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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414755

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To address concerns regarding the effect of MS disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) on the expression of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Review of the current state of knowledge regarding the viral etiology of COVID-19, mechanisms of injury by SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the effect of individual DMTs on the risk of infection and COVID-19 disease expression. RESULTS: Although data are limited, MS DMTs do not obviously increase the risk of acquiring symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. The severe morbidity and mortality of SARS-CoV-2 appear to be largely the consequence of an overly robust immune response rather than the consequence of unchecked viral replication. The effects of specific MS DMTs on the immune response that may increase the risk of impaired viral clearance and their potential counterbalancing beneficial effects on the development of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome are reviewed. CONCLUSION: Although there is currently insufficient real-world experience to definitively answer the question of the effect of a specific MS DMT on COVID-19, registries presently in nascent form should provide these answers. This review provides an approach to addressing these concerns while the data are being accumulated. Early insights suggest that the risk of infection and associated morbidity of COVID-19 in this population is little different than that of the population at large.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Inmunosupresores/efectos adversos , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/inducido químicamente , Humanos , Inmunosupresores/uso terapéutico , Esclerosis Múltiple/tratamiento farmacológico , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Medición de Riesgo
2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(695): 1115-1119, 2020 May 27.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462841

RESUMEN

Obesity represents a higher risk of severe COVID-19 infection, which may lead to the requirement of a mechanical ventilation in intensive care units and premature death. The underlying mechanisms are multiple: alteration of the respiratory performance, presence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension or obstructive sleep apnea, finally inadequate and excessive immunological responses, possibly aggravated by ectopic intrathoracic fat depots. Thus, COVID-19 may challenge the so-called «â€…obesity paradox ¼ commonly reported by intensivists in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. These findings require reinforced preventive and curative measures among obese patients to limit the risk of progression towards an unfavorable outcome in case of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Obesidad/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Obesidad/mortalidad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/complicaciones
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(5): 2439-2447, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366387

RESUMEN

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the urinary tract is a high-grade neuroendocrine tumor with distinct pathological features, usually portending an aggressive clinical behavior in comparison to conventional urothelial carcinoma. Due to its low prevalence, little is known about its clinical management and there is no current standard of care. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge about LCNEC of the bladder, ureter and kidney, with relevance to diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues, through a systematic analysis of clinical, pathological and outcome data retrieved from the literature.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Grandes/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/terapia , Carcinoma Neuroendocrino/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Neuroendocrino/terapia , Neoplasias Urológicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Urológicas/terapia , Biopsia , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/etiología , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/mortalidad , Carcinoma Neuroendocrino/etiología , Carcinoma Neuroendocrino/mortalidad , Terapia Combinada , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Imagen Multimodal , Clasificación del Tumor , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Pronóstico , Resultado del Tratamiento , Neoplasias Urológicas/etiología , Neoplasias Urológicas/mortalidad
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e19097, 2020 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369029

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction test used to detect the presence of the virus in the human host, the worldwide health community has been able to record a large number of the recovered population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the probability of reinfection in the recovered class and the model equations, which exhibits the disease-free equilibrium state for the coronavirus disease. METHODS: The model differential equation was evaluated for the disease-free equilibrium for the case of reinfection as well as the existence and stability criteria for the disease, using the model proportions. This evaluation shows that the criteria for a local or worldwide asymptotic stability with a basic reproductive number (R0=0) were satisfied. Hence, there is a chance of no secondary reinfections from the recovered population, as the rate of incidence of the recovered population vanishes (ie, B=0). RESULTS: With a total of about 900,000 infected cases worldwide, numerical simulations for this study were carried out to complement the analytical results and investigate the effect that the implementation of quarantine and observation procedures has on the projection of further virus spread. CONCLUSIONS: As shown by the results, the proportion of the infected population, in the absence of a curative vaccination, will continue to grow worldwide; meanwhile, the recovery rate will continue slowly, which means that the ratio of infection rate to recovery rate will determine the death rate that is recorded. Most significant for this study is the rate of reinfection by the recovered population, which will decline to zero over time as the virus is cleared clinically from the system of the recovered class.


Asunto(s)
Simulación por Computador , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Coronavirus , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/epidemiología , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Número Básico de Reproducción , Betacoronavirus , Trazado de Contacto , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Salud Global , Humanos , Incidencia , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Probabilidad , Cuarentena , Distancia Social
6.
Vet Ital ; 56(1): 7-8, 2020 04 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315124

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 is a zoonotic virus that has achieved community spread among humans and become a pandemic. Transmission from humans to dogs, domestic cats, tigers, and lions has occurred. Pigs, cats, ferrets, and primates have been identified as good candidates for susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. The potential implications indicate the need for One Health surveillance, intervention, and management strategies to mitigate the effects on animal populations and prevent a second preparedness failure during this health emergency.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Zoonosis , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Humanos , Salud Única/tendencias , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Vigilancia de la Población , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/transmisión
7.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 277: 103443, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333993

RESUMEN

In the present study we analyze the epidemiological data of COVID-19 of Tibet and high-altitude regions of Bolivia and Ecuador, and compare to lowland data, to test the hypothesis that high-altitude inhabitants (+2,500 m above sea-level) are less susceptible to develop severe adverse effects in acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Analysis of available epidemiological data suggest that physiological acclimatization/adaptation that counterbalance the hypoxic environment in high-altitude may protect from severe impact of acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Potential underlying mechanisms such as: (i) a compromised half-live of the virus caused by the high-altitude environment, and (ii) a hypoxia mediated down regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the main binding target of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the pulmonary epithelium are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Altitud , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Bolivia/epidemiología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Ecuador/epidemiología , Humanos , Oxígeno , Pandemias , Tibet/epidemiología , Virulencia
9.
Science ; 368(6492): 742-746, 2020 05 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269067

RESUMEN

The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in mainland China was characterized by a distinctive subexponential increase of confirmed cases during the early phase of the epidemic, contrasting with an initial exponential growth expected for an unconstrained outbreak. We show that this effect can be explained as a direct consequence of containment policies that effectively deplete the susceptible population. To this end, we introduce a parsimonious model that captures both quarantine of symptomatic infected individuals, as well as population-wide isolation practices in response to containment policies or behavioral changes, and show that the model captures the observed growth behavior accurately. The insights provided here may aid the careful implementation of containment strategies for ongoing secondary outbreaks of COVID-19 or similar future outbreaks of other emergent infectious diseases.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Número Básico de Reproducción , Conducta , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Trazado de Contacto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Cuarentena
10.
J Reprod Immunol ; 139: 103122, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244166

RESUMEN

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first detected in December 2019 and became epidemic in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. COVID-19 has been rapidly spreading out in China and all over the world. The virus causing COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 has been known to be genetically similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) but distinct from it. Clinical manifestation of COVID-19 can be characterized by mild upper respiratory tract infection, lower respiratory tract infection involving non-life threatening pneumonia, and life-threatening pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome. It affects all age groups, including newborns, to the elders. Particularly, pregnant women may be more susceptible to COVID-19 since pregnant women, in general, are vulnerable to respiratory infection. In pregnant women with COVID-19, there is no evidence for vertical transmission of the virus, but an increased prevalence of preterm deliveries has been noticed. The COVID-19 may alter immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface, and affect the well-being of mothers and infants. In this review, we focused on the reason why pregnant women are more susceptible to COVID-19 and the potential maternal and fetal complications from an immunological viewpoint.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/inmunología , China , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/patología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Nacimiento Prematuro/etiología
12.
Orv Hetil ; 161(16): 603-609, 2020 04 01.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323964

RESUMEN

On the basis of comparative epidemiological statistical studies, the 'developmental origin of health and disease' (DOHaD) theory was published in 1986, testifying the interrelation between certain perinatal events, like under- and overfeeding as well as infant mortality with cardiovascular lethality in adults (Barker DJ, Osmond C, Lancet, 1986; 137: 1077­1081) ­ and at present it is widely extended. The theory is rather similar to the hormonal imprinting concept, which had been published 6 years earlier (Csaba G, Biol Rev Cambr Philos Soc. 1980; 55: 47­63 and Horm Metab Res. 1984; 16: 329­335). This demonstrated the role of perinatal encounter with hormones or hormone-like molecules with adult's endocrino-pathological events based on animal experiments. Barker hypothesized the role of hormonal imprinting in DOHaD (Phillips DI, Barker DJ, Osmond C, Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1993; 129: 134­138: "A possible explanation is that thyroid hormones present in the breast milk and absorbed by the suckling infant could, by the process of hormonal imprinting, permanently down-regulate the set point of thyroid homeostasis", and this could have encouraged him to create the theory. Both theories suggest the relationship between the perinatal events and adult-age disease manifestation, however, in the case of faulty imprinting, perinatal disease does not have a role in the provocation by imprinters (only the encounter between the imprinter and the hormone receptor), but in the case of DOHaD, this seems to be involved in the process. The whole process points to the disturbance of epigenetic programming. On the basis of the present standpoint, DOHaD is valid in non-communicative diseases, however, considering the impact of faulty hormonal imprinting to the immune system, the extension to communicative diseases is expected and likely also the involvement of lifespan. Further critical developmental period is the adolescence (puberty), when similar reprogramming could be possible and also in certain cases (e.g., in the immune system) disease-causing reprogramming could occur during the whole life. The two concepts are not racing, but using different methods for verification supplement and support each other, by building up identical conclusions (faulty reprogramming) giving epigenetical explanation for numerous diseases. DOHaD and its antecedent, hormonal imprinting are not only theories, but realities, which are commendable to consider in diagnosis and therapy. Studying the tendencies of human creativeness, in all probability, the importance of DOHaD (and faulty imprinting) will be growing in the near and far future. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(16): 603­609.


