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2.
Neuromolecular Med ; 26(1): 11, 2024 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592597

RESUMEN

Suicide is a global public health issue, with a particularly high incidence in individuals suffering from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The role of cholesterol in suicide risk remains controversial, prompting investigations into genetic markers that may be implicated. This study examines the association between CYP46A1 polymorphisms, specifically SNPs rs754203 and rs4900442, and suicide risk in a Mexican MDD patient cohort. Our study involved 188 unrelated suicide death victims, 126 MDD patients, and 144 non-suicidal controls. Genotypic and allelic frequencies were assessed using the Real Time-polymerase chain reaction method, and associations with suicide risk were evaluated using chi-square tests. The study revealed significant differences in allelic and genotypic frequencies in rs754203 SNP between suicide death and controls. The CYP46A1 rs754203 genotype G/G was significantly linked with suicide, and the G allele was associated with a higher risk of suicide (OR = 1.370, 95% CI = 1.002-1.873). However, we did not observe any significant differences in genotype distribution or allele frequencies of CYP46A1 rs4900442. Our study suggests that carriers of the CYP46A1 rs754203 G allele (A/G + G/G) may play a role in suicidal behavior, especially in males. Our findings support that the CYP46A1 gene may be involved in susceptibility to suicide, which has not been investigated previously. These results underscore the importance of further research in different populations to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of the role of CYP46A1 in suicide risk and to develop targeted interventions for at-risk populations.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Suicidio , Masculino , Humanos , Colesterol 24-Hidroxilasa , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/genética , Frecuencia de los Genes , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
3.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 73(2): 130-147, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569147

RESUMEN

The Importance of Leisure Activities for Suicidality in Adolescents and Young Adults Leisure time is important for the development of adolescents. It influences adolescents' psychological well-being and psychosocial development. It may also have a protective effect on suicidality. This study investigates how adolescents' leisure time is related to suicidality, distinguishing between general aspects and various specific leisure time activities. Data from adolescents in counseling (n = 25) and the general population (n = 57) were analyzed. Adolescents who spend most of their leisure time alone are more suicidal than adolescents who spend their leisure time with others. General aspects of leisure activities were related to suicidality; among specific activities, only sports activities were found to be significant.The strongest association with suicidality was shared activities with others. Based on these results, it can be shown that leisure time activities could be effective as a preventive measure. In particular, social activities in leisure time should be encouraged.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Suicidio , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Ideación Suicida , Actividades Recreativas/psicología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología
4.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(2): e2965, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572772

RESUMEN

Suicide risk assessment and stratification are a key suicide prevention strategy in mental health care systems that treat military service members and veterans. The aim of the current mixed-method project was to address a gap in our knowledge as to how therapists make these important clinical decisions. This manuscript reports the results of a project during which six vignettes were developed reflecting varying levels of risk according to the Rocky Mountain MIRECC Risk Stratification Table. Mental health therapists were asked to evaluate the risk level of each vignette, determine a treatment disposition, and provide justification for their ratings. The results of the study indicate that therapists can reliably evaluate risk, but that treatment planning tended to be based more on vignette-specific factors than essential features of the risk model. The qualitative findings revealed variations in the definition and perception of foundational concepts, suggesting a need for further research and training in these domains. Overall, the results support the use of vignettes as a method to assess clinical decision-making and provide several areas for further training and research.


Asunto(s)
Suicidio , Veteranos , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Suicidio/psicología , Prevención del Suicidio , Veteranos/psicología , Medición de Riesgo
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 243, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566037

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental disorder with heavy disease burden. Females with BD are special populations who suffer a lot from childhood trauma, social support, cognitive deficits, and suicidality. In this study, the relationship among childhood trauma, social support, and clinical symptoms of BD was investigated and the risk factors for suicidality were explored in female patients with BD. METHODS: This study included 57 drug-naive female BD patients, 64 female BD patients with long-term medication, and 50 age-matched female healthy controls. Childhood trauma, social support, clinical symptoms, cognition, and suicidality (suicide ideation, suicide plan, suicide attempt, suicide frequency) were measured with scales. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, females with BD showed higher levels of childhood trauma and suicidality, and lower levels of social support and cognitive deficits. In the drug-naïve BD group, social support mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and insomnia symptoms (indirect effect: ab = 0.025). In the BD with long-term medication group, mania symptom was associated with suicide plan (OR = 1.127, p = 0.030), childhood trauma was associated with suicide attempt (OR = 1.088, p = 0.018), and years of education (OR = 0.773, p = 0.028), childhood trauma (OR = 1.059, p = 0.009), and delayed memory (OR= 1.091, p= 0.016) was associated with suicide frequency (OR = 1.091, p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial evidence that social support partially explains the relationship between childhood trauma and clinical symptoms in females with BD. Additionally, mania symptoms, childhood trauma, and delayed memory were risk factors for suicidality. Interventions providing social support and improving cognitive function may be beneficial for females with BD who are exposed to childhood trauma and with high suicide risk.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Trastorno Bipolar , Suicidio , Humanos , Femenino , Trastorno Bipolar/complicaciones , Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Manía/complicaciones , Ideación Suicida , Cognición , Apoyo Social
6.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2312756, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568596

RESUMEN

Background: Higher alcohol use and military sexual assault (MSA) are associated with increased risk of death by suicide. Risk for death by suicide is rapidly increasing among females, who report higher rates of MSA, yet actual death by suicide and alcohol use are higher among males. It is not well understood whether higher alcohol use confers greater suicide risk in male or female service members and veterans who have experienced MSA.Objective: To determine whether the association between alcohol misuse and suicide risk was moderated by biological sex in a sample of male and female service members (N = 400, 50% female) who reported MSA.Method: Participants completed surveys of alcohol use and suicide risk as well as a demographic inventory. Linear regression with an interaction term was used to determine if suicide risk differed by sex and alcohol use severity after accounting for discharge status, sexual orientation, and age.Results: Average scores on the suicide risk measure were consistent with an inpatient psychiatric sample and scores on the AUDIT-C were indicative of a probable positive screen for alcohol misuse. Suicide risk was most pronounced among males who reported higher levels of hazardous alcohol use. A sensitivity analysis examining suicide risk by sex and screening results for alcohol misuse (positive/negative) showed that men with a probable positive screen had higher suicide risk.Discussion: The current study provides novel findings on suicide risk among survivors of military sexual violence by including both male and female survivors. Interventions to decrease suicide risk following MSA may consider alcohol reduction strategies, and optimizing these interventions in males. Engaging military culture at both the US Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs to encourage more healthy alcohol consumption may mitigate this public health concern. Future research may consider how country of origin relates to these associations.


Average scores for the suicide risk measure and alcohol use were high among a sample of male and female survivors of military sexual assault.Suicide risk was most pronounced among males who reported higher levels of hazardous alcohol use.A sensitivity analysis examining suicide risk by sex and screening results for alcohol misuse (positive/negative) showed that men with a probable positive screen had higher suicide risk.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Personal Militar , Delitos Sexuales , Suicidio , Veteranos , Femenino , Masculino , Humanos , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Etanol
7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301117, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568987

RESUMEN

Suicide is a complex, multidimensional event, and a significant challenge for prevention globally. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have emerged to harness large-scale datasets to enhance risk detection. In order to trust and act upon the predictions made with ML, more intuitive user interfaces must be validated. Thus, Interpretable AI is one of the crucial directions which could allow policy and decision makers to make reasonable and data-driven decisions that can ultimately lead to better mental health services planning and suicide prevention. This research aimed to develop sex-specific ML models for predicting the population risk of suicide and to interpret the models. Data were from the Quebec Integrated Chronic Disease Surveillance System (QICDSS), covering up to 98% of the population in the province of Quebec and containing data for over 20,000 suicides between 2002 and 2019. We employed a case-control study design. Individuals were considered cases if they were aged 15+ and had died from suicide between January 1st, 2002, and December 31st, 2019 (n = 18339). Controls were a random sample of 1% of the Quebec population aged 15+ of each year, who were alive on December 31st of each year, from 2002 to 2019 (n = 1,307,370). We included 103 features, including individual, programmatic, systemic, and community factors, measured up to five years prior to the suicide events. We trained and then validated the sex-specific predictive risk model using supervised ML algorithms, including Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest (RF), Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) and Multilayer perceptron (MLP). We computed operating characteristics, including sensitivity, specificity, and Positive Predictive Value (PPV). We then generated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to predict suicides and calibration measures. For interpretability, Shapley Additive Explanations (SHAP) was used with the global explanation to determine how much the input features contribute to the models' output and the largest absolute coefficients. The best sensitivity was 0.38 with logistic regression for males and 0.47 with MLP for females; the XGBoost Classifier with 0.25 for males and 0.19 for females had the best precision (PPV). This study demonstrated the useful potential of explainable AI models as tools for decision-making and population-level suicide prevention actions. The ML models included individual, programmatic, systemic, and community levels variables available routinely to decision makers and planners in a public managed care system. Caution shall be exercised in the interpretation of variables associated in a predictive model since they are not causal, and other designs are required to establish the value of individual treatments. The next steps are to produce an intuitive user interface for decision makers, planners and other stakeholders like clinicians or representatives of families and people with live experience of suicidal behaviors or death by suicide. For example, how variations in the quality of local area primary care programs for depression or substance use disorders or increased in regional mental health and addiction budgets would lower suicide rates.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Suicidio , Femenino , Masculino , Humanos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Quebec/epidemiología , Datos de Salud Recolectados Rutinariamente
8.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 36(1-2): 165-179, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557337

