Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 23.237
Filtrar
1.
Muscle Nerve ; 61(5): 623-631, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108355

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) is a growth factor and has anabolic effects on muscle. We investigated whether rhIGF-1 therapy: 1) improves or preserves muscle function; and 2) improves growth in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). METHODS: In this study we compared prepubescent, ambulatory, glucocorticoid-treated boys with DMD (n = 17) vs controls (glucocorticoid therapy only, n = 21) in a 6-month-long, prospective, randomized, controlled trial of subcutaneous rhIGF-1 therapy. The primary outcome was 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Secondary outcomes included height velocity (HV), change in height standard deviation score (ΔHtSDS), motor function, cardiopulmonary function, body composition, insulin sensitivity, quality of life, and safety. RESULTS: Change in 6MWD was similar between groups (rhIGF-1 vs controls [mean ± SD]: 3.4 ± 32.4 vs -5.1 ± 50.2 meters, P = .53). Treated subjects grew more than controls (HV: 6.5 ± 1.7 vs 3.3 ± 1.3 cm/year, P < .0001; 6-month ΔHtSDS: 0.25, P < .0001). Lean mass and insulin sensitivity increased in treated subjects. DISCUSSION: In boys with DMD, 6 months of rhIGF-1 therapy did not change motor function, but it improved linear growth.


Asunto(s)
Estatura , Sustancias de Crecimiento/uso terapéutico , Resistencia a la Insulina , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/uso terapéutico , Fuerza Muscular , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamiento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapéutico , Absorciometría de Fotón , Glucemia/metabolismo , Automonitorización de la Glucosa Sanguínea , Composición Corporal , Niño , Quimioterapia Combinada , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/fisiopatología , Calidad de Vida , Resultado del Tratamiento , Prueba de Paso
3.
Poult Sci ; 98(12): 6659-6667, 2019 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544941

RESUMEN

This study aimed to estimate the productive and economic impacts caused by the withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) from broilers diet. Indexed publications that compared diets with or without AGP (AGP+/AGP-) for broilers (from initial to final phase) were collected and the results of feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion were compiled in a database. A meta-analysis was performed following sequential analyses: graphical approach (to observe biological data coherence), correlation (to identify related factors), and variance-covariance (to compare groups). The annual number of broiler slaughtered in Brazil, target weight gain and feed conversion for each phase, the variation in feed conversion, feed cost, and AGP costs were used to build a model to estimate the effects of the AGP withdrawal on feeding costs. The database comprised 174 scientific articles containing 183 experiments, totaling 121,643 broilers, most of which were Ross (52% of the studies). The most frequent AGP sources/forms in the database were Avilamycin (41% of the AGP+ treatments), Flavomycin (19%), Virginiamycin (16%), and Bacitracin (14%). Higher feed intake, weight gain, and lower feed conversion were attributed (P < 0.05) to AGP+ diets during Initial phase (1 to 21 D). In Final phase (22 to 42 D) no differences were observed in performance variables. Treatments AGP+ presented higher weight gain and better feed conversion in the Total period (1 to 42 D). The results of feed conversion were improved (P < 0.05) with Avilamycin and Flavomycin; Virginiamycin improved weight gain and feed conversion. In the Total period, the economic impact was $0.03 per animal and a total of $183,560,232 per year. It was concluded that broilers fed AGP+ diets have higher weight gain and better feed conversion than those fed AGP- diets, and withdrawing AGP increases production costs.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Pollos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Sustancias de Crecimiento/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Brasil , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Femenino , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos
4.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394828

RESUMEN

Growth in young children is controlled through the release of several hormonal signals, which are affected by diet, infection, and other exposures. Stunting is clearly a growth disorder, yet limited evidence exists documenting the association of different growth biomarkers with child stunting. This study explored the association between different growth biomarkers and stunting in Bangladeshi children. A quasi-experimental study was conducted among 50 stunted (length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) < -2 SD) and 50 control (LAZ ≥ -2 SD) children, aged 12-18 months, residing in a Bangladeshi slum. The enrolled stunted children received an intervention package, which included food supplementation for three months, psychosocial stimulation for six months, and routine clinical care on community nutrition center at the study field site. The controls received routine clinical care only. All children were clinically screened over the study period. Length, weight, fasting blood and fecal biomarkers were measured. All biomarkers levels were similar in both groups except for oxyntomodulin at enrolment. Leptin (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 4.0, p < 0.01), leptin-adiponectin ratio (AOR 5.07 × 108, p < 0.01), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (AOR 1.02, p < 0.05), and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) (AOR 0.92, p < 0.05) levels were independently associated with stunting at enrolment. Serum leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels increased significantly (p < 0.001), while IFN-γ levels significantly decreased among stunted children after six months of intervention. Leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio, IGF-1, and IFN-γ are independently associated with stunting in Bangladeshi children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02839148.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Crecimiento/sangre , Sustancias de Crecimiento/sangre , Adipoquinas/sangre , Bangladesh , Biomarcadores/análisis , Biomarcadores/sangre , Índice de Masa Corporal , Citocinas/sangre , Suplementos Dietéticos , Heces/química , Femenino , Flumazenil/análogos & derivados , Flumazenil/análisis , Flumazenil/sangre , Trastornos del Crecimiento/terapia , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Psicología
5.
Food Chem ; 300: 125173, 2019 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319335