Asunto(s)
Biología Evolutiva , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Humanos , Hungría , Reino Unido
13.
Euro Surveill ; 25(13)2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265008

RESUMEN

Understanding risk perceptions of the public is critical for risk communication. In February 2020, the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare started collecting weekly qualitative data on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) risk perception that informs risk communication efforts. The process is based on thematic analysis of emails and social media messages from the public and identifies factors linked to appraisal of risk magnitude, which are developed into risk communication recommendations together with health and communication experts.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Coronavirus , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Finlandia/epidemiología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Salud Pública , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
14.
Arch Iran Med ; 23(4): 268-271, 2020 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271601

RESUMEN

Since December 2019, there has been an outbreak of a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection in Wuhan, China. Meanwhile, the outbreak also drew attention and concern from the World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19 is another human infectious disease caused by coronavirus. The transmission of COVID-19 is potent and the infection rate is fast. Since there is no specific drug for COVID-19, the treatment is mainly symptomatic supportive therapy. In addition, it should be pointed out that patients with severe illness need more aggressive treatment and meticulous care. Recently, accurate RNA detection has been decisive for the diagnosis of COVID-19. The development of highly sensitive RT-PCR has facilitated epidemiological studies that provide insight into the prevalence, seasonality, clinical manifestations and course of COVID-19 infection. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology and characteristics of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Tos/etiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Fiebre/etiología , Humanos , Lactante , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/etiología , Embarazo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven
16.
Mol Cancer ; 19(1): 80, 2020 04 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345328

RESUMEN

Recent studies have reported that COVID-19 patients with lung cancer have a higher risk of severe events than patients without cancer. In this study, we investigated the gene expression of angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) with prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Lung cancer patients in each age stage, subtype, and pathological stage are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, except for the primitive subtype of LUSC. LUAD patients are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection than LUSC patients. The findings are unanimous on tissue expression in gene and protein levels.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma del Pulmón/complicaciones , Betacoronavirus , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etiología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicaciones , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/genética , Neumonía Viral/etiología , Serina Endopeptidasas/genética , Adenocarcinoma del Pulmón/genética , Animales , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Línea Celular , Infecciones por Coronavirus/genética , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Ratones , Ratones Transgénicos , Pandemias , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/biosíntesis , Neumonía Viral/genética , Serina Endopeptidasas/biosíntesis
17.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(690): 724-730, 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301306

RESUMEN

Biological treatments are a revolution in the management of many diseases and their development, with the marketing of many new biologics, challenges practitioners in assessing the risk of infectious complications. A rigorous evaluation is required with the introduction of prophylaxis, vaccinations or specific clinical monitoring.


Asunto(s)
Productos Biológicos/efectos adversos , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Inmunosupresores/efectos adversos , Infecciones/etiología , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/métodos , Esquema de Medicación , Humanos
20.
Physiol Rev ; 100(3): 1065-1075, 2020 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216698

RESUMEN

Patients with hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular illness, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and kidney dysfunction have worse clinical outcomes when infected with SARS-CoV-2, for unknown reasons. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence for the existence of elevated plasmin(ogen) in COVID-19 patients with these comorbid conditions. Plasmin, and other proteases, may cleave a newly inserted furin site in the S protein of SARS-CoV-2, extracellularly, which increases its infectivity and virulence. Hyperfibrinolysis associated with plasmin leads to elevated D-dimer in severe patients. The plasmin(ogen) system may prove a promising therapeutic target for combating COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/sangre , Fibrinolisina/metabolismo , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/fisiología , Plasminógeno/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/sangre , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/fisiopatología , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/virología , Factores de Riesgo
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