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1.
Ars pharm ; 62(1): 89-95, ene.-mar. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-196716

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral disease that affects several human organs and sys¬tems. Preventive or prophylactic treatments are specifically useful in emerging infectious diseases such as COVID-19 because they reduce the need for hospitalization and public health spending. Although the SARS-CoV-2 preventive effect of several therapeutic agents (e.g., hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, and ritonavir) has been extensively evaluated, none of them have demonstrated significant clinical efficacy. METHOD: We aim to address and discuss the recently published studies on the chemoprophylactic potential of quer¬cetin against SARS-CoV-2. A literature search was carried out on different databases, such as PubMed/MEDLINE, Scielo, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials.gov. Studies that report the effect of quercetin against SARS-CoV-2 or other types of coronaviruses were included and critically evaluated. RESULTS: Studies have shown that quercetin, an FDA-approved flavonoid used as an antioxidant and anti-inflamma¬tory agent, inhibits the entry of coronavirus (SARS-CoV) into the host cell. Moreover, an in silico study showed that quercetin is a potent inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), suggesting that this flavonoid is also active against COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Because quercetin might prevent and lessen the duration of SARS-CoV-2 infections, it is plausible to assume that the prophylactic use of this flavonoid produces several clinical benefits. However, this preliminary evidence needs to be confirmed by in vitro assays and, posteriorly, in randomized clinical trials


INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) es una enfermedad viral que afecta a varios órganosy sistemas. Los tratamientos preventivos o profilácticos son especialmente útiles en enfermedades infecciosas emergentes como COVID-19 porque reducen la necesidad de hospitalización y el gasto en salud pública. Aunque el efecto preventivo del SARS-CoV-2 de varios agentes terapéuticos (e.g., hidroxicloroquina/cloroquina, remdesivir,lopinavir y ritonavir) se ha evaluado ampliamente, ninguno de ellos ha demostrado una gran eficacia clínica. MÉTODO: Por lo tanto, aquí nuestro objetivo es abordar y discutir los estudios publicados recientemente sobre el potencial quimioprofilático de la quercetina contra el SARS-CoV-2. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó una búsqueda de la literaturaen bases como PubMed/MEDLINE, Scielo, Scorpus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library y Clinical Trials.gov. Se incluyeron y evaluaron críticamente estudios que abordan la quercetina contra el SARS-CoV-2 u otros tipos decoronavirus. RESULTADOS: Algunos estudios han demostrado que la quercetina, un flavonoide aprobado por la FDA que se utiliza como agente antioxidante y antiinflamatorio, inhibe la entrada del coronavirus (SARS-CoV) en la célula huésped.Además, un estudio in silico mostró que la quercetina es un potente inhibidor de la proteasa principal del SARSCoV-2 (Mpro), lo que sugiere que este flavonoide también es activo contra COVID-19. CONCLUSIONES: Debido a que la quercetina podría prevenir y disminuir la duración de las infecciones por SARSCoV-2, es plausible suponer que el uso profiláctico de este flavonoide produce varios beneficios clínicos. Pero, estas pruebas preliminares deben ser confirmadas mediante ensayos in vitro y, posteriormente, en un ensayo clínico aleatorizado


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Quercetina/uso terapéutico , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Inhibidores de Proteasas/uso terapéutico , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20190487, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533800

RESUMEN

Effects of protein supplementation, with and without starch supplementation, on nutritional performance and metabolic characteristics of cattle fed low- and medium-quality tropical forages were evaluated using 4 cannulated steers distributed according to a 4 × 4 Latin square. Experimental periods were divided into two subperiods. In the first subperiod, two animals received low-quality hay and two animals received medium-quality. Supplementation schemes were evaluated in the second subperiod: low-quality hay with protein (300 g of crude protein - CP/d); low-quality hay with protein (300 g CP/d) and starch (225 g/d); medium-quality hay with protein (300 g CP/d); and medium-quality hay with protein (300 g CP/d) and starch (225 g/d) supplementation. Without supplementation, medium-quality forage provided higher intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance (NB) and efficiency of nitrogen utilization (EFNU). Comparing subperiods, supply of supplements depressed medium-quality forage intake, but did not affect low-quality forage intake. Supplementation increased NB, EFNU and serum concentration of IGF1 in animals fed low-quality forage. Protein supplementation increases nitrogen retention in animals, an effect attributed mainly to anabolic stimuli. However, this effect is more prominent when animals are fed low-quality forages. No positive impact on animal metabolism was obtained with combination of supplemental protein and starch.


Asunto(s)
Digestión , Rumen , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Bovinos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Almidón
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20190903, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533801

RESUMEN

The aims of this study were to determine the fatty acid profile of meat from lambs fed with different levels of safflower seed (0%, 7.5%, and 15%) and, also, to compare the characteristics of the meat patties prepared from this lamb meat (LMP) with beef meat patties (BMP). The safflower seed-supplemented diet did not change the contents of polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids, except for C22:1. All meat patty formulations were considered safe for consumption. The values of cooking yield, shrinkage, water absorption index, luminosity (L*), and redness (a*) were similar for the LMP and BMP tested. While the safflower seed-supplemented diet did not alter the moisture, ash, and protein levels of LMP, the lipid content was lower than that in BMP. The incorporation of 15% safflower seed into lamb feed contributed to promoting better sensory attributes of the meat patties. Most of the physicochemical properties evaluated were similar among LMP and BMP. However, to improve the sensory properties of the product, dietary supplementation with 15% safflower seed is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Carthamus tinctorius , Carne Roja , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos , Carne/análisis , Semillas , Ovinos
4.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525447

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic poses an unprecedented threat to human health, health care systems, public life, and economy around the globe. The repertoire of effective therapies for severe courses of the disease has remained limited. A large proportion of the world population suffers from vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency, with prevalence being particularly high among the COVID-19 high-risk populations. Vitamin D supplementation has been suggested as a potential option to prevent COVID-19 infections, severe courses, and deaths from the disease, but is not widely practiced. This article provides an up-to-date summary of recent epidemiological and intervention studies on a possible role of vitamin D supplementation for preventing severe COVID-19 cases and deaths. Despite limitations and remaining uncertainties, accumulating evidence strongly supports widespread vitamin D supplementation, in particular of high-risk populations, as well as high-dose supplementation of those infected. Given the dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic, the benefit-risk ratio of such supplementation calls for immediate action even before results of ongoing large-scale randomized trials become available.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Pandemias , Vitamina D/uso terapéutico , /dietoterapia , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e22605, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545921

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous publications studied the correction about folate intake and ovarian cancer risk, with inconsistent results. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the association between folate intake and ovarian cancer risk using the existing published articles. METHOD: We searched for relevant studies in electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane, and Wanfang databases from inception to May 31, 2020. The overall relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were pooled using a random-effect model. RESULTS: A total of 12 articles with 6304 ovarian cancer cases were suitable for the inclusion criteria. The evaluated of the ovarian cancer risk with total folate intake and dietary folate intake were reported in 6 articles and 10 articles, respectively. Overall, highest category of dietary folate intake compared with lowest category had nonsignificant association on the risk of ovarian cancer (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.77-1.06). The association was not significant between total folate intake and ovarian cancer risk (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.89-1.27). The results in subgroup analyses by study design and geographic location were not changed either in dietary folate intake analysis or in total folate intake analysis. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis demonstrates that folate intake had no significant association on the risk of ovarian cancer. Study design and geographic location were not associated with ovarian cancer while some other related factors were not investigated due to the limited information provided in each included study. Therefore, further studies are needed to verify our results.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Epitelial de Ovario/epidemiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácido Fólico/administración & dosificación , Neoplasias Ováricas/epidemiología , Carcinoma Epitelial de Ovario/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Neoplasias Ováricas/etiología , Factores de Riesgo
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e23101, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545924

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of vitamin A supplementation on the bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the role of supplemental vitamin A in preterm infants were searched. The Medline et al databases were manually searched from inception to April 30, 2020. Related outcomes including incidence of BPD, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), sepsis and mortality were assessed with Review Manager 5.3 software, and Random-effect model was applied for all conditions. RESULTS: A total of 9 RCTs with 1409 patients were included. The analyzed results showed that the incidence of BPD in vitamin A group was significantly less than that of control group (OR = 0.67, 95%CI [0.52-0.88]). There was no significant difference in the incidence of ROP (OR = 0.65, 95%CI [0.29-1.48]), NEC (OR = 0.88, 95%CI [0.59-1.30]), IVH (OR = 0.90, 95%CI [0.65-1.25]), sepsis (OR = 0.84, 95%CI [0.64-1.09]) and mortality (OR = 0.98, 95%CI [0.72-1.34]) among two groups. CONCLUSION: Vitamin A supplementation is beneficial to the prophylaxis of BPD in premature infants, further studies on the administration approaches and dosages of vitamin A in premature infants are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Displasia Broncopulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Recién Nacido/tratamiento farmacológico , Vitamina A/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
7.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557013

RESUMEN

Post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS) is a widespread chronic neurological disease with no definite etiological factor(s), no actual diagnostic test, and no approved pharmacological treatment, therapy, or cure. Among other features, PVFS could be accompanied by various irregularities in creatine metabolism, perturbing either tissue levels of creatine in the brain, the rates of phosphocreatine resynthesis in the skeletal muscle, or the concentrations of the enzyme creatine kinase in the blood. Furthermore, supplemental creatine and related guanidino compounds appear to impact both patient- and clinician-reported outcomes in syndromes and maladies with chronic fatigue. This paper critically overviews the most common disturbances in creatine metabolism in various PVFS populations, summarizes human trials on dietary creatine and creatine analogs in the syndrome, and discusses new frontiers and open questions for using creatine in a post-COVID-19 world.


Asunto(s)
Creatina/administración & dosificación , Creatina/metabolismo , Síndrome de Fatiga Crónica/dietoterapia , Síndrome de Fatiga Crónica/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Creatina/análogos & derivados , Suplementos Dietéticos , Síndrome de Fatiga Crónica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
9.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 32, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588905

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of the immune system and inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of the severe manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is well known. Currently, different therapies active on the immune system are used for the management of COVID-19. The involvement of the immune system also opens the opportunity for the use of nutritional supplements with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity. MAIN ASPECTS: Nutritional supplements with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity are promising therapeutic adjuvants for the treatment of COVID-19, and also for the prevention of viral spreading. In particular, the role of vitamin D, probiotics, lactoferrin, and zinc is of significant clinical interest, although there are only a few data on their use in COVID-19 patients. Their molecular actions, together with the results of studies performed on other respiratory infections, strongly suggest their potential utility in COVID-19. This article discusses the main properties of these nutritional supplements and their potential applicability in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The supplementation with vitamin D, probiotics, lactoferrin and zinc could have a role both in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and in mitigating the clinical course in infected patients, contributing in the prevention of immune-mediated organ damage.


Asunto(s)
/tratamiento farmacológico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Lactoferrina/uso terapéutico , Pandemias , Probióticos/uso terapéutico , Vitamina D/uso terapéutico , Zinc/uso terapéutico
10.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528019

RESUMEN

Trehalose, a nonreducing disaccharide consisting of d-glucose with α,α-1,1 linkage, was evaluated as a functional material to improve the gut environment in preweaned calves. In experiment 1, 173 calves were divided into two groups; the trehalose group was fed trehalose at 30 g/animal/d with milk replacer during the suckling period, and the control group was fed nonsupplemented milk replacer. Medication frequency was lower in the trehalose group (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, calves (n = 20) were divided into two groups (control group [n = 10] and trehalose group [n = 10]) based on their body weight and reared under the same feeding regimens as in experiment 1. Fresh feces were collected from individual animals at the beginning of the trial (average age 11 d), 3 wk after trehalose feeding (experimental day 22), and 1 d before weaning, and the fecal score was recorded daily. Fecal samples were analyzed for fermentation parameters and microbiota. The fecal score was significantly lower in the trehalose group than in the control group in the early stage (at an age of 14 to 18 d; P < 0.05) of the suckling period. Calves fed trehalose tended to have a higher proportion of fecal butyrate on day 22 than calves in the control group (P = 0.08). Population sizes of Clostridium spp. were significantly lower (P = 0.036), whereas those of Dialister spp. and Eubacterium spp. tended to be higher in the feces of calves in the trehalose group on day 22 (P = 0.060 and P = 0.083). These observations indicate that trehalose feeding modulated the gut environment and partially contributed to the reduction in medication frequency observed in experiment 1.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Diarrea/veterinaria , Heces/microbiología , Microbiota , Leche , Trehalosa/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Diarrea/epidemiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Incidencia , Destete
11.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529342

RESUMEN

High dietary protein may increase susceptibility of weaned pigs to enteric pathogens. Dietary supplementation with functional amino acids (FAA) may improve growth performance of pigs during disease challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interactive effects of dietary protein content and FAA supplementation above requirements for growth on performance and immune response of weaned pigs challenged with Salmonella. Sixty-four mixed-sex weanling pigs (13.9 ± 0.82 kg) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with low (LP) or high protein (HP) content and basal (AA-) or FAA profile (AA+; Thr, Met, and Trp at 120% of requirements) as factors. After a 7-d adaptation period, pigs were inoculated with either a sterile saline solution (CT) or saline solution containing Salmonella Typhimurium (ST; 3.3 × 109 CFU/mL). Growth performance, body temperature, fecal score, acute-phase proteins, oxidant/antioxidant balance, ST shedding score in feces and intestinal colonization, fecal and digesta myeloperoxidase (MPO), and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) were measured pre- and postinoculation. There were no dietary effects on any measures pre-inoculation or post-CT inoculation (P > 0.05). Inoculation with ST increased body temperature and fecal score (P < 0.05), serum haptoglobin, plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), PUN, and fecal MPO, and decreased serum albumin and plasma reduced glutathione (GSH):oxidized glutathione (GSSG) compared with CT pigs (P < 0.05). ST-inoculation reduced average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) vs. CT pigs (P < 0.05) but was increased by AA+ vs. AA- in ST pigs (P < 0.05). Serum albumin and GSH:GSSG were increased while haptoglobin and SOD were decreased in ST-inoculated pigs fed AA+ vs. AA- (P < 0.05). PUN was higher in HP vs. LP-fed pigs postinoculation (P < 0.05). Fecal ST score was increased in ST-inoculated pigs on days 1 and 2 postinoculation and declined by day 6 (P < 0.05) in all pigs while the overall score was reduced in AA+ vs. AA- pigs (P < 0.05). Cecal digesta ST score was higher in HP vs. LP-fed pigs and were lower in AA+ compared with AA- fed pigs in the colon (P < 0.05). Fecal and digesta MPO were reduced in ST pigs fed AA+ vs. AA- (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate a positive effect of FAA supplementation, with minimal effects of dietary protein, on performance and immune status in weaned pigs challenged with Salmonella.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Salmonella typhimurium , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Destete
12.
Physiol Rep ; 9(3): e14741, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527774

RESUMEN

Proposed pathway of the effect of lingonberry polyphenols on oral microbial (viral) load reduction and consequent beneficial local and systemic (respiratory tract) anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial/antiviral effects.


Asunto(s)
Vaccinium vitis-Idaea , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Polifenoles/farmacología
13.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546262

RESUMEN

African Americans have higher incidence of, and mortality from, many health-related problems than European Americans. They also have a 15 to 20-fold higher prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency. Here we summarize evidence that: (i) this health disparity is partly due to insufficient vitamin D production, caused by melanin in the skin blocking the UVB solar radiation necessary for its synthesis; (ii) the vitamin D insufficiency is exacerbated at high latitudes because of the combination of dark skin color with lower UVB radiation levels; and (iii) the health of individuals with dark skin can be markedly improved by correcting deficiency and achieving an optimal vitamin D status, as could be obtained by supplementation and/or fortification. Moderate-to-strong evidence exists that high 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and/or vitamin D supplementation reduces risk for many adverse health outcomes including all-cause mortality rate, adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, cancer, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and dementia, multiple sclerosis, acute respiratory tract infections, COVID-19, asthma exacerbations, rickets, and osteomalacia. We suggest that people with low vitamin D status, which would include most people with dark skin living at high latitudes, along with their health care provider, consider taking vitamin D3 supplements to raise serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) or possibly higher.


Asunto(s)
/etiología , Colecalciferol/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/etnología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología , Afroamericanos , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/etiología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/prevención & control , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Demencia/etiología , Demencia/prevención & control , Diabetes Mellitus/etiología , Diabetes Mellitus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estado Asmático/etiología , Estado Asmático/prevención & control , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangre , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones
14.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(4): 1, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537824

RESUMEN

Currently, the world is under a pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2), responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19). This disease is characterized by a respiratory syndrome that can progress to an acute respiratory distress syndrome. To date, limited effective therapies are available for the prevention or treatment of COVID­19; therefore, it is necessary to propose novel treatment options with immunomodulatory effects. Vitamin D serves functions in bone health and has been recently reported to exert protective effects against respiratory infections. Observational studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and a poor prognosis of COVID­19; this is alarming as vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. In Latin America, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is unknown, and currently, this region is in the top 10 according to the number of confirmed COVID­19 cases. Supplementation with vitamin D may be a useful adjunctive treatment for the prevention of COVID­19 complications. The present review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the potential immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in the prevention of COVID­19 and sets out vitamin D recommendations for the Latin American population.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Factores Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Vitamina D/uso terapéutico , Huesos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , América Latina , Prevalencia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 326: 124782, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535153

RESUMEN

Nano-bubble water (NBW) has been proven to be effective in promoting organics utilization and CH4 production during anaerobic digestion (AD) process, suggesting its potential in improving the stability of the AD process and thereby alleviating acidic inhibition. In this work, the effect of NBW on digestion stability and CH4 production was investigated to evaluate the ability of NBW on AD recovery from acidic inhibition. Results showed that NBW supplementation increased the total alkalinity (TA) and partial alkalinity (PA), and reduced the ratio of VFA/TA, thus maintained the stability of the AD process. Generation/consumption of VFAs was also enhanced with NBW supplementation under acidic inhibition with pH values of 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5. The cumulative CH4 production was 246-257 mL/g-VS in NBW groups, which was 12.1-17.2% higher than the control. Moreover, with NBW supplementation, the maximum CH4 production rate was raised according to the modeling results.


Asunto(s)
Reactores Biológicos , Metano , Anaerobiosis , Suplementos Dietéticos , Agua
17.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530108

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to examine the conservation process and feed value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages. In exp. 1, we evaluated the fermentation pattern and aerobic stability of TMR silages containing different protein and lipid supplementations. In exp. 2, we compared the performance of finishing beef heifers fed those TMR silages. In both experiments, treatments were as follows: ensiled TMR with urea (U); ensiled TMR without a protein supplement at ensiling, but soybean meal supplemented at feeding to balance diet crude protein (CP) in exp. 2 (SMnf; where the acronym nf indicates nonfermented); ensiled TMR with soybean meal (SM); and ensiled TMR with rolled soybean grain (SG). Thirty-two Nellore heifers (313 ± 8.8 kg shrunk body weight [SBW]) were blocked by initial SBW, housed in individual pens, and enrolled in exp. 2 for 82 d. In exp. 1, treatment without a protein supplement (SMnf) had a lower content of CP, soluble CP, NH3-N, pH, and Clostridium count compared with U (P ≤ 0.03). Lactic acid concentrations tended to be reduced for SMnf compared with U (P = 0.09). Ethanol concentration was reduced in SG compared with SM (P < 0.01). 1,2-Propanediol concentration was increased in SMnf compared with U (P < 0.01), reduced in SM compared with SMnf (P = 0.02), and increased in SG compared with SM (P = 0.02). Dry matter (DM) loss during fermentation was low and similar among treatments (~3.7%). All silages remained stable during 10 d of aerobic exposure after feed out. Considering fermentation traits, such as pH (≤4.72), NH3-N (<10% of N, except for U treatment), butyric acid (<0.05 % DM), and DM losses (<3.70% DM), all silages can be considered well conserved. In exp. 2, diets were isonitrogenous because soybean meal was added to SMnf before feeding. Compared with SM, cattle fed SG made more meals per day (P = 0.04) and tended to have a decreased intermeal interval (P = 0.09). DM intake, average daily gain, final SBW, hot carcass weight, Biceps femoris fat thickness, and serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol were increased for SG compared with SM (P ≤ 0.05). In brief, TMR silages exhibited an adequate fermentation pattern and high aerobic stability. The supplementation of true protein did not improve animal performance, whereas the addition of soybean grain as a lipid source improved the performance of finishing cattle fed TMR silages.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Ensilaje , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Fermentación , Lípidos , Rumen/metabolismo , Ensilaje/análisis , Zea mays
18.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573173

RESUMEN

The trend toward using phytonutrients and/or nutraceuticals (P/Ns) with the aim of impacting immune health has increased in recent years. The main reason is that properties of P/Ns are associated with possible immunomodulating effects in the prevention and complementary treatment of viral diseases, including COVID-19 and other respiratory infections. In the present review, we assess the scientific plausibility of specific P/Ns for this purpose of preventative and therapeutic interventions against COVID-19, with an emphasis on safety, validity, and evidence of efficacy against other viruses. Five potential candidates have been identified after reviewing available studies (in silico, in vitro, and in vivo) in which certain flavonoids have demonstrated a potential for use as adjuvant therapeutic agents against viral infections, including COVID-19. As these are often better tolerated than pharmacological treatments, their use could be more widely considered if additional detailed studies can validate the existing evidence.


Asunto(s)
/tratamiento farmacológico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Humanos
19.
Orv Hetil ; 162(1): 23-30, 2021 01 03.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388735

RESUMEN

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Civilizált világunk, miközben látszólag túltáplált, ómega-3-hiányban szenved. A hosszú szénláncú, többszörösen telítetlen zsírsavak számos anyagcsere-megbetegedés (például elhízás, 2-es típusú diabetes mellitus, szív- és érrendszeri megbetegedések) kialakulásában játszhatnak szerepet. A halolajban lévo zsírsavak erosítik az immunrendszert, csökkentik a koleszterin- és trigliceridszintet, csökkentik a gyulladást. Célkituzés: Vizsgálatunk célja a többszörösen telítetlen zsírsavak bevitelének monitorozása, valamint a tüdofunkcióval és az életminoséggel való kapcsolatuk értékelése krónikus obstruktív tüdobetegségben (COPD). Módszer: Kérdoívünket az Országos Korányi Pulmonológiai Intézet Légzésrehabilitációs Osztályán, 2019. március 1. és 2020. március 1. között 40 év feletti COPD-s betegek körében vettük fel. Az életminoség mérésére a betegségspecifikus Szent György Légzési Kérdoívet alkalmaztuk, a légzésfunkciós és antropometriai adatokat az egészségügyi elektronikus nyilvántartási rendszerbol nyertük ki. Eredmények: A betegek medián életkora 66 (IQR 60-73) év volt, a nemek közötti megoszlást tekintve 47,5% férfi és 52,5% no. A medián BMI 26,0 (IQR 21,7-30,6) kg/m2, a FEV1 (ref%) 48,0 (IQR 38,1-55,3) volt. Az ómega-3 zsírsavakat a betegek 4,7%-a (n = 19) szedi rendszeresen, elsosorban kezeloorvosa javaslatára, a javasolt napi dózisban (0,25-0,50 g/nap). Esetükben jobb életminoséget tapasztaltunk (65,8 [52,4-79,7] vs. 72,2 [56,2-88,6]; p = 0,044), kevesebb társbetegséggel rendelkeztek (hypertonia: 10 [52,6%] vs. 275 [72,1%]; p = 0,066), kevesebb gyógyszert használtak (gyors hatású béta-2-agonista: 5 [25,3%] vs. 197 [51,7%]; p = 0,031), alacsonyabb volt a fellángolások száma (1 [1-3] vs. 2 [1-4]; p = 0,029), és nagyobb volt a 6 perces sétatávolság (300 [177-387] vs. 251 [150-345]; p = 0,121). Következtetés: Eredményeink arra utalnak, hogy a többszörösen telítetlen zsírsavak bevitele összefüggésben lehet az életminoséggel COPD-s betegekben. Vizsgálatunk szerint a betegek ómega-3-bevitele nem kielégíto - eredményeink alapján szeretnénk felhívni a figyelmet e zsírok fogyasztásának fontosságára. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(1): 23-30. INTRODUCTION: Our civilized world, while seems to be overweight, suffers from omega-3 deficiency. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids can play a role in the development of many metabolic diseases (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease). Fatty acids in fish oil strengthen the immune system, reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels, have been proven to be beneficial, reduce inflammation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to monitor the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and to evaluate their relationship with lung function and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHOD: Our questionnaire was completed at the Department of Pulmonary Rehabilitation of the National Koranyi Institute for Pulmonology between March 1, 2019 and March 1, 2020 among COPD patients over 40 years of age. We used the disease-specific St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire to measure the quality of life; the respiratory function and anthropometric data were extracted from the electronic health record system. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 66 (IQR 60-73) years, with a gender division of 47.5% male and 52.5% female. The median BMI was 26.0 (IQR 21.7-30.6) kg/m2, and the median FEV1 (%pred) was 48.0 (IQR 38.1-55.3). In the form of a dietary supplement, 4.7% (n = 19) of patients take omega-3 fatty acids regularly, mainly on the recommendation of their doctor, at the recommended daily dose (0.25-0.50 g/day). Among them, we detected a better quality of life (65.8 [52.4-79.7] vs. 72.2 [56.2-88.6]; p = 0.044), had fewer comorbidities (hypertension: 10 [52.6%] vs. 275 [72.1%]; p = 0.066), consumed fewer drugs (short-acting bronchodilators: 5 [25.3%] vs. 197 [51.7%]; p = 0.031), had fewer exacerbations (1 [1-3] vs. 2 [1-4]; p = 0.029), and higher six-minute walking distance (300 [177-387] vs. 251 [150-345]; p = 0.121). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids may be related to the quality of life in COPD patients. According to our study, the intake of omega-3 in patients is unsatisfactory, and based on our results, we would like to draw attention to the importance of consuming these fats. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(1): 23-30.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/uso terapéutico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Anciano , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111608, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396128

RESUMEN

Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic heavy metal environmental pollutants due to its widespread use of the industry and it is a harmful substance for human and animal health. This study was conducted to investigate the potential protective effects of ellagic acid (EA) on performance, egg quality, antioxidant parameters, and apoptotic pathway proteins in laying quails exposed to Pb toxicity. A total of 168 (15-week old) laying quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) were divided into 6 experimental groups (with similar initial average body weight). Birds were fed 1 of 6 diets for 8 weeks: 1 - Control (basal diet), 2 - Pb (basal diet + 100 mg/kg Pb), 3 - EA-300 (basal diet + 300 mg/kg EA), 4 - EA-500 (basal diet + 500 mg/kg EA), 5 - Pb + EA-300 (basal diet + 100 mg/kg Pb + 300 mg/kg EA), 6 - Pb + EA-500 (basal diet + 100 mg/kg Pb + 500 mg/kg EA). The results showed that adding 100 mg/kg of Pb to basal diet was adversely affected the performance parameters and, feed intake and egg production were significantly decreased by Pb supplementation (P < 0.01). However, the EA supplementation to Pb groups improved the performance parameters. Compared with the Pb alone group, in Pb + EA-500 group increased egg production by 8.4%. There were no significant differences in the Haugh unit, albumen index, and yolk index among groups (P > 0.05). Liver and kidney tissues of Pb group malondialdehyde (MDA) level increased (P < 0.001) and, GSH, GSH-Px, and CAT values decreased (P < 0.001) but, EA supplementation alleviated this condition (P < 0.001). The protein levels of caspase-3 and -9 were significantly increased in the Pb group compared to the control group, whereas EA supplementation alleviated the Pb-induced apoptosis by decreasing caspase-3 and -9 levels in the liver tissue (p < 0.001). In laying quails exposed to Pb toxicity, EA supplementation improves the performance parameters, enhances the antioxidant defense system, and suppresses apoptosis via regulates the expression of caspase-3 and -9. Thus, it was concluded that EA (especially 500 mg/kg) can ameliorate the toxic effects of Pb exposure in quails.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Coturnix/metabolismo , Ácido Elágico/farmacología , Plomo/toxicidad , Óvulo/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Coturnix/crecimiento & desarrollo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácido Elágico/metabolismo , Femenino , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Riñón/metabolismo , Riñón/patología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Hígado/patología , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Óvulo/metabolismo
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