RESUMEN

The administration of anabolic agents in farm animals to improve meat production has been prohibited in EU, due to the potential risks to human health. Meat quality was investigated to detect the effects of illegal administration of dexamethasone or prednisolone or 17ß-estradiol on Charolais bulls. Three groups of 6 bulls were treated and 12 bulls were the control. Meat quality parameters were measured on live animals, carcasses and on samples of Longissimus thoracis and multivariate statistical data analysis was applied. In Charolais bulls, these parameters were affected by growth promoter administration and the multivariate canonical discriminant analysis was able to distinguish between treated and untreated animals mainly due to three electronic nose's parameters, 24 h carcass temperature and drip loss. Therefore, meat quality control and the multivariate analysis could be useful as a first screening to address targeted controls on farms suspected of illicit use of growth promoters.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Sustancias de Crecimiento/farmacología , Carne , Músculo Esquelético/efectos de los fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Bovinos , Dexametasona/farmacología , Análisis Discriminante , Nariz Electrónica , Estradiol/farmacología , Granjas , Análisis de los Alimentos/instrumentación , Análisis de los Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Calidad de los Alimentos , Masculino , Carne/análisis , Prednisolona/farmacología
6.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4391-4400, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002111

RESUMEN

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 as a direct-fed microbial (DFM) alone or in association with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) in broilers under enteric pathogen challenge. A total of 1,530-day-old male Cobb500 chicks were randomly assigned to 5 treatments, with 9 replicate pens with 34 birds each. Treatments included positive control (PC, basal diet without additives or challenge); negative control (NC, basal diet without additive and challenged birds); NC + 0.05 g/kg BMD; NC + 1 g/kg DFM (106 CFU B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940/g of feed); and NC + 0.05 g/kg BMD + 1 g/kg DFM. The challenge consisted of oral gavage with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens inoculum. Body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated on days 21, 35, and 42. Ileal and cecal content were collected on days 21 and 28 for C. perfringens enumeration by real-time PCR assay and the intestinal health was evaluated by scores. Uniformity (UN), carcass (CY), and breast meat yields (BMY) were evaluated on day 42. After 14 and 21 d post-inoculation, birds in the challenged groups had significant lower FI and BWG compared to the PC group (P < 0.05). However, the groups receiving DFM, BMD, or its combination presented better FCR, CY, BMY, UN, and lower incidence of footpad lesion and litter quality visual scores, compared to the NC group without feed additives (P < 0.05). Mortality was not affected by treatments (P > 0.05). Broilers fed DFM, BMD, or its combination presented lower C. perfringens in ileal content at 21 and 28 d compared to NC group without additives (P < 0.05) and also maintained gut health by keeping the frequency of ballooning, abnormal content, and swollen mucosa comparable to the PC group (P > 0.05). The study indicates that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 is effective as BMD to provide similar performance and gut health in challenged broilers.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/química , Pollos , Infecciones por Clostridium/veterinaria , Coccidiosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/tratamiento farmacológico , Probióticos/farmacología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Clostridium/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Clostridium/microbiología , Clostridium perfringens/fisiología , Coccidiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Coccidiosis/parasitología , Dieta/veterinaria , Eimeria/fisiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Sustancias de Crecimiento/administración & dosificación , Sustancias de Crecimiento/farmacología , Masculino , Carne/análisis , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/parasitología , Probióticos/administración & dosificación , Distribución Aleatoria
7.
Anaerobe ; 58: 80-88, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926439

