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1.
Eur J Protistol ; 78: 125766, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548733

RESUMEN

The morphology, morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny of a new saline soil hypotrich ciliate, Uroleptoides salina nov. spec., discovered from China, was investigated. The new species is characterized as follows: body 150-215 × 40-50 µm in vivo, slender and highly flexible; usually four ellipsoidal macronuclear nodules; contractile vacuole absent; cortical granules absent; endosymbiotic algae present; amphisiellid median cirral row consists of 14-25 cirri and terminates about 47% down length of body; usually three buccal cirri and 3-13 cirri left of anterior portion of amphisiellid median cirral row; 3-5 transverse cirri. Morphogenesis during binary fission is characterized by: (1) the parental adoral zone of membranelles is retained completely, parental paroral contributes to the formation of the undulating membranes anlage for the proter; (2) the oral primordium of the opisthe is formed apokinetally; and (3) the amphisiellid median cirral row is formed from two anlagen. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA sequence data show that Uroleptoides salina nov. spec. has a close relationship with its morphologically similar species, U. longiseries, U. magnigranulosus, Orthamphisiella breviseries, and Parabistichella variabilis.


Asunto(s)
Hypotrichida/clasificación , Filogenia , Suelo/parasitología , Hypotrichida/citología , Hypotrichida/genética , ARN Ribosómico 18S/genética , Especificidad de la Especie
2.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(3): e301-e308, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607029

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths and Giardia duodenalis are responsible for a large burden of disease globally. In low-resource settings, household finished floors (eg, concrete floors) might reduce transmission of soil-transmitted helminths and G duodenalis. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of children nested within two randomised trials in rural Bangladesh and Kenya, we estimated associations between household finished flooring and soil-transmitted helminths and G duodenalis prevalence. In 2015-16, we collected stool samples from children aged 2-16 years in rural Bangladesh and Kenya. We detected soil-transmitted helminth infection using quantitative PCR (qPCR; Bangladesh n=2800; Kenya n=3094), and G duodenalis using qPCR in Bangladesh (n=6894) and ELISA in Kenya (n=8899). We estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) using log-linear models adjusted for potential confounders. FINDINGS: 7187 (92·2%) of 7795 children in Bangladesh and 9077 (93·7%) of 9686 children in Kenya provided stool specimens that were analysed by qPCR. At enrolment, 691 (10%) households in Bangladesh and 471 (5%) households in Kenya had finished floors. In both countries, household finished flooring was associated with lower Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence (Bangladesh aPR 0·33, 95% CI 0·14-0·78; Kenya 0·62, 0·39-0·98) and any soil-transmitted helminths (Bangladesh 0·73, 0·52-1·01; Kenya 0·57, 0·37-0·88). Household finished floors were also associated with lower Necator americanus prevalence in Bangladesh (0·52, 0·29-0·94) and G duodenalis prevalence in both countries (Bangladesh 0·78, 0·64-0·95; Kenya 0·82, 0·70-0·97). INTERPRETATION: In low-resource settings, living in households with finished floors over a 2-year period was associated with lower prevalence of G duodenalis and some soil-transmitted helminths in children. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Task Force for Global Health.


Asunto(s)
Pisos y Cubiertas de Piso/métodos , Giardiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Población Rural , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Países en Desarrollo , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Giardiasis/transmisión , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Vivienda , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Suelo/parasitología
3.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 48-58, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535233

RESUMEN

To date, all free-living adult hairworms have been reported from aquatic habitats. However, in Oklahoma, a recently described gordiid, Gordius terrestris, is consistently encountered in terrestrial habitats. We found this gordiid species has a unique egg morphology, unlike that of any other hairworm species, with an outer shell separated by distinct space from a thick inner membrane surrounding the developing larva. Because of this unique egg morphology and the occurrence of free-living hairworms in terrestrial habitats, it was hypothesized that G. terrestris represents the first report of a hairworm species with a terrestrial life cycle. In this study, we observed thousands of free-living adult worms in terrestrial habitats such as wet lawns and underneath wet sod during the winter. We found evidence of worms mating in these terrestrial habitats, followed by female worms burrowing and ovipositing in the soil. In the laboratory, significantly more females burrowed in the soil than males, providing a plausible explanation for the extreme male-biased sex ratio observed for free-living worms found on wet lawns. Finally, we collected terrestrial earthworms infected with the cyst stage of this gordiid species in the field and confirmed those observations by infecting earthworms with G. terrestris larvae in the laboratory. Taken together, these observations strongly support the hypothesis that G. terrestris has a terrestrial life cycle.


Asunto(s)
Helmintos/fisiología , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Oligoquetos/parasitología , Suelo/parasitología , Animales , Femenino , Helmintos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Masculino , Oklahoma , Lluvia , Estaciones del Año
4.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 773-783, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501585

RESUMEN

Macrocyclic lactones are frequently used dewormers in livestock farms around the world. Due to their wide spectrum of action against nematodes and arthropods and their practicality of application at very low doses, their use has become massive since their discovery. These compounds are eliminated in a large percentage in the feces of animals, causing adverse effects on coprophilic fauna. Several research groups around the world have been devoted to evaluating these effects on this fauna. The aim of this review is to register the adverse effects of the concentrations in which macrocyclic lactones are eliminated in the feces of domestic animals and the importance of the coprophilic and edaphilous fauna on the degradation of the feces of the animals. The documented data shows that the use of macrocyclic lactones has a high toxicological risk for the different species that colonize the dung, thus causing an adverse effect on its disintegration and its subsequent incorporation into the soil. Even so, more studies at the regional level and their standardization are necessary to make the comparison between different areas possible.


Asunto(s)
Lactonas/farmacología , Animales , Antiparasitarios/química , Antiparasitarios/farmacología , Antiparasitarios/toxicidad , Artrópodos/efectos de los fármacos , Artrópodos/fisiología , Heces/parasitología , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/toxicidad , Nematodos/efectos de los fármacos , Nematodos/fisiología , Suelo/parasitología , Contaminantes del Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad
5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e49, 2021 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504406

RESUMEN

Cyclospora cayetanensis is a parasite causing cyclosporiasis (an illness in humans). Produce (fruits, vegetables, herbs), water and soil contaminated with C. cayetanensis have been implicated in human infection. The objective was to conduct a scoping review of primary research in English on the detection, epidemiology and control of C. cayetanensis with an emphasis on produce, water and soil. MEDLINE® (Web of ScienceTM), Agricola (ProQuest), CABI Global Health, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts (EBSCOhost) were searched from 1979 to February 2020. Of the 349 relevant primary research studies identified, there were 75 detection-method studies, 40 molecular characterisation studies, 38 studies of Cyclospora in the environment (33 prevalence studies, 10 studies of factors associated with environmental contamination), 246 human infection studies (212 prevalence/incidence studies, 32 outbreak studies, 60 studies of environmental factors associated with non-outbreak human infection) and eight control studies. There appears to be sufficient literature for a systematic review of prevalence and factors associated with human infection with C. cayetanensis. There is a dearth of publicly available detection-method studies in soil (n = 0) and water (n = 2), prevalence studies on soil (n = 1) and studies of the control of Cyclospora (particularly on produce prior to retail (n = 0)).


Asunto(s)
Cyclospora/aislamiento & purificación , Parasitología de Alimentos , Frutas/parasitología , Suelo/parasitología , Verduras/parasitología , Agua/parasitología
6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(1): e52-e60, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338459

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Driven by global targets to eliminate soil-transmitted helminths as a public health problem, governments have rapidly rolled out control programmes using school and community-based platforms. To justify and target ongoing investment, quantification of impact and identification of remaining high-risk areas are needed. We aimed to assess regional progress towards these targets. METHODS: We did a continental-scale ecological analysis using a Bayesian space-time hierarchical model to estimate the effects of known environmental, socioeconomic, and control-related factors on the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths, and we mapped the probability that implementation units had achieved moderate-to-heavy intensity infection prevalence of less than 2% among children aged 5-14 years between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2018. FINDINGS: We incorporated data from 26 304 georeferenced surveys, spanning 3096 (60%) of the 5183 programmatic implementation units. Our findings suggest a reduction in the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in children aged 5-14 years in sub-Saharan Africa, from 44% in 2000 to 13% in 2018, driven by sustained delivery of preventive chemotherapy, improved sanitation, and economic development. Nevertheless, 1301 (25%) of 5183 implementation units still had an estimated prevalence of moderate-to-heavy intensity infection exceeding the 2% target threshold in 2018, largely concentrated in nine countries (in 1026 [79%] of 1301 implementation units): Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Cameroon, Angola, Mozambique, Madagascar, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. INTERPRETATION: Our estimates highlight the areas to target and strengthen interventions, and the areas where data gaps remain. If elimination of soil-transmitted helminths as a public health problem is to be achieved in sub-Saharan Africa by 2030, continued investment in treatment and prevention activities are essential to ensure that no areas are left behind. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Suelo/parasitología , Análisis Espacial , Adolescente , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Helmintos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
7.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(3): 253-260, 2021 03 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313897

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: On 1 April 2020, the WHO recommended an interruption of all activities for the control of neglected tropical diseases, including soil-transmitted helminths (STH), in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper investigates the impact of this disruption on the progress towards the WHO 2030 target for STH. METHODS: We used two stochastic individual-based models to simulate the impact of missing one or more preventive chemotherapy (PC) rounds in different endemicity settings. We also investigated the extent to which this impact can be lessened by mitigation strategies, such as semiannual or community-wide PC. RESULTS: Both models show that without a mitigation strategy, control programmes will catch up by 2030, assuming that coverage is maintained. The catch-up time can be up to 4.5 y after the start of the interruption. Mitigation strategies may reduce this time by up to 2 y and increase the probability of achieving the 2030 target. CONCLUSIONS: Although a PC interruption will only temporarily impact the progress towards the WHO 2030 target, programmes are encouraged to restart as soon as possible to minimise the impact on morbidity. The implementation of suitable mitigation strategies can turn the interruption into an opportunity to accelerate progress towards reaching the target.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Suelo/parasitología , Animales , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Pandemias , Organización Mundial de la Salud
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008938, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326420

RESUMEN

Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are endemic and widespread across Sub-Saharan Africa. A community wide soil-transmitted helminth (STH) prevalence survey was performed on the island of Bubaque in Guinea-Bissau using both Kato-katz microscopy and qPCR methodology. Predictors of infection and morbidity indicators were identified using multivariable logistic regression, and diagnostic methods were compared using k statistics. Among 396 participants, prevalence of STH by microscopy was 23.2%, hookworm was the only species identified by this method and the mean infection intensity was 312 eggs per gram. qPCR analysis revealed an overall prevalence of any STH infection of 47.3%, with the majority A. duodenale (32.3%), followed by N. americanus (15.01%) and S. stercoralis (13.2%). A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura infections were negligible, with a prevalence of 0.25% each. Agreement between diagnostic tests was k = 0.22, interpreted as fair agreement, and infection intensity measured by both methods was only minimally correlated (Rs = -0.03). STH infection overall was more common in females and adults aged 31-40. STH infection was associated with open defaecation, low socio-economic status and further distance to a water-source. The prevalence of anaemia (defined as a binary outcome by the WHO standards for age and sex) was 69.1%, and 44.2% of children were malnourished according to WHO child growth standards. Hookworm infection intensity by faecal egg count showed no statistically significant association with age (Rs 0.06) but S. Stercoralis infection intensity by qPCR cycle threshold was higher in pre-school aged children (Rs = 0.30, p-value 0.03) There was no statistically significant association between STH infection and anaemia (OR 1.0 p = 0.8), stunting (OR 1.9, p-value 0.5) and wasting (OR 2.0, p-value 0.2) in children. This study reveals a persistent reservoir of STH infection across the community, with high rates of anaemia and malnutrition, despite high-coverage of mebendazole mass-drug administration in pre-school children. This reflects the need for a new strategy to soil-transmitted helminth control, to reduce infections and ultimately eliminate transmission.


Asunto(s)
Antinematodos/uso terapéutico , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Mebendazol/uso terapéutico , Suelo/parasitología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Guinea Bissau/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008002, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351816

RESUMEN

Although the prevalence of helminths infection among schoolchildren is known, there has been little progress in the application of count model for modelling the risk factors of helminths egg. Only a few studies applied multilevel analysis to explore the variation in helminths prevalence across schools and classes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence, intensity of helminths infection, and identify risk factors at the individual-, household-, and school-level among schoolchildren in Southern Ethiopia. Using multistage random sampling, we recruited 864 students in the Wonago District. We applied multilevel-logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models (ZINB). Risk factors were concentrated at the individual level; school-level and class-level variables explained less than 5% of the variance. The overall helminths prevalence was 56% (479/850); Trichuris trichiura prevalence was 42.4% (360/850); and Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was 18.7% (159/850). The rate of any helminths increased among thin children (AOR: 1.73 [95% CI: (1.04, 2.90]), anemic (AOR: 1.45 [95% CI: 1.04, 2.03]), mothers who had no formal education (AOR: 2.08 [95% CI: 1.25, 3.47]), and those in households using open containers for water storage (AOR: 2.06 [95% CI: 1.07, 3.99]). In the ZINB model, A. lumbricoides infection intensity increased with increasing age (AOR: 1.08 [95% CI: 1.01, 1.16]) and unclean fingernails (AOR: 1.47 [95% CI: 1.07, 2.03]). Handwashing with soap (AOR: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.48, 0.95]), de-worming treatment [AOR: 0.57 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.98)], and using water from protected sources [AOR: 0.46 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.77)] were found to be protective against helminths infection. After controlling for clustering effects at the school and class levels and accounting for excess zeros in fecal egg counts, we found an association between helminths infection and the following variables: age, thinness, anemia, unclean fingernails, handwashing, de-worming treatment, mother's education, household water source, and water storage protection. Improving hygiene behavior, providing safe water at school and home, and strengthening de-worming programs is required to improve the health of schoolchildren in rural Gedeo.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Animales , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Higiene , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Suelo/parasitología
10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243946, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320918

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH), i.e., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms are among the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in Ethiopia. Although pre-school aged children pay a high morbidity toll associated with STH infections, evidence on prevalence, intensity and intervention status is lacking in Ethiopia. This study, therefore, aimed to address these gaps to inform decision made on STH. METHODS: We did a community-based cross-sectional study in five districts of Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia; in January 2019. Data were collected using pre-tested questionnaire, and the Kato-Katz technique was used to diagnose parasites eggs in stool. Then, collected data were edited and entered into EpiData 4.4.2, and exported to SPSS software (IBM, version 25) for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2462 PSAC participated in this study. Overall, the prevalence of STH was 23.5% (578/2462) (95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.8%-25.2%). As caris lumbricoides was the most prevalent (18.6%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (9.2%), and hookworms (3.1%). Of the total, 7.4% PSAC were infected with two STH species. Most of the positive cases with STH showed low infection intensities, while 15.1% ascariasis cases showed moderate infection intensities. The study found that 68.7% of PSAC were treated with albendazole. Also, household's level data showed that 39.4% used water from hand-dug well; 52.5% need to travel ≥30 minutes to collect water; 77.5% did not treat water, and 48.9% had no hand washing facility. In addition, almost 93% care givers achieved less than the mean knowledge and practice score (≤5) on STH prevention. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that significant proportions of pre-school aged children are suffering from STH infections despite preventive chemotherapy exist at the study area. Also, gaps in the interventions against STH were highlighted. Thus, a call for action is demanding to eliminate STH among PSAC in Ethiopia by 2030.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/transmisión , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Adolescente , Anciano , Ancylostomatoidea/patogenicidad , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascaris lumbricoides/patogenicidad , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintiasis/patología , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Helmintos/patogenicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/prevención & control , Trichuris/patogenicidad
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008907, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370267

