sobre o efeito em espécies individuais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desenvolvimento de Turnera subulata Smith, uma espécie ornamental, na presença do substrato de descarte (SD) de formigueiros produzido pela formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) por meio de experimento em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido com dois tratamentos: solo controle e solo com 25% de SD. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de 1L por 90 dias. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, comprimento da raiz, número de folhas, massa seca da raiz, biomassa seca e fresca da parte aérea. Além disso, o conteúdo relativo de clorofila e os nutrientes foliares foram usados como parâmetros fisiológicos. Como resultado, as plantas que cresceram no solo com SD apresentaram valores significativamente maiores de todos os parâmetros avaliados quando comparadas ao tratamento controle (p < 0.001). Concluímos que esse biofertilizante contribuiu para a produção de plantas mais vigorosas, podendo atuar na dinâmica local de nutrientes nos ecossistemas onde A. balzani ocorre. Além disso, por ser relativamente abundante e fácil de coletar, o SD de A. balzani tem potencial para ser utilizado como biofertilizante na produção de plantas de ciclo de vida curta.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Hormigas , Turnera , Plantas , Suelo , Simbiosis , Ecosistema , Hojas de la Planta
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

RESUMEN

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Femenino , Oligoquetos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Suelo , Cadmio , Bovinos , Bioacumulación
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 177: 113489, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325795

RESUMEN

Heavy metal-contaminated wastes can threaten mangrove forests, one of the most biodiverse ecosystems in the world. The study evaluated the geospatial distribution of heavy metals concentrations in soils, the ecological and human health risks, and metal contents in soil fractions and mangrove organisms in the Botafogo estuary, Brazil, one of the most environmentally impacted estuaries in the country. The metal concentrations exceeded by up to 2.6-fold the geochemical background; 91%, 59%, 64%, 31%, and 82% of the soils were contaminated with Cr, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Ni, respectively. Adverse effects to the biota may occur due to Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb exposures. Contents of clay and organic matter were the main factors governing the distribution of metals in soil, contributing to up to 63% of the total variability. However, the geospatial modeling showed that the predictive ability of these variables varied spatially with the metal and location. The ecological and human health risks assessments indicated that the metal concentrations in soils are safe for the environment and human beings. There was a low transfer of metals from the soil to the biota, with values of sediment-biota accumulation factor (SBAF) and biological accumulation coefficients (BAC) lower than 1.0, except for Zn (SBAF = 13.1). The high Zn bioaccumulation by Crassostrea rhizophorae may be associated with the concentrations of Zn in the bioavailable fractions.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 664-670, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524517

RESUMEN

Understanding the effects of different amounts of straw returning and nitrogen fertilizer application on soil CO2 emission from maize field can provide theoretical support for carbon sequestration and CO2 emission reduction and the implementation of black soil region conservation plan. Three rates of straw returning were set up in the semi-arid area of northwest Liaoning Province, China, i.e. 3000 (S1), 6000 (S2) and 9000 kg·hm-2(S3, full amount of straw returned to the field); crossed with three nitrogen fertilizer application rates in the sub-region, respectively, i.e. 105 (N1), 210 (N2, conventional nitrogen application rate) and 420 kg N·hm-2(N3). In addition, there was a control treatment (CK) without nitrogen fertilizer and straw returning. Soil samples were collected after 4 years field experiment with maize plantation. The influence of different treatments on maize field soil CO2 emission and the relationship between CO2 emission and soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were investigated in an incubation experiment. The results showed that both of straw returning and nitrogen fertilizer application promoted soil CO2 emission in maize field, which were increased significantly with the increases of straw returning amount and nitrogen application amount. Nitrogen fertilizer application was the most important factor promoting soil CO2 emission in maize field. Straw returning combined with nitrogen fertilizer promoted soil CO2 emission by increasing microbial biomass and increasing DOC consumption. MBC and DOC stimulated soil CO2 emission significantly in maize field, and were mainly affected by their contents in the early stage of incubation. From the perspective of ensuring the fertilization of straw return to the field while reducing CO2 emissions, results from our experiment showed that 210 kg N·hm-2 conventional nitrogen application in combination with 6000 kg N·hm-2 straw returning (N2S2) was the most promising mode in the semi-arid area of northwest Liaoning Province.


Asunto(s)
Fertilizantes , Suelo , Agricultura/métodos , Carbono/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono , China , Nitrógeno/análisis , Zea mays
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 671-676, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524518

RESUMEN

Clarifying the differences of maize yield and its stability under long-term no-tillage with different stover mulching amounts can provide theoretical and technical supports for establishing and evaluating long-term conservation tillage pattern and promoting grain production. Based on a long-term conservation tillage field experiment in the mollisol area of Northeast China since 2007, we analyzed the interannual variation, variation coefficient and stability of maize yield during 2013 and 2019 across five treatments, i.e., no-tillage stover-free mulching (NT0), no-tillage with 33% stover mulching (NT33), no-tillage with 67% stover mulching (NT67) and no-tillage with 100% stover mulching (NT100), with the traditional ridge cropping (RT) as the control. The results showed that compared with RT, long-term no-tillage with stover mulching treatments could increase maize yield. NT100 had the highest increasing rate of 11.4%, followed by NT67 and NT0, with the increasing rate of 11.0% and 10.4%, respectively. Maize yield exhibited a nonlinear relationship with the amount of stover mulch. The variation coefficient of maize yield under multi-year no-tillage with different stover mulching could be sorted as NT67NT0>NT100>RT>NT33, indicating that NT67 treatment could significantly reduce the interannual fluctuation of maize yield and had better sustainability of yield. No-tillage stover mulching significantly increased soil total carbon and total nitrogen contents, which were significantly positively correlated with maize yield. In conclusion, compared with traditional tillage, no-tillage stover mulching could increase maize yield and soil carbon and nitrogen contents. Appropriate stover mulching (NT67)had the potential to improve the stability and sustainability of maize yield.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Zea mays , Agricultura/métodos , Carbono , China , Nitrógeno/análisis , Suelo
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 677-684, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524519

RESUMEN

A reduction of chemical fertilizers and improving fertilizer utilization rate are important for ensuring a balance between plant growth and minimizing the degradation of the black soil. We conducted a 2-year pot experiment with four treatments during 2019 and 2020, including T0: no fertilizer, T1: conventional use of chemical fertilizer, T2: 15% reduction of the chemical fertilizer combined with 400 kg·hm-2 of humic acid bio-fertilizer (HABF), and T3: 30% reduction of the chemical fertilizer combined with 600 kg·hm-2 of HABF, to examine the effect of reduction rates of chemical fertilizers combined with the HABF on soil microbial abundance, enzyme activity and nutrient content in maize cultivation. The results showed that the application of HABF significantly increased the abundance of soil bacteria and fungi, with the number of microbial colonies being positively correlated with the amount of HABF. When measured at the tassel stage of maize growth, T2 and T3 treatments significantly increased the activities of urease, sucrase, and catalase in soil by 11.4%-21.6%, 34.9%-46.7%, and 6.5%-13.4%, respectively. The available nitrogen contents in T2 and T3 treatments were higher than that in the T1 treatment by 8.2%-18.1%, which ensured the sufficient nitrogen supply to maize after the tassel stage. Soil available phosphorus and available potassium contents increased by 17.1%-121.0% and 9.6%-57.3%, respectively, compared with T1 treatment. With the increases of the amount of HABF, the activation effects of soil phosphorus and potassium and dry matter mass per plant increased significantly in T2 and T3 treatments compared with T1 treatment. In conclusion, HABF promoted the proliferation of soil bacteria and fungi, improved activities of catalase, urease, and sucrase, soil nutrient contents, and dry matter mass per plant. The 15% reduction of chemical fertilizer combined with 400 kg·hm-2 of HABF is the most suitable nutrient management strategy for maize production in black soil.


Asunto(s)
Fertilizantes , Suelo , Agricultura/métodos , Bacterias , Catalasa , Fertilizantes/análisis , Sustancias Húmicas , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo , Potasio , Suelo/química , Sacarasa , Ureasa , Zea mays
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 685-693, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524520

RESUMEN

Revealing the responses of soil microbial community to soil erosion can provide guidance for agricultural ecosystem management. We investigated the impacts of soil erosion intensity on soil microbial quantity at the Binzhou River Basin, a typical thin layer Mollisol area in Bin County of Heilongjiang Province, using 137Cs tracer. The results showed that there were seasonal variations in soil microbial quantity. The abundance of soil microbes in summer was considerably higher than that in autumn. Bacteria was more sensitive to seasonal variation than fungi and actinomycetes, which was increased by 1.4-2.6 times and 1.4-2.2 times in summer compared with autumn in different parts of slope and watershed, respectively. The spatial variation of soil erosion intensity had an important effect on the spatial distribution of soil microbial community. The highest proportion of bacteria was found at lower deposition area of slope (84.4%) and at the lightly eroded area of the downstream (85.4%). The numbers of soil microbes, soil bacteria and actinomycetes were negative linearly correlated with soil erosion modulus, with correlation coefficients of -0.595, -0.554 and -0.291, respectively. Soil erosion and deposition induced spatial differences in soil physical and chemical properties, with consequences on spatial distribution of soil microbial community.


Asunto(s)
Erosión del Suelo , Suelo , Bacterias , China , Ecosistema , Suelo/química , Microbiología del Suelo
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 694-702, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524521

RESUMEN

Different cropping patterns have their own economic and ecological significance. Developing cropping patterns suitable for local conditions is needed to protect and make good use of black soils. At present, the cropping patterns and their spatial characteristics in the black soil region of Northeast China is poorly understood. Based on the crop classification data in 2017-2019, we used geo-information Tupu methods, distribution index model, and bivariate spatial autocorrelation to examine the cropping patterns. The results showed that: 1) The main cropping patterns in the black soil region of Northeast China were continuous maize cropping, continuous rice cropping, continuous soybean cropping, and maize-soybean rotation, accounting for 38.3%, 18.5%, 10.3% and 26.0%, respectively. The maize-soybean rotation included maize-soybean two-year rotation, maize-maize-soybean three-year rotation, and soybean-soybean-maize three-year rotation, accounting for 44.1%, 34.5% and 21.4% of the rotation area, respectively. 2) Various cropping patterns had obviously horizontal differentiation. For instance, continuous maize cropping had very obvious gradient differentiation characteristics in temperature and humidity, but soybean continuous cropping and maize-soybean rotation showed no gradient differentiation, while continuous rice cropping had gradient differentiation only in humidity. 3) Various cropping patterns had obviously spatial clustering characteristics. They had spatial transition characteristics from soybean continuous cropping, soybean-soybean-maize three-year rotation, maize-soybean two-year rotation, maize-maize-soybean three-year rotation, to continuous maize cropping. The cropping pattern in black soil region of Northeast China was dominated by continuous cropping. Understanding its distribution pattern can provide a basis for future spatial optimization of crop rotation.


Asunto(s)
Fabaceae , Oryza , Agricultura/métodos , China , Suelo , Soja , Zea mays
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 703-710, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524522

RESUMEN

Due to the basic topographical characteristics of the gentle and long slope lengths in the Mollisol region of Northeast China, severe soil erosion is easily aggravated by the concentration of surface flow. The spatial distribution of water depth and hydrological connectivity index were introduced to evaluate the effects of typical soil and water conservation practices on the overland flow path and hydrological connectivity based on the GIS and SIMWE (SIMulated Water Erosion) model. We analyzed the effects of different soil and water conservation practices on the hydrological connectivity, water flow path, and spatial distribution of soil erosion and sediment yield by quantifying the variations of soil infiltration rate and surface manning roughness, as well as by constructing an artificial terrain digital elevation model (DEM). The results showed that: 1) terraces could effectively affect the hydrological connectivity of the slope and regulate flow path, with significant differences between the responses of hydrological connectivity and flow path under different forms of terraced fields and ridges. The characteristics of spatial distribution of soil erosion and sediment yield varied with changes in water flow path, which would eventually lead to the intensification of local erosion; 2) practices of vegetated buffer strips and contour tillage presented limited effectiveness on runoff path controlling, though they played a significant role in sediment retention; and 3) conservation tillage could reduce the hydrological connectivity and improve the retention capacity of runoff by increasing surface roughness. This study quantified the effects of different soil and water conservation practices on the hydrological connectivity, flow path, and spatial distribution of soil erosion and sediment yield, and could provide a theoretical reference for scientific layout of soil and water conservation practices in black soil region.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Hídricos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Agricultura , China , Sedimentos Geológicos , Suelo , Erosión del Suelo , Agua
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 720-726, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524524

RESUMEN

Shrubs play an important role in maintaining biodiversity, stability and ecological service in grassland. Exploring the effects of enclosure on dominant shrub population can provide scientific guidance for grassland restoration and tending management. In this study, we investigated main growth characteristics and spatial distribution pattern of Artemisia ordosica population in four enclosed grasslands with duration of 0, 5, 15, and 25 years. The results showed that population density increased first and then decreased with time extension, and peaked after enclosed for 15 years, which was 3.7 times that of unenclosed plot. The crown and projected area showed opposite responses trend to that of density, which decreased by 31.7% and 52.3% after enclosed 15 years, respectively. The height decreased by 25.3% after 5 years of enclosure, and then increased gradually. Semi-variance function analysis showed that population distribution in all grasslands conformed to Gaussian model. The spatial variation decreased gradually in the early stage of enclosure, and then increased after enclosed for 15 years. Structure ratio in each plot was higher than 0.75, but nugget was relatively small, indicating that spatial autocorrelation of population was mainly affected by structural factors rather than random factors. Spatial distribution of A. ordosica population was patchy and striped. Enclosure reduced spatial variation of population at small scale. However, spatial heterogeneity and scale dependence of population enhanced after enclosed 25 years as plaque dissociating. Our findings suggest that enclosure duration is the key factor affecting plant growth and spatial distribution of dominant population in desert steppe. Long-term fencing enhances the spatial heterogeneity of dominant population. Appropriate human intervention should be carried out after 15 years of enclosure.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia , Artemisia/fisiología , China , Clima Desértico , Ecosistema , Pradera , Humanos , Suelo/química , Análisis Espacial
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 733-741, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524526

RESUMEN

Groundwater is an important water source for phreatophytic shrubs in arid desert areas. In order to understand the impacts of groundwater depth on functional traits of phreatophytic shrubs, two groups of groundwater levels (2 and 3.5 m) were set up using lysimeter with automatic water replenishing instrument. We measured hydraulic traits, gas exchange characteristics, and root morphological parameters of young Haloxylon ammodendron during the growing season. The results showed that predawn assimilating branch water potential, osmotic potential at full turgor, and root length ratio of young H. ammodendron in the groundwater depth of 3.5 m were lower by 48.2%, 41.5% and 56.7% than that under groundwater depth of 2 m, respectively, while maximum net photosynthetic rate of late growing season, root volume, specific root length and specific root area of fine root were 75.7%, 41.0%, 273.7% and 67.7% higher, respectively. Midday water potential and water content of assimilating branch tended to decrease first in the early growing season and then increase in the late growing season. Root distribution of young H. ammodendron along soil profile showed a significant positive correlation between the average root diameter and soil depth, while the proportion of fine root surface area showed a significant negative correlation with soil depth at both groundwater levels. There was synergy of aboveground assimilating branch hydraulic traits and photosynthetic capacity with belowground root morphological traits in young H. ammodendron. Under the condition of increasing groundwater depth, young H. ammodendron adopted the ecological strategies of reducing predawn assimilating branch water potential and osmotic potential at full turgor, and increasing root diameter and length to enhance water deficit tolerance and expanding the area of water uptake to sustain their survival.


Asunto(s)
Chenopodiaceae , Fabaceae , Agua Subterránea , Fotosíntesis , Suelo , Agua/análisis
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 742-748, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524527

RESUMEN

With three types of ecological slope protection projects of rock slope, soil slope and rock soil mixed slope (geotechnical slope) in Xishan mining area of Taiyuan as the object, CCA ranking was used to examine the relationship between environmental factors and species distribution of different types of slopes, and analyze the impacts of environmental factors such as soil and topography on plant diversity. The results showed that geotechnical slope was rich in vegetation composition (8 families, 17 genera, and 19 species), including Asteraceae, Gramineae, Fabaceae, Vitaceae, Lamiaceae, Simaroubaceae, etc. The species richness, Shannon index, Simpson index, and Pielou evenness index of the geotechnical slope were significantly higher than that of soil slope and rocky slope. The artificial soil nutrient contents of the three types of slopes were significantly higher than that of the control. The ave-rage contents of total nitrogen (1.24 g·kg-1), organic matter (21.28 g·kg-1), and available potassium (0.21 g·kg-1) of geotechnical slope were higher than that of rocky slope (1.02, 15.56 and 0.14 g·kg-1) and soil slope (0.80, 11.65 and 0.15 g·kg-1), respectively. Vegetation diversity was significantly related to soil factors, with organic matter and soil water content as the main limiting factors. Soil factors had greater impacts on vegetation restoration than topographical factors. Results of structural equation modeling showed that topographical factors, such as slope gradient, indirectly affected vegetation restoration by affecting soil moisture and nutrients.


Asunto(s)
Plantas , Suelo , China , Humanos , Nitrógeno , Nutrientes , Suelo/química , Agua
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 749-756, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524528

RESUMEN

In Taiyue Mountain of Shanxi Province, five types of organic matter, i.e., biochar, maize straw, leaves of Quercus mongolica and Pinus tabuliformis, and sawdust of wood stem, were separately added to the soils of a P. tabuliformis forest. Nutrient content, enzyme activity, and microbial biomass were analyzed to elucidate the characteristics of soil ecoenzymatic stoichiometry and the element homeostasis of soil microorganisms. The results showed that the addition of woody sawdust significantly increased soil nitrogen and phosphorus content by 17.1% and 37.6%, and enhanced carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents of soil microbial biomass by 118.0%, 41.0%, and 176.6%, respectively. The activities of carbon-, nitrogen- and phosphorus-targeting enzymes (i.e., ß-1, 4-glucosaminosidase, ß-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminosidase, leucine aminopeptidase and acid phosphatase) generally increased with the C:N of the added organic matter (biochar

Asunto(s)
Pinus , Suelo , Biomasa , Carbono/análisis , China , Bosques , Homeostasis , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo/análisis , Microbiología del Suelo , Zea mays
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