RESUMEN

The germination of Clostridium difficile spores is an important stage of the C. difficile life cycle. In other endospore-forming bacteria, the composition of the medium in which the spores are generated influences the abundance of germination-specific proteins, thereby influencing the sensitivity of the spores towards germinants. In C. difficile media composition on the spores has only been reported to influence the number of spores produced. One of the measures of spore germination is the analysis of the release of DPA from the spore core. To detect DPA release in real time, terbium chloride is often added to the germination conditions because Tb3+ complexes with the released DPA and this can be detected using fluorescence measurements. Although C. difficile spores germinate in response to TA and glycine, recently calcium was identified as an enhancer for spore germination. Here, we find that germination by spores prepared in peptone rich media, such as 70:30, is positively influenced by terbium. We hypothesize that, in these assays, Tb3+ functions similarly to calcium. Although the mechanism(s) causing increased sensitivity of the C. difficile spores that are prepared in peptone rich media to terbium is still unknown, we suggest that the TbCl3 concentration used in the analysis of C. difficile DPA release be carefully titrated so as not to misinterpret future findings.


Asunto(s)
Clostridium difficile/crecimiento & desarrollo , Sustancias de Crecimiento/metabolismo , Ácidos Picolínicos/análisis , Esporas Bacterianas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Coloración y Etiquetado/métodos , Terbio/metabolismo , Clostridium difficile/efectos de los fármacos , Clostridium difficile/metabolismo , Medios de Cultivo/química , Fluorescencia , Esporas Bacterianas/efectos de los fármacos , Esporas Bacterianas/metabolismo
8.
Biosci Rep ; 39(3)2019 03 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858307

RESUMEN

Mechanical overload is a risk factor of disc degeneration. It can induce disc degeneration through mediating cell apoptosis. Mechano growth factor (MGF) has been reported to inhibit mechanical overload-induced apoptosis of chondrocytes. The present study is aimed to investigate whether MGF can attenuate mechanical overload-induced nucleus pulposus (NP) cell apoptosis and the possible signaling transduction pathway. Rat NP cells were cultured and subjected to mechanical overload for 7 days. The control NP cells did not experience mechanical load. The exogenous MGF peptide was added into the culture medium to investigate its protective effects. NP cell apoptosis ratio, caspase-3 activity, gene expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3, protein expression of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, Bax and Bcl-2 were analyzed to evaluate NP cell apoptosis. In addition, activity of the p38 MAPK pathway was also detected. Compared with the control NP cells, mechanical overload significantly increased NP cell apoptosis and caspase-3 activity, up-regulated gene/protein expression of pro-apoptosis molecules (i.e. Bax, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP) whereas down-regulated gene/protein expression of anti-apoptosis molecule (i.e. Bcl-2). However, exogenous MGF partly reversed these effects of mechanical overload on NP cell apoptosis. Further results showed that activity of the p38 MAPK pathway of NP cells cultured under mechanical overload was decreased by addition of MGF peptide. In conclusion, MGF is able to attenuate mechanical overload-induced NP cell apoptosis, and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway may be involved in this process. The present study provides that MGF supplementation may be a promising strategy to retard mechanical overload-induced disc degeneration.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/farmacología , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/efectos de los fármacos , Núcleo Pulposo/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Mecánico , Animales , Apoptosis/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de la Apoptosis/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de la Apoptosis/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Femenino , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Sustancias de Crecimiento/farmacología , Degeneración del Disco Intervertebral/genética , Degeneración del Disco Intervertebral/fisiopatología , Degeneración del Disco Intervertebral/prevención & control , Masculino , Núcleo Pulposo/citología , Núcleo Pulposo/metabolismo , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Quinasas p38 Activadas por Mitógenos/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas Quinasas p38 Activadas por Mitógenos/metabolismo
9.
J Integr Med ; 17(2): 141-146, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709781

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Keratinocytes are the predominant cell type in the epidermis and play key roles in epidermal function. Thus, identification of the compounds that regulate the growth of keratinocytes is of importance. Here we searched for such compounds from the herbs used in traditional medicine Ayurveda. METHODS: Human keratinocytes were cultured in the presence or absence of the herbal extracts for 2 weeks; the effect of the extracts on cell growth was determined by staining the cells with Coomassie brilliant blue. To detect the compounds that regulate the growth of keratinocytes, the herbal extracts were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: We found that the extract of Emblica officinalis enhanced the growth of keratinocytes in culture. Further, we fractionated the extract of E. officinalis using HPLC and identified the fractions responsible for the enhanced growth of keratinocytes. CONCLUSION: The extