Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.443
Filtrar
1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(4): 2131-2145, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660833

RESUMEN

The world is currently facing the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to a lack of specific treatment and prophylaxis, protective health measures that can reduce infection severity and COVID-19 mortality are urgently required. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency can be linked to an increased risk of viral infection, including COVID-19. Therefore, in this review, we looked at various possible roles of vitamin D in reducing the risk of COVID-19 infection and severity. We describe in this article that individuals at high risk of vitamin D deficiency should consider taking vitamin D supplements to keep optimal concentrations. Moreover, we discuss different possible mechanisms by which vitamin D can efficiently reduce the risk of infections through modulation of innate and adaptive immunity against various types of infections. It is advisable to perform further studies addressing the observed influence of vitamin D levels to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality.


Asunto(s)
/tratamiento farmacológico , Sustancias Protectoras/uso terapéutico , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/prevención & control , Vitamina D/uso terapéutico , Inmunidad Adaptativa/efectos de los fármacos , Efecto Espectador , /mortalidad , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Inmunidad Innata/efectos de los fármacos , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/inmunología
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 339: 51-59, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370591

RESUMEN

Overdose use of acetaminophen (APAP) often occurs a severe liver injury, and its liver injury is lethal in some cases. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is expressed in a variety of cells and has multifunctional roles. However, the role of MIF in APAP-induced liver injury has not been fully investigated. In this study, we investigated whether treatment with (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenil)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO-1), a MIF inhibitor, protected mice from acute APAP-induced liver injury. Acute liver injury was induced by injection of APAP (300 mg/kg body weight). Mice were treated with a single injection of ISO-1(15 mg/kg body weight) 1 h (h) before APAP administration. Histological, biochemical and molecular analyses were performed in liver of mice 12 h after APAP administration. ISO-1 remarkably improved the histological findings of APAP-induced liver injury in mice. The increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) by APAP were inhibited by ISO-1. In addition, ISO-1 reduced the increased number of the myeloperoxidase-staining cells and that of TUNEL-positive staining cells in the liver of mice with APAP-induced liver injury. Up-regulation of hepatic receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK)3 and heat shock protein70 by APAP was suppressed in the liver of mice given ISO-1. These results provide the additional evidence that inhibition of MIF activity may be clinically effective for treatment of acute APAP-induced liver injury.


Asunto(s)
Acetaminofén/toxicidad , Acetatos/administración & dosificación , Enfermedad Hepática Crónica Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/prevención & control , Neutrófilos/efectos de los fármacos , Oxazoles/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinasas de Interacción con Receptores/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación hacia Arriba/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Modelos Animales , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinasas de Interacción con Receptores/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4885, 2020 09 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985503

RESUMEN

Parkinson's disease (PD) affects millions of patients worldwide and is characterized by alpha-synuclein aggregation in dopamine neurons. Molecular tweezers have shown high potential as anti-aggregation agents targeting positively charged residues of proteins undergoing amyloidogenic processes. Here we report that the molecular tweezer CLR01 decreased aggregation and toxicity in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic cultures treated with PD brain protein extracts. In microfluidic devices CLR01 reduced alpha-synuclein aggregation in cell somas when axonal terminals were exposed to alpha-synuclein oligomers. We then tested CLR01 in vivo in a humanized alpha-synuclein overexpressing mouse model; mice treated at 12 months of age when motor defects are mild exhibited an improvement in motor defects and a decreased oligomeric alpha-synuclein burden. Finally, CLR01 reduced alpha-synuclein-associated pathology in mice injected with alpha-synuclein aggregates into the striatum or substantia nigra. Taken together, these results highlight CLR01 as a disease-modifying therapy for PD and support further clinical investigation.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Aromáticos con Puentes/administración & dosificación , Neuronas Dopaminérgicas/efectos de los fármacos , Organofosfatos/administración & dosificación , Enfermedad de Parkinson/tratamiento farmacológico , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Neuronas Dopaminérgicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Enfermedad de Parkinson/genética , Enfermedad de Parkinson/metabolismo , Agregado de Proteínas/efectos de los fármacos , alfa-Sinucleína/química , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008836, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866212

RESUMEN

Anthrax is a major zoonotic disease of wildlife, and in places like West Africa, it can be caused by Bacillus anthracis in arid nonsylvatic savannahs, and by B. cereus biovar anthracis (Bcbva) in sylvatic rainforests. Bcbva-caused anthrax has been implicated in as much as 38% of mortality in rainforest ecosystems, where insects can enhance the transmission of anthrax-causing bacteria. While anthrax is well-characterized in mammals, its transmission by insects points to an unidentified anthrax-resistance mechanism in its vectors. In mammals, a secreted anthrax toxin component, 83 kDa Protective Antigen (PA83), binds to cell-surface receptors and is cleaved by furin into an evolutionary-conserved PA20 and a pore-forming PA63 subunits. We show that PA20 increases the resistance of Drosophila flies and Culex mosquitoes to bacterial challenges, without directly affecting the bacterial growth. We further show that the PA83 loop known to be cleaved by furin to release PA20 from PA63 is, in part, responsible for the PA20-mediated protection. We found that PA20 binds directly to the Toll activating peptidoglycan-recognition protein-SA (PGRP-SA) and that the Toll/NF-κB pathway is necessary for the PA20-mediated protection of infected flies. This effect of PA20 on innate immunity may also exist in mammals: we show that PA20 binds to human PGRP-SA ortholog. Moreover, the constitutive activity of Imd/NF-κB pathway in MAPKK Dsor1 mutant flies is sufficient to confer the protection from bacterial infections in a manner that is independent of PA20 treatment. Lastly, Clostridium septicum alpha toxin protects flies from anthrax-causing bacteria, showing that other pathogens may help insects resist anthrax. The mechanism of anthrax resistance in insects has direct implications on insect-mediated anthrax transmission for wildlife management, and with potential for applications, such as reducing the sensitivity of pollinating insects to bacterial pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra el Carbunco/administración & dosificación , Carbunco/tratamiento farmacológico , Antígenos Bacterianos/administración & dosificación , Bacillus anthracis/efectos de los fármacos , Toxinas Bacterianas/administración & dosificación , Drosophila melanogaster/crecimiento & desarrollo , Mosquitos Vectores/microbiología , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Animales , Carbunco/microbiología , Culex , Drosophila melanogaster/inmunología , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiología , Femenino , Masculino
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5217-5226, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801687

RESUMEN

Aim: Chronic use of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is commonly associated with gastric irritation and gastric ulceration. Therefore, the aim of study was to develop a novel oral drug delivery system with minimum gastric effects and improved dissolution rate for aceclofenac (ACF), a model BCS class-II drug. Methods: Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) were formulated to increase the solubility and ultimately the oral bioavailability of ACF. Oleic acid was used as an oil phase, Tween 80 (T80) and Kolliphor EL (KEL) were used as surfactants, whereas, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and propylene glycol (PG) were employed as co-surfactants. Optimized formulations (F1, F2, F3 and F4) were analyzed for droplet size, poly dispersity index (PDI), cell viability studies, in vitro dissolution in both simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid, ex vivo permeation studies and thermodynamic stability. Results: The optimized formulations showed mean droplet sizes in the range of 111.3 ± 3.2 nm and 470.9 ± 12.52 nm, PDI from 244.6 nm to 389.4 ± 6.51 and zeta-potential from -33 ± 4.86 mV to -38.5 ± 5.15 mV. Cell viability studies support the safety profile of all formulations for oral administration. The in vitro dissolution studies and ex vivo permeation analysis revealed significantly improved drug release ranging from 95.68 ± 0.02% to 98.15 ± 0.71% when compared with control. The thermodynamic stability studies confirmed that all formulations remain active and stable for a longer period. Conclusion: In conclusion, development of oral SEDDS might be a promising tool to improve the dissolution of BCS class-II drugs along with significantly reduced exposure to gastric mucosa.


Asunto(s)
Diclofenaco/análogos & derivados , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsiones/química , Administración Oral , Animales , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/administración & dosificación , Disponibilidad Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Diclofenaco/administración & dosificación , Diclofenaco/farmacocinética , Liberación de Fármacos , Emulsiones/administración & dosificación , Excipientes/química , Humanos , Masculino , Nanoestructuras/administración & dosificación , Nanoestructuras/química , Polietilenglicoles/química , Polisorbatos/química , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacocinética , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidad , Tensoactivos/química
6.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (7): 76-81, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736467

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate symptom-modifying effects of a two-month parenteral therapy with chondroitin sulfate («Mucosat¼) in patients with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis (OA) in various combinations of adjuvant therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 70 patients with primary and/or post-traumatic unilateral/bilateral knee and/or hip osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade I-II). Pain syndrome severity was assessed as ≥ 50 mm (100-mm VAS), total Leken's index - ≥ 5 points. The main group comprised 40 patients who received Mucosat for 60 days. NSAIDs were additionally prescribed in 9 (22.5%) of these patients. The control group included 30 patients with intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid. All patients underwent clinical and functional examination (rating scales VAS, Leken's total index, WOMAC index, EQ-5D health questionnaire), laboratory diagnosis (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α), X-ray examination, assessment of adverse events at 5 visits. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Administration of chondroitin sulfate is associated with reduced local pain syndrome and functional normalization of musculoskeletal system. Prolonged pain-free period with high safety profile due to reduced need for NSAIDs is an advantage of Mucosat therapy. Thus, this drug may be recommended for initial therapy. A combination of chondroitin sulfate with intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid may be perspective for optimization of therapy and secondary prevention of exacerbations of OA. Further research is required.


Asunto(s)
Sulfatos de Condroitina/uso terapéutico , Ácido Hialurónico/uso terapéutico , Osteoartritis de la Cadera/tratamiento farmacológico , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/tratamiento farmacológico , Sustancias Protectoras/uso terapéutico , Artralgia/tratamiento farmacológico , Artralgia/etiología , Sulfatos de Condroitina/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Ácido Hialurónico/administración & dosificación , Inyecciones Intraarticulares , Osteoartritis de la Cadera/complicaciones , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/complicaciones , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
Life Sci ; 260: 118344, 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853651

RESUMEN

Pregabalin (PGB) drug abuse is common among the youth. It substituted tramadol before its recent schedule as a controlled drug since April 2019. PGB is an antiepileptic drug acting on the central nervous system. It blocks calcium channels regulating the action of neurotransmitters and causing prolonged depolarization. The present study aimed to investigate the toxic effect of long term pregabalin abuse on the reproductive function and body weight in both male and female albino rats and to evaluate the ameliorative effect of wheat germ oil (WGO). Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into eight groups. The first four groups were males and they were treated as follows: control group (1.5 mL saline), WGO group (1.5 mL L/kg), PGB group (300 mg/kg), and protective group (PGB + WGO). All doses were administrated once per day for 60 days by gastric gavage. The second four groups were females. They were divided and treated the same as the male groups. Pregabalin caused significant weight loss, decreased serum triglyceride level, and increased leptin gene expression in all rats. PGB affected male rats reproduction by decreasing total testosterone serum level and inhibiting spermatogenesis. Reproductive toxicity in females was caused by decreasing pituitary steroids, increasing gonadal hormones, and increasing the number of atretic ovarian follicles. Mechanism of toxicity may be attributed to the PGB oxidative stress effect that induced apoptosis and caused diffuse gonadal atrophy. WGO showed a protective effect on PGB induced toxicity as all measured parameters were relatively improved.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Caspasa 3/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Pregabalina/toxicidad , Reproducción/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Caspasa 3/genética , Femenino , Leptina/genética , Aceites Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Ratas
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20934, 2020 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664090

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the myocardial protective effect of liquid sodium phosphocreatine cardiac arrest in extracorporeal circulation surgery treating infants with atrial septal defects.Eighty-four infants with atrial septal defects who required extracorporeal circulation surgery treatment at our hospital from January 2016 to June 2018 were divided into an observation group and a control group through a digitally randomized method, with 42 cases in each group. The control group adopted the conventional modified St Thomas II high potassium cold liquid crystal cardiac arrest, while the observation group adopted the liquid sodium phosphocreatine cardiac arrest.The myocardial enzyme indexes of the 2 groups 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively were higher than before establishing the cardiopulmonary bypass and the enzyme indexes of the control group at the same time were higher than that of the observation group; adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and other energy levels and the postoperative recovery rate energy levels of the observation group were higher than those in the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P < .05).Liquid sodium phosphocreatine cardiac arrest used in extracorporeal circulation surgery treating infants with atrial septal defects can reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, maintain energy supply during ischemia, strengthen the St Thomas II effect, and aid postoperative cardiac function recovery of high potassium cold liquid crystal cardiac arrest used in infants with atrial septal defects and treated with extracorporeal circulation surgery.


Asunto(s)
Puente Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Cardiotónicos/farmacología , Paro Cardíaco Inducido/métodos , Defectos del Tabique Interatrial/cirugía , Fosfocreatina/farmacología , Adenosina Difosfato/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Cardiotónicos/administración & dosificación , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Preescolar , Circulación Extracorporea/métodos , Femenino , Paro Cardíaco/inducido químicamente , Defectos del Tabique Interatrial/diagnóstico , Defectos del Tabique Interatrial/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Daño por Reperfusión Miocárdica/prevención & control , Miocardio/química , Miocardio/enzimología , Preservación de Órganos/métodos , Fosfocreatina/administración & dosificación , Periodo Posoperatorio , Cloruro de Potasio/administración & dosificación , Cloruro de Potasio/farmacología , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Recuperación de la Función/efectos de los fármacos
10.
Life Sci ; 256: 117990, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574665

RESUMEN

AIM: Luteolin and lycopene are common natural products, widely existing in nature, and both of which were reported to have various biological functions including anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity and anti-NAFLD. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of luteolin and lycopene in combination and its latent molecular mechanisms in vitro and in vivo models of NAFLD. MAIN METHODS: Sodium palmitate (PA)-induced steatotic HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes, and high-fat diet-induced C57BL/6J obese mice were treated with luteolin, lycopene and their combination. Metabolic parameters were measured. KEY FINDINGS: We found that luteolin (20 µM) + lycopene (10 µM) was the best therapeutic combination in PA-induced HepG2 cells, and significantly improve cell viability and lipid accumulation in PA-induced HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes. In addition, luteolin (20 mg/kg) + lycopene (20 mg/kg) could ameliorate increased body weight and hepatocyte steatosis; regulate serum triglycerides, serum total cholesterol, hepatic triglycerides and hepatic total cholesterol; decrease serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro, luteolin, lycopene and their combination had no effect on Sirt1 expression, but all of them could upregulate the expression of NAMPT, which could increase the level of NAD+, the co-substrate of Sirt1, indirectly activating Sirt1/AMPK pathway, and then inhibited lipogenesis and increased ß-oxidation, defensing the "first hit"; they also inactivated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and decreased the levels of IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α, defensing the "second hit". SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, luteolin and lycopene in combination can effectively ameliorate "two-hit" in NAFLD through activation of the Sirt1/AMPK pathway.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por AMP/metabolismo , Luteolina/administración & dosificación , Licopeno/administración & dosificación , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/metabolismo , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/prevención & control , Sirtuina 1/metabolismo , Animales , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/fisiología , Células Cultivadas , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/etiología , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Distribución Aleatoria
11.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 26(4): 509-516, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589239

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The hypothesis of our study is that sugammadex has protective efficacy against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. METHODS: Our study included 28 male Wistar Albino rats. The rats were assigned to four groups. The sham group had no procedure other than anesthesia administration. The control group received three hours of ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion. The Sgdx4 group received 4 mg/kg, and the Sgdx16 group received 16 mg/kg sugammadex intravenously, and then, reperfusion was applied. Histopathological investigation, and serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and serum and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) analyses were performed. RESULTS: When the sham group and the control group were compared, there were statistically significant differences histopathologically (p<0.01). There was no significant difference between the Sgdx4 group compared with the sham and control groups histopathologically (p>0.01). There was a significant difference between the Sgdx16 group and the sham group histopathologically (p<0.01). There were significant differences between the sham and control groups concerning CK and LDH levels (p<0.01). There was a significant difference in the levels of CK between the control group and Sgdx4 group and in the levels of CK and LDH between the control group and Sgdx16 group (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: In our study, we examined the histological and biochemical protective effects of 4 mg/kg sugammadex on unilateral lower extremity I/R injury in rats. The findings suggest that a 4 mg/kg dose of sugammadex was more effective than a 16 mg/kg dose.


Asunto(s)
Sustancias Protectoras , Daño por Reperfusión , Sugammadex , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Extremidad Inferior/fisiopatología , Masculino , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/uso terapéutico , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Daño por Reperfusión/tratamiento farmacológico , Daño por Reperfusión/metabolismo , Sugammadex/administración & dosificación , Sugammadex/uso terapéutico
12.
Nitric Oxide ; 103: 1-3, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590117

RESUMEN

It has long been suggested that NO may inhibit an early stage in viral replication. Furthermore, in vitro tests have shown that NO inhibits the replication cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Despite smoking being listed as a risk factor to contract Covid-19, only a low proportion of the smokers suffered from SARS-corona infection in China 2003, and from Covid-19 in China, Europe and the US. We hypothesize, that the intermittent bursts of high NO concentration in cigarette smoke may be a mechanism in protecting against the virus. Mainstream smoke from cigarettes contains NO at peak concentrations of between about 250 ppm and 1350 ppm in each puff as compared to medicinal use of no more than 80 to a maximum of 160 ppm. The diffusion of NO through the cell wall to reach the virus should be significantly more effective at the very high NO concentration in the smoke, according to classic laws of physics. The only oxide of nitrogen in the mainstream smoke is NO, and the NO2 concentration that is inhaled is very low or undetectable, and methemoglobin levels are lower in smokers than non-smokers, reasonably explained by the breaths of air in between the puffs that wash out the NO. Specialized iNO machines can now be developed to provide the drug intermittently in short bursts at high concentration dose, which would then provide both a preventative drug for those at high risk, as well as an effective treatment, without the health hazards associated with smoking.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Óxido Nítrico/farmacología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Administración por Inhalación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Fumadores , Fumar
14.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(4): 238-247, 2020 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438961

RESUMEN

Objective: This study aimed to explore the protective effect of procyanidin B2 (PCB2) on acute liver injury induced by aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1) in rats. Methods: Forty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, AFB 1, AFB 1 + PCB2, and PCB2 groups. The latter two groups were administrated PCB2 intragastrically (30 mg/kg body weight) for 7 d, whereas the control and AFB 1 groups were given the same dose of double distilled water intragastrically. On the sixth day of treatment, the AFB 1 and AFB 1 + PCB2 groups were intraperitoneally injected with AFB 1 (2 mg/kg). The control and PCB2 groups were intraperitoneally administered the same dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). On the eighth day, all rats were euthanized: serum and liver tissue were isolated for further examination. Hepatic histological features were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Weight, organ coefficient (liver, spleen, and kidney), liver function (serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin), oxidative index (catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine), inflammation factor [hepatic interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression and serum IL-6], and bcl-2/bax ratio were measured. Results: AFB 1 significantly caused hepatic histopathological damage, abnormal liver function, oxidative stress, inflammation, and bcl-2/bax ratio reduction compared with DMSO-treated controls. Our results indicate that PCB2 treatment can partially reverse the adverse liver conditions induced by AFB 1. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that PCB2 exhibits a protective effect on acute liver injury induced by AFB 1.


Asunto(s)
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidad , Biflavonoides/farmacología , Catequina/farmacología , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/tratamiento farmacológico , Venenos/toxicidad , Proantocianidinas/farmacología , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Animales , Biflavonoides/administración & dosificación , Catequina/administración & dosificación , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/etiología , Masculino , Proantocianidinas/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Distribución Aleatoria , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
15.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1921-1927, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241472

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to evaluate the immunopotentiating effect of plant-derived soyasaponin and its immunogenicity in chickens challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Soyasaponin was extracted from soybean seeds and detected using the phytochemical tests, followed by quantification through the dry-weight method. One-day-old broiler chicks (n = 90) were divided into 3 groups, named as A, B, and C. Group A birds were orally administrated with soyasaponin (5 mg/kg), followed by immunization with inactivated ND vaccine intramuscularly (IM), whereas group B birds were vaccinated with inactivated ND vaccine alone. Group C birds were kept unvaccinated. A booster dose on day 21 was also administered IM to group A and B birds. At day 35, all 3 groups were challenged with NDV. To determine the immunogenicity potential of soyasaponin, antibody titer was measured using the hemagglutination inhibition test before and after the NDV challenge. Histochemical examination was performed to determine the pathological changes associated with NDV infection. Foam formation and hemolytic activity confirmed the presence of saponin in soya bean extract. Group A birds showed a higher antibody response compared with group B and C birds. The disease challenge study showed that soyasaponin-adjuvanted NDV vaccine provided complete protection to group A birds against ND. Moreover, no side effects of soyasaponin were observed on the growth performance of birds during the experiment. Therefore, we can conclude that soyasaponin is a potential immunogenic agent and therefore could be a promising candidate to launch a protective humoral response against ND in chickens.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Inmunidad Humoral/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedad de Newcastle/inmunología , Virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle/inmunología , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Saponinas/farmacología , Vacunas Virales/administración & dosificación , Administración Oral , Animales , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Saponinas/administración & dosificación , Soja/química , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/administración & dosificación
16.
J Surg Res ; 251: 152-158, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145558

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adhesion formation is a common complication of abdominal surgeries. Mesna is a drug with fibrinolytic properties which has been used in surgical field to facilitate tissue dissection. The aim of this experimental animal study was to investigate the effect of mesna on prevention of intra-abdominal adhesion in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were used in the study. To create abdominal adhesion, cecum was abraded in all rats. No additional surgical procedure was performed other than adhesion in group 1 (only adhesion). In the other groups, rats were treated topically by administering 0.9% saline (group 2), 40 mg/kg mesna (group 3), and 400 mg/kg mesna (group 4). All rats were sacrificed on postoperative 21st day. Histopathological and macroscopic evaluations of adhesion formation were performed. RESULTS: Quantity of adhesion scores (P = 0.022), severity of adhesion scores (P = 0.041), total adhesion scores (P = 0.023), and histopathological adhesion grading scores (P < 0.001) were reduced by 400 mg/kg mesna. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study for mesna on prevention of abdominal adhesion formation in rats. We concluded that dose-dependent reduction of adhesion was achieved by mesna. With future studies, topical administration of mesna during open abdominal surgeries may be used to prevent adhesion formation.


Asunto(s)
Mesna/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Adherencias Tisulares/prevención & control , Abdomen/patología , Animales , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Ratas Wistar , Adherencias Tisulares/patología
17.
Mar Drugs ; 18(3)2020 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120786

RESUMEN

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a clinical syndrome with a variety of causes, mainly characterized by heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema. At present, identification of effective and less toxic therapeutic interventions for nephrotic syndrome remains to be an important issue. In this study, we isolated fucoidan from Saccharina japonica and prepared its depolymerized fragment by oxidant degradation. Fucoidan and its depolymerized fragment had similar chemical constituents. Their average molecular weights were 136 and 9.5 kDa respectively. The effect of fucoidan and its depolymerized fragment on adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome were investigated in a rat model. The results showed that adriamycin-treated rats had heavy proteinuria and increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), total cholesterol (TC), and total triglyceride (TG) levels. Oral administration of fucoidan or low-molecular-weight fucoidan for 30 days could significantly inhibit proteinuria and decrease the elevated BUN, SCr, TG, and TC level in a dose-dependent manner. At the same dose (100 mg/kg), low-molecular-weight fucoidan had higher renoprotective activity than fucoidan. Their protective effect on nephrotic syndrome was partly related to their antioxidant activity. The results suggested that both fucoidan and its depolymerized fragment had excellent protective effect on adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome, and might have potential for the treatment of nephrotic syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Nefrótico/prevención & control , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Algas Marinas/química , Administración Oral , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Océanos y Mares , Polisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Ratas
18.
In Vivo ; 34(2): 739-744, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111779

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: Treating abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) of the juxtarenal artery with renal artery clamps burdens the kidneys. We investigated the outcomes of intra-operative renal artery perfusion using the cold Ringer's solution method for renal protection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 290 AAA patients who underwent open aortic repair. Surgical outcomes were investigated based on renal protection. RESULTS: We evaluated 231 patients requiring infrarenal artery clamp (Group I), and 59 patients requiring perfusion in addition to the clamp (Group J). Patient demographics, acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence (Group I: 11.7% and Group J: 20.3%), hospital mortality (Group I: 1.3% and Group J: 1.7%), and 30-day mortality (Group I: 0.4% and Group J: 0%) were not different between the groups. The AKI incidence was low (13%) in cases requiring a renal artery clamp for ≥45 min (n=40). CONCLUSION: Perfusion with cold Ringer's solution offers renal protection and may improve surgical outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda/complicaciones , Aneurisma de la Aorta Abdominal/cirugía , Arteria Renal/cirugía , Solución de Ringer/administración & dosificación , Lesión Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Anciano , Aneurisma de la Aorta Abdominal/complicaciones , Frío , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud/métodos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Perfusión , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Factores de Riesgo
19.
Arch Med Res ; 51(1): 82-94, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113058

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Possible Hepato-protective effects of L-carnitine have been reported in previous studies. Present study was conducted to systematically review the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on liver enzymes. METHODS: The following databases were searched up to December 2018: PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and the Cochrane library. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on liver enzymes including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were included. Pooled effect size measured using random effect model (Dersimonian-Liard). RESULTS: A total of 16 studies (including 1025 participants) were included in the present meta-analysis. Pooled analysis indicated that L-carnitine supplementation significantly decreased ALT (weighted mean difference (WMD): -10.729 IU/L, 95% CI: -13.787, -7.672, p <0.001; I2 = 95.9%), AST (WMD: -7.149 IU/L, 95% CI: -9.202, -5.096, p <0.001; I2 = 93.5%) and GGT (WMD: -7.395: IU/L, 95% CI: -9.171, -5.619, p <0.001; I2 = 80.1%). Subgroup analysis revealed that effect of L-carnitine supplementation on liver enzymes was not significant in normal weight and healthy subjects. Baseline BMI and health status were the potential source of heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: L-carnitine supplementation showed beneficial hepato-protective effects on circulating liver enzymes.


Asunto(s)
Carnitina/farmacología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/enzimología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Alanina Transaminasa/efectos de los fármacos , Alanina Transaminasa/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/efectos de los fármacos , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/metabolismo , Carnitina/administración & dosificación , Citoprotección/efectos de los fármacos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Hígado/metabolismo , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , gamma-Glutamiltransferasa/efectos de los fármacos , gamma-Glutamiltransferasa/metabolismo
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19527, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176105

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive enhancers, including cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are used to treat dementia, but their effect for reducing post-electroconvulsive therapy (post-ECT) cognitive side effects is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of cognitive enhancers in the prevention of cognitive side effects due to ECT. METHODS: We identified relevant studies by searching electronic databases (e.g., PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library). Only studies published up to October 2019 comparing cognitive enhancer vs placebo for cognitive function after ECT were included. The primary outcome extracted from the studies was cognitive function score. RESULTS: Five studies with 202 patients were included in this study. The cognitive enhancer group (CEG) had a significantly higher cognitive function score. Moreover, sensitivity analysis showed that no individual study had a significant impact on the overall results. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis revealed that cognitive enhancers might improve cognitive function and reduce ECT-induced cognitive side effects. Nevertheless, more high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with long-term follow-up are still needed to make the final conclusion.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Conocimiento/prevención & control , Cognición , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Terapia Electroconvulsiva/efectos adversos , Nootrópicos/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Periodo Preoperatorio , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...