RESUMEN

The article presents two theoretical perspectives that provide a helpful framework in psychobiographical research, especially when psychobiographies concern religious suicide. The first is typical in contemporary psychology, a subjective analysis focused on the individual, looking at life course/lifetime in the light of personality psychology. The second one is represented by anthropological research on the concept of honour-shame and the sociological works of E. Durkheim. Contemporary psychobiography should consider sociocultural context and refer to social sciences (anthropology, sociology). This applies in particular to the psychobiographies of people representing a world of values different from the Western world, i.e. non-WEIRD people. The problem is especially true of monotheistic religions that grew up in the world of honour-shame cultural code (Middle East, Mediterranean culture). The natural human need for psychological power is then woven into a specific set of beliefs and values that may, in extreme cases, favour the decision to commit suicide. Suicide acts seen in this perspective are no longer the act of sick or socially alienated people but often the act of fully healthy, conscious, educated and socially integrated people. Such a dramatic decision may become the only way to regain a sense of dignity, strength and control.


Asunto(s)
Personalidad , Suicidio , Humanos , Trastornos de la Personalidad , Religión , Medio Oriente
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e244381, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558140

RESUMEN

Importance: Extreme risk protection orders (ERPOs) temporarily bar individuals adjudicated as being at risk of violence (including suicide) from buying or possessing firearms. In protest, many US jurisdictions have declared themselves "Second Amendment sanctuaries" (2A sanctuaries). Many 2A sanctuaries continue to use ERPOs in low numbers, suggesting a poorly defined risk threshold at which they are acceptable. Objective: To characterize circumstances under which ERPOs are used in 2A sanctuaries, highlighting their most broadly acceptable applications. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study of civil court documents analyzed petitions for ERPOs filed in Colorado from January 2020 to December 2022. All petitions during the study period were included following de-duplication. These include petitions filed by law enforcement and family members against adults allegedly at risk of firearm violence across the state. Data were analyzed on a rolling basis between January 2020 and June 2023. Exposure: ERPO petition filed in Colorado. Main Outcomes and Measures: Seventy-seven data elements defined a priori were abstracted from all petitions and case files, including respondent demographics, petitioner types (family or law enforcement), types of threats (self, other, mass violence, combination), violence risk factors, and case outcomes (granted, denied). Results: Of a total 338 ERPOs filed in Colorado, 126 (37.3%) occurred in 2A sanctuaries. Sixty-one of these 2A petitions were granted emergency orders, and 40 were full 1-year ERPOs after a hearing. Forty ERPOs (31.7%) were petitioned for by law enforcement. Petitions in non-2A counties were more likely to have been filed by law enforcement (138 of 227 [64.9%] vs 40 of 126 [31.7%]; P < .001) and to have had an emergency order granted (177 of 227 [78.0%] vs 61 of 126 [48.4%]; P < .001) than in 2A sanctuaries. Qualitative analysis of cases in 2A sanctuaries revealed common aggravating risk characteristics, including respondents experiencing hallucinations, histories of police interaction, and substance misuse. ERPOs have been granted in 2A sanctuaries against individuals threatening all forms of violence we abstracted for (themselves, others, and mass violence). Conclusions and Relevance: In this examination of ERPO petitions across Colorado, more than a third of filings occurred in 2A sanctuaries. Nonetheless, law enforcement represent proportionately fewer petitions in these areas, and petitions are less likely to be granted. Serious mental illness, substance misuse, and prior interactions with law enforcement featured prominently in 2A sanctuary petitions. These case circumstances highlight dangerous situations in which ERPOs are an acceptable risk-prevention tool, even in areas politically predisposed to opposing them.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Suicidio , Adulto , Humanos , Colorado , Estudios Transversales , Violencia/prevención & control
11.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 969, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580986

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Smartphone-based digital mental health interventions (DMHI) have been described as a purported solution to meet growing healthcare demands and lack of providers, but studies often don't account for whether patients are concurrently in another treatment modality. METHODS: This preregistered quasi-experimental intent-to-treat study with 354 patients enrolled in a therapist-supported DMHI examined the treatment effectiveness of the Meru Health Program (MHP) as a stand-alone treatment as compared to the MHP in combination with any other form of treatment, including (1) in-person therapy, (2) psychotropic medication use, and (3) in-person therapy and psychotropic medication use. RESULTS: Patients with higher baseline depressive and anxiety symptoms were more likely to self-select into multiple forms of treatment, an effect driven by patients in the MHP as adjunctive treatment to in-person therapy and psychotropic medication. Patients in combined treatments had significantly higher depressive and anxiety symptoms across treatment, but all treatment groups had similar decreasing depressive and anxiety symptom trajectories. Exploratory analyses revealed differential treatment outcomes across treatment combinations. Patients in the MHP in combination with another treatment had higher rates of major depressive episodes, psychiatric hospitalization, and attempted death by suicide at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with higher depressive and anxiety symptoms tend to self-select into using DMHI in addition to more traditional types of treatment, rather than as a stand-alone intervention, and have more severe clinical characteristics. The use the MHP alone was associated with improvement at a similar rate to those with higher baseline symptoms who are in traditional treatments and use MHP adjunctively.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Suicidio , Humanos , Salud Mental , Ansiedad/terapia , Terapia Combinada
12.
Psicol. conduct ; 32(1): 125-143, Abr 1, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-232225

RESUMEN

El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir el efecto de la depresión, la desesperanza y la impulsividad sobre la orientación al suicidio y el papel de la impulsividad como mediador de la orientación suicida en universitarios con antecedentes de conductas autolesivas. Participaron 1.645 jóvenes entre los 18 y 29 años, de dos ciudades colombianas. Se seleccionaron 218 jóvenes (M= 21,00; DT= 2,99) que informaron de al menos un intento de suicidio en el último año, quienes contestaron el “Inventario de orientación suicida”, la “Escala de desesperanza de Beck”, el “Inventario de depresión de Beck” y la “Escala de impulsividad de Barratt”. La depresión, la desesperanza y la impulsividad explicaron el 63% de la variación de la orientación al suicidio (R2= 0,635; IC 95% [0,555; 0,713]; p= 0,001). La impulsividad medió con depresión en aquellos casos en los que la orientación suicida era alta, cuyos efectos totales, directos e indirectos, fueron estadísticamente significativos (p< 0,001). La impulsividad desempeña un papel mediador entre la depresión y la desesperanza en la predicción de la orientación suicida.(AU)


The aim of this research was to describe the effect of depression,hopelessness, and impulsivity on orientation to suicide and the role of impulsivityas a mediator of suicidal orientation in university students with a history of self-injury behaviors. 1645 young people between 18 and 29 years old participated,from two Colombian cities. 218 young people were selected (M= 21.00; SD= 2.99)who reported at least one suicide attempt in the last year, who answered the“Suicidal Orientation Inventory”, the “Beck Hopelessness Scale”, the “BeckDepression Inventory” and the “Barratt Impulsivity Scale”. Depression,hopelessness, and impulsivity explained 63% of the variation in suicidal orientation (R 2 = .635, IC 95% [.555, .713], p= .001). Impulsivity mediated with depression inthose cases in which suicidal orientation was high, whose total, direct and indirecteffects were statistically significant (p< .001). Impulsivity plays a mediating rolebetween depression and hopelessness in predicting suicidal orientation.K EY WORDS : depression, hopelessness, impulsivity, suicidality, college youth.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Conducta del Adolescente , Suicidio , Depresión , Conducta Autodestructiva , Conducta Impulsiva , Psicología del Adolescente , Salud Mental , Psicología
13.
Rev. esp. sanid. penit ; 26(1): 25-34, Ene-Abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés, Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-231144

RESUMEN

Introducción: En el entorno penitenciario, hay una elevada incidencia de conductas autolesivas, con una tasa de suicidio superior a la existente en la población general. Estudios previos describen la asociación de factores sociodemográficos, clínicos y criminológicos, con el riesgo de suicidio en la población penitenciaria masculina, pero hay pocas investigaciones centradas en el análisis de la conducta suicida entre mujeres. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar las características de las internas que ingresan en una unidad psiquiátrica por presentar ideas de suicidio o haber realizado tentativas.Material y método: Análisis descriptivo y comparativo de 97 internos (68 hombres, 29 mujeres) ingresados en la Unidad de Hospitalización Psiquiátrica de la Penitenciaria de Cataluña (UHPP-C), por ideas de suicidio, entre el 1 de enero de 2017 y el 31 de diciembre de 2022. Resultados: Se encuentran diferencias respecto al lugar de nacimiento, con mayor presencia de nacionalidades africanas en varones no nacionales, mientras que las internas extranjeras suelen ser originarias de países latinoamericanos. Los hombres tienen menor edad media, con ingresos más prolongados y una mayor tasa de reingreso. También padecen más trastornos psicóticos y adictivos. Las mujeres presentan mayor prevalencia de trastornos de personalidad y cuadros afectivos. Conclusiones: Hay diferencias sociodemográficas y clínicas entre hombres y mujeres internos en prisión que requieren ingreso por ideación suicida. Incluir la perspectiva de género en los estudios sobre el riesgo suicida en la población penitenciaria puede proporcionar una base sólida para futuros estudios, permitiendo así una comprensión más completa de la ideación suicida y las necesidades de intervención en la población penitenciaria.(AU)


Introduction: There is a high incidence of self-harming behavior in the prison setting, with a suicide rate that is higher than that of the general population. Previous studies describe the association of sociodemographic, clinical, and criminological factors with the risk of suicide in the male prison population, but there is little research that specifically analyses suicidal behavior among women. The objective of this study is to analyze the characteristics of inmates who are admitted to a psychiatric unit for suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide. Material and method: Descriptive and comparative analysis of 97 inmates (68 men, 29 women) admitted to the Unidad de Hospitalización Psiquiátrica Penitenciaria de Cataluña (UHPP-C), for suicidal ideation, between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2022. Results: There are differences in terms of place of birth, with a more significant presence of African nationalities in non-national males, while foreign inmates tend to come from Latin American countries. Men have a lower mean age, longer admissions, and a higher readmission rate. They also suffer from more psychotic and addictive disorders. Women have a higher prevalence of personality disorders and affective symptoms. Conclusions: There are sociodemographic and clinical differences between male and female prison inmates who require admission for suicidal ideation. Including a gender perspective in studies on suicide risk in the prison population can provide a solid foundation for future studies, thus allowing a more complete understanding of suicidal ideation and intervention needs in theprison population.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Prisioneros/psicología , Perspectiva de Género , Conducta Autodestructiva , Suicidio , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio , Prisiones , España , Psiquiatría , Salud Mental , Epidemiología Descriptiva
14.
AMA J Ethics ; 26(3): E257-263, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446731

RESUMEN

Since the Joint Commission shifted its focus to suicide mitigation strategy implementation in behavioral health units in 2007, examining modern design trends in historical context is more clinically and ethically important than ever. This article considers architectural evolutions in how health care organizations have used structure and space designs to balance safety and healing when housing patients who are suicidal.


Asunto(s)
Psiquiatría , Suicidio , Humanos , Pacientes Internos , Ideación Suicida
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(3): e241941, 2024 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470417

RESUMEN

Importance: Despite individual studies suggesting that sex differences exist in the association between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and suicide, most existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses have reported associations across the sexes. Objective: To estimate the sex-specific association between AUD and suicide mortality. Data Sources: Embase, MEDLINE (including MEDLINE In-Process), PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched from database inception to April 27, 2022. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria consisted of the following: (1) original, quantitative study, (2) inclusion of a measure of association and its corresponding measure of variability (or sufficient data to calculate these [eg, 95% CI]), and (3) results stratified by sex. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data extraction was completed by one reviewer and then cross-checked by a second reviewer. Risk of bias was assessed by study design. Categorical random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to obtain sex-specific pooled estimates of the association between AUD and suicide mortality risk. Methodological moderators (ie, study design and comparator group) were assessed using sex-stratified meta-regressions. Main Outcomes and Measures: The association between AUD and suicide mortality. Results: A total of 16 347 unique records were identified in the systematic search; 24 studies were ultimately included for 37 870 699 participants (59.7% male and 40.3% female) (23 risk estimates for male and 17 for female participants). Participants ranged in age from 15 years to 65 years or older. Sex-specific meta-regression models indicated that study design (ie, longitudinal vs cross-sectional study design) affected the observed association between AUD and suicide mortality for both male participants (log odds ratio, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.08-1.28]; P = .03) and female participants (log odds ratio, 1.41 [95% CI, 0.57-2.24]; P < .001). For males and females, among longitudinal studies, the pooled odds ratios were 2.68 (95% CI, 1.86-3.87; I2 = 99% [n = 14]) and 2.39 (95% CI, 1.50-3.81; I2 = 90% [n = 11]), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: This systematic review and meta-analysis yielded substantive evidence that AUD was associated with suicide mortality and that the association was similar across the sexes. The findings underscore the importance of identifying and treating AUD as part of a comprehensive suicide prevention strategy.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Suicidio , Femenino , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Conducta Sexual , Caracteres Sexuales
17.
J Glob Health ; 14: 04052, 2024 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454881

RESUMEN

Background: Female sex workers (FSW) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are disproportionately vulnerable to poor health, social, and economic outcomes. The children of female sex workers (CFSW) experience health risks based on these challenging circumstances and the unique conditions to which they are exposed. Although country child mortality data exist, little is known about the causes of death among CFSW specifically, thereby severely limiting an effective public health response to the needs of this high-risk group of children. Methods: The Community Knowledge Approach (CKA) was employed between January and October 2019 to survey a criterion sample of 1280 FSW participants across 24 cities in eight LMIC countries. Participants meeting pre-determined criteria provided detailed reports of deaths among the CFSW within their community of peers. Newborn deaths were gleaned from FSW maternal death reports where the infants also died following birth. Results: Of the 668 child deaths reported, 589 were included in the analysis. Nutritional deficiencies comprised the leading cause of mortality accounting for 20.7% of deaths, followed closely by accidents (20.0%), particularly house fires, overdoses (19.4%), communicable diseases (18.5%), and homicides (9.8%). Other reported causes of death included neonatal conditions, respiratory illnesses, and suicides. Conclusions: The causes of CFSW death in these eight countries are preventable with improved protections. Governments, intergovernmental organisations like the United Nations, nongovernmental stakeholder organisations (e.g. sex worker organisations), and funders can implement targeted policies and programmes to protect CFSW and assist vulnerable FSW who are pregnant and raising children. Further research is needed to identify effective child welfare safeguards for CFSW.


Asunto(s)
Trabajadores Sexuales , Suicidio , Lactante , Niño , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Países en Desarrollo , Causas de Muerte , Madres
18.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299248, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451933

RESUMEN

Firearms are a major source of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, contributing to over 48,000 deaths in 2022 and generating societal costs in excess of $500 billion. A body of work has examined the relationship between US state level firearm laws and health outcomes, generally finding that some firearm regulations are associated with lower firearm-related mortality. Alcohol has been identified as an additional risk factor for both homicides and suicide and stronger state alcohol laws have been associated with lower rates of suicide. To date, there are no empirical studies that have investigated the impact of laws over a long period of time that target the intersection of alcohol and firearm. One reason for this may be because there is no existing dataset that includes the range of these state laws over time. This study describes the protocol for collecting, coding and operationalizing these legal data.


Asunto(s)
Armas de Fuego , Suicidio , Heridas por Arma de Fuego , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Humanos , Homicidio , Factores de Riesgo
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 334: 115806, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428289

RESUMEN

This study offers an in-depth analysis of Japan's suicide trends three years after the COVID-19 outbreak. Using data from the National Police Agency (January 2010-May 2023), we examined suicide rates across genders and age groups. Employing the quasi-Poisson regression, we predicted monthly death counts. Findings indicate a steady rise in female suicides from April 2020 to January 2023. Notably, male cohorts aged 50-59 and over 80 in 2022 displayed heightened death rates. While these trends may reflect the impacts of the pandemic, it is essential to consider other factors, including socio-economic changes, to fully understand the context of Japan's suicide patterns.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidio , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Japón/epidemiología , Pandemias , Brotes de Enfermedades
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 334: 115827, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442478

RESUMEN

The scope of lethal means exposure (i.e. guns, intravenous drugs, prescription drugs) relative to depressive symptoms and suicidality in adolescents is not well described. Using the Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey (ABES), we found lethal means exposure increased in a dose dependent manner with increasing depressive symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Adolescent males were more than 6 times more likely to have exposure to guns and intravenous drugs compared to adolescent females.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Suicidio , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Depresión/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Ideación Suicida
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