RESUMEN

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Indonesia. However, prevalence data for many parts of the country are incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine human STH prevalence and knowledge and practices relating to STH risk behaviour, to provide a current view of the status of STH infection in rural communities in Central Java. A cross-sectional survey of 16 villages was conducted in Semarang, Central Java in 2015. Demographic and household data together with information about knowledge and practices relating to STH and hygiene were elicited through face-to-face interviews. Stool samples were collected and examined using the flotation method. Children (aged 2-12 years) also had their haemoglobin (Hb) levels, height and weight data collected, and BMI estimated. Data were analysed using univariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 6,466 individuals with a mean age of 33.5 years (range: 2-93) from 2,195 households were interviewed. The overall prevalence of STH was 33.8% with Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) the predominant nematode identified (prevalence = 26.0%). Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) were found in 7.9% and 1.8% of participants, respectively. Females were at increased odds of infection with A. lumbricoides (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI [1.02-1.29], p = 0.02). Adults in age groups 51-60 and over 60 years had the highest odds of being infected with hookworm (adjusted OR 3.01, 95% CI [1.84-4.91], p<0.001 and adjusted OR 3.79, 95% CI [2.30-6.26], p<0.001, respectively) compared to 6-12 year olds. Farmers also had higher odds of being infected with hookworm (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI [1.17-4.76], p = 0.02) compared to other occupation categories. Poverty (OR 2.14, 95% CI [1.77-2.58], p<0.001), overcrowding (OR 1.35, 95% CI [1.27-1.44], p<0.001), goat ownership (OR 1.61, 95% CI [1.10-2.41], p = 0.02) and the presence of dry floor space in the home (OR 0.73, 95% CI [0.58-0.91], p = 0.01) were all household factors significantly associated with an increased odds of infection. Infection with STH was not significantly associated with the gastrointestinal illness (p>0.05), BMI or Hb levels; however, one third of all 2-12 year olds surveyed were found to be anaemic (i.e. Hb concentrations below 110g/l or 115g/l for children under 5 and 5 years or older, respectively), with a greater proportion of school-age children at risk. Knowledge and behaviour related to hygiene and gastrointestinal diseases varied widely and were generally not associated with STH infection. The study revealed that STH infection remains endemic in Central Java despite ongoing deworming programs. Current control efforts would benefit from being re-evaluated to determine a more effective way forward.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Agricultores/estadística & datos numéricos , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Higiene , Indonesia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Saneamiento , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 453-458, 2020 Jun 30.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185054

RESUMEN

Soil-transmitted nematodiasis was once widely prevalent in Jiangsu Province, which seriously threatened human health and hindered socioeconomic development. The control efforts over decades resulted in a remarkable decline in the prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode human infections in Jiangsu Province, with a reduction from 59.32% in 1989 to 0.12% in 2019, and the human prevalence remains at < 0.5% since 2013. Since 1987, an integrated strategy has been adopted for the control of soil-transmitted nematodiasis in Jiangsu Province; however, the core interventions varies at different stages, which mainly include deworming, water and sanitation service improvement, health education, and monitoring and assessment. The criteria of effective soil-transmitted nematodiasis control had been achieved in all epidemic counties (districts) of Jiangsu Province by 2019. Further actions to strengthen health education and monitoring and implement precision control measures are required to consolidate the achievements of soil-transmitted nematodiasis control and eliminate the harm of soil-transmitted nematodiasis to humans. This review summarizes the epidemiology, control progress and evolution of control strategy of soil-transmitted nematodiasis in Jiangsu Province.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias , Infecciones por Nematodos , China/epidemiología , Epidemias/prevención & control , Educación en Salud/normas , Educación en Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Infecciones por Nematodos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Nematodos/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Saneamiento/normas , Saneamiento/tendencias , Suelo/parasitología
13.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(11): e1418-e1426, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069302

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few studies have been done of patterns of treatment during mass drug administration (MDA) to control neglected tropical diseases. We used routinely collected individual-level treatment records that had been collated for the Tuangamize Minyoo Kenya Imarisha Afya (Swahili for Eradicate Worms in Kenya for Better Health [TUMIKIA]) trial, done in coastal Kenya from 2015 to 2017. In this analysis we estimate the extent of and factors associated with the same individuals not being treated over multiple rounds of MDA, which we term systematic non-treatment. METHODS: We linked the baseline population of the TUMIKIA trial randomly assigned to receive biannual community-wide MDA for soil-transmitted helminthiasis to longitudinal records on receipt of treatment in any of the four treatment rounds of the study. We fitted logistic regression models to estimate the association of non-treatment in a given round with non-treatment in the previous round, controlling for identified predictors of non-treatment. We also used multinomial logistic regression to identify factors associated with part or no treatment versus complete treatment. FINDINGS: 36 327 participants were included in our analysis: 16 236 children aged 2-14 years and 20 091 adults aged 15 years or older. The odds of having no treatment recorded was higher if a participant was not treated during the previous round of MDA (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3·60, 95% CI 3·08-4·20 for children and 5·58, 5·01-6·21 for adults). For children, school attendance and rural residence reduced the odds of receiving part or no treatment, whereas odds were increased by least poor socioeconomic status and living in an urban or periurban household. Women had higher odds than men of receiving part or no treatment. However, when those with pregnancy or childbirth in the previous 2 weeks were excluded, women became more likely to receive complete treatment. Adults aged 20-25 years were the age group with the highest odds of receiving part (OR 1·41, 95% CI 1·22-1·63) or no treatment (OR 1·81, 95% CI 1·53-2·14). INTERPRETATION: Non-treatment was associated with specific sociodemographic groups and characteristics and did not occcur at random. This finding has important implications for MDA programme effectiveness, the relevance of which will intensify as disease prevalence decreases and infections become increasingly clustered. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Joint Global Health Trials Scheme of the Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, Wellcome Trust, Children's Investment Fund Foundation, and London Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Suelo/parasitología , Privación de Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027397

RESUMEN

Poverty, malnutrition and neglected tropical diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) interact in a multi-causal feedback network. This study aimed to assess the relationships between STHs, income and nutritional status of children in impoverished communities in the city of Caxias, Maranhao State, Northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional survey (n=259 children) was carried out with the collection of fecal samples and assessment of sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and sanitation data. Hookworm infection and ascariasis presented prevalence rates of 14.3% and 9.3%, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed that hookworm infection was more frequent in males (odds ratio [OR]=3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.45-8.08), children aged 11-15 years old (OR=3.72; 95% CI=1.19-11.62), children living in poor families (OR=2.44; 95% CI=1.04-5.68) and those living in rented houses (OR=5.74; 95%CI=1.91-17.25). Concerning ascariasis, living in the Caldeiroes community (OR=0.01; 95%CI=0-0.17) and belonging to the 11-15 years age group (OR=0.21; 95%CI=0.04-1.02) were protection factors. Poor children have a significantly lower frequency of consumption of meat, milk, vegetables, tubers and fruits than not poor children. The frequent consumption of meat, milk and tubers was associated with significant higher values in the parameter height-for-age, whereas the consumption of meat and milk positively influenced the weight-for-age. The frequencies of stunting, underweight and wasting were 8.1%, 4.9% and 2.9%, respectively. The multivariate model demonstrated that stunting was significantly associated with economic poverty (OR=2.82; 95%CI=1.03-7.70) and low weight was associated with male sex (OR=6.43; 95% CI=1.35-30.68). In conclusion, the study describes the interactions between the dimensions of development represented by income, STHs and nutritional status revealing the importance of raising income levels to improve the living conditions of families in impoverished communities in Northeastern Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Pobreza , Suelo/parasitología , Adolescente , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e004920, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027423

RESUMEN

Soil samples collected near municipal schools (public/EMEI and private/EPEI schools), clubs (CLB), public squares (PS) and residential condominiums (CND) and samples of animal faeces from the Zoonosis Control Centre (CCZ) of the municipality of Votuporanga/SP were analysed using the Baermann method for the detection of zoonotic helminth larvae. The prevalence rates of the nematode genera identified were determined, and the results were compared using Fisher's exact and chi-square frequency tests. Information about cases of larvae migrans in the population were collected from the Family Health Units and the private health plans. All sites were positive for Ancylostoma spp. and, with the exception of EPEIs and dog faeces, for Strongyloides spp. The prevalence of Ancylostoma spp. was 87.5% for CND samples, 74.29% for EMIEs, 63.64% for CLB, 61.76% for PS and 64.29% for dog's and 42.86% for cats at CCZ. The prevalence of Strongyloides spp. ranged from 14.29% (cats/CCZ) to 41.18% (PS). Cases of cutaneous larva migrans were reported during interviews. Thus, from the public health perspective, the risk of individuals that frequent recreational areas in the municipality, especially children, to be infected by helminth larvae is noteworthy, indicating the need to develop policies aimed at controlling this important zoonosis.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostoma , Enfermedades de los Gatos , Enfermedades de los Perros , Larva Migrans , Suelo , Ancylostoma/fisiología , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/parasitología , Gatos , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Perros , Heces/parasitología , Humanos , Larva Migrans/diagnóstico , Larva Migrans/epidemiología , Suelo/parasitología
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 803, 2020 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121458

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths are more prevalent in tropics and sub-tropics including Ethiopia. Despite their high prevalence, direct saline microscopy with its low sensitivity has been used as a diagnostic method in almost all health facilities in Ethiopia. Alternative diagnostic methods which have higher sensitivity are not yet implemented. Therefore, this study aimed to compare and evaluate the performance of diagnostic methods for soil transmitted helminths. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among 520 school children was conducted from October to December, 2019 in Amhara National Regional State. The study participants were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Stool samples were processed via formol ether concentration, Kato-Katz, spontaneous tube sedimentation and agar plate culture techniques. Data was entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were calculated against the combined result. Strength of agreement of the diagnostic methods was determined by Kappa value. RESULTS: The Overall prevalence of soil transmitted helminths was 40.8% using combination of methods. The prevalence 24.4, 22.5, and 32.4%, respectively was recorded by using formol ether concentration, Kato-Katz and spontaneous tube sedimentation. The highest prevalence of hookworm (29.2%) was detected by the agar plate culture. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of formol ether concentration were 57.9 and 78.4%, for Kato-Katz thick smear 55.2 and 76.4%, for spontaneous tube sedimentation were 79.2 and 87.5% to soil transmitted helminths detection, respectively. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of agar plate culture to hookworm detection were 86.4 and 93.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous tube sedimentation shows higher sensitivity in the detection of soil transmitted helminth infections. Agar plate culture method also indicated better performance for hookworm detection than other methods. Therefore, the employment of spontaneous tube sedimentation technique for routine laboratory and agar plate culture for research purposes will significantly aid in accurate diagnosis of parasitic infections.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Infecciones por Uncinaria/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Suelo/parasitología , Adolescente , Animales , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Formaldehído , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopía/métodos , Prevalencia , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008625, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956390

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Efforts to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have intensified over the past decade. Field-survey data on STH prevalence, infection intensity and drug efficacy is necessary to guide the implementation of control programs and should be of the best possible quality. METHODOLOGY: During four clinical trials designed to evaluate the efficacy of albendazole against STHs in Brazil, Ethiopia, Lao PDR and Tanzania, quality control (QC) was performed on the duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and the data entry. We analyzed datasets following QC on both fecal egg counts (FECs) and data entry, and compared the prevalence of any STH infection and moderate-to-heavy intensity (MHI) infections and the drug efficacy against STH infections. RESULTS: Across the four study sites, a total of 450 out of 4,830 (9.3%) Kato-Katz thick smears were re-examined. Discrepancies in FECs varied from ~3% (hookworms) to ~6.5% (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). The difference in STH prevalence and prevalence of MHI infections using the datasets with and without QC of the FECs did not exceed 0.3%, except for hookworm infections in Tanzania, where we noted a 2.2 percentage point increase in MHI infections (pre-QC: 1.6% vs. post-QC: 3.8%). There was a 100% agreement in the classification of drug efficacy of albendazole against STH between the two datasets. In total, 201 of the 28,980 (0.65%) data entries that were made to digitize the FECs were different between both data-entry clerks. Nevertheless, the overall prevalence of STH, the prevalence of MHI infections and the classification of drug efficacy remained largely unaffected. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In these trials, where staff was informed that QC would take place, minimal changes in study outcomes were reported following QC on FECs or data entry. Nevertheless, imposing QC did reduce the number of errors. Therefore, application of QC together with proper training of the personnel and the availability of clear standard operating procedures is expected to support higher data quality.


Asunto(s)
Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Helmintiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Control de Calidad , Ancylostomatoidea , Animales , Ascaris , Brasil/epidemiología , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Guías como Asunto , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Infecciones por Uncinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Humanos , Laos/epidemiología , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Prevalencia , Suelo/parasitología , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Trichuris
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239557, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970747

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) remain one of the most common causes of morbidity among children in Ethiopia. Assessment of the magnitude of STH and its association with water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and identify barriers for school-level prevention assist public health planners to prioritize promotion strategies and is a basic step for intervention. However, there is a lack of evidence on the prevalence of STH and its association with WASH and barriers for school-level prevention among schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of STH and its association with WASH and identify barriers for school level prevention in technology village of Hawassa University; 2019. METHODS: An institution-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1080 schoolchildren from September 5 to October 15, 2019. A two-stage cluster and purposive sampling technique were used to draw the study participants. A pretested, structured questionnaire, observation checklist, and in-depth interview were used to collect the data. Two grams of stool samples were collected from each study participant and examined using direct wet mount and Kato-Katz technique. Data were entered into Epi Info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 25. Both bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis method by Atlas-Ti software and presented in narratives. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of STHs was 23.1% (95% CI = 21.4, 27.6). The identified predictors of STHs were large family size (AOR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.53-3.99), absence of separate toilet room for male and female (AOR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.91-5.79), toilet not easy to clean (AOR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.44-3.33), inadequate knowledge about STHs (AOR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.07-3.44) and children who had travelled greater than 100 meters to access toilet (AOR = 3.45; 95% CI = 2.24-8.92). These results were supported by the individual, institutional, socio-economic and cultural qualitative results. CONCLUSION: The STHs was moderate public health concerns. Reinforcing the existing fragile water, sanitation and hygiene programs and regular deworming of schoolchildren may support to reduce the burden of STHs. Also, increasing modern family planning methods utilization to decrease family size is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Helmintos/patogenicidad , Adolescente , Animales , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Prevalencia , Salud Pública , Saneamiento , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Suelo/parasitología , Agua/parasitología
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238057, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845917

RESUMEN

Arthropods are a major soil fauna group, and have the potential to substantially influence the spatial and temporal variability of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) sinks and sources. The overall effect of soil-inhabiting arthropods on soil GHG fluxes still remains poorly quantified since the majority of the available data comes from laboratory experiments, is often controversial, and has been limited to a few species. The main objective of this study was to provide first insights into field-level carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) release of soil-inhabiting larvae of the Scarabaeidae family. Larvae of the genus Melolontha were excavated at various sites in west-central and southern Germany, covering a wide range of different larval developmental stages, larval activity levels, and vegetation types. Excavated larvae were immediately incubated in the field to measure their GHG production. Gaseous carbon release of individual larvae showed a large inter- and intra-site variability which was strongly correlated to larval biomass. This correlation persisted when upscaling individual CO2 and CH4 production to the plot scale. Field release estimates for Melolontha spp. were subsequently upscaled to the European level to derive the first regional GHG release estimates for members of the Scarabaeidae family. Estimates ranged between 10.42 and 409.53 kt CO2 yr-1, and 0.01 and 1.36 kt CH4 yr-1. Larval N2O release was only sporadically observed and not upscaled. For one site, a comparison of field- and laboratory-based GHG production measurements was conducted to assess potential biases introduced by transferring Scarabaeidae larvae to artificial environments. Release strength and variability of captive larvae decreased significantly within two weeks and the correlation between larval biomass and gaseous carbon production disappeared, highlighting the importance of field measurements. Overall, our data show that Scarabaeidae larvae can be significant soil GHG sources and should not be neglected in soil GHG flux research.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos/metabolismo , Gases de Efecto Invernadero/análisis , Animales , Biomasa , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Escarabajos/química , Escarabajos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Gases de Efecto Invernadero/metabolismo , Larva/química , Larva/metabolismo , Metano/análisis , Metano/metabolismo , Óxido Nitroso/análisis , Óxido Nitroso/metabolismo , Suelo/química , Suelo/parasitología
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236924, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735608

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have many negative health outcomes (e.g., diarrhea, nutritional deficiencies) that can also exacerbate poverty. These infections are generally highest among low-income populations, many of which are also undergoing market integration (MI; increased participation in a market-based economy). Yet the direct impact of MI-related social and environmental changes on STH infection patterns is poorly understood, making it unclear which lifestyle factors should be targeted to better control disease spread. This cross-sectional study examines if household infrastructure associated with greater MI is associated with lower STH burdens among Indigenous Ecuadorian Shuar. METHODS: Kato-Katz fecal smears were used to determine STH infection status and intensity (n = 620 participants; 308 females, 312 males, aged 6 months-86 years); Ascaris lumbricoides (ascarid) and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) were the primary infection types detected. Structured interviews assessing lifestyle patterns (e.g., measures of household infrastructure) measured participant MI. Multilevel regression analyses and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models tested associations between MI measures and STH infection status or intensity, controlling for individual and community characteristics. RESULTS: Participants residing in more market-integrated households exhibited lower infection rates and intensities than those in less market integrated households. Parasite infection status and T. trichiura infection intensity were lower among participants living in houses with wood floors than those with dirt floors, while individuals using well or piped water from a spring exhibited lower A. lumbricoides infection intensities compared to those using river or stream water. Unexpectedly, latrine type was not significantly related to STH infection status or intensity. These results suggest that sources of exposure differ between the two helminth species. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents associations between household measures and STH infection among an Indigenous population undergoing rapid MI. These findings can help healthcare programs better target interventions and reduce STH exposure among at-risk populations.


Asunto(s)
Heces/parasitología , Helmintiasis , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Suelo/parasitología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos de Población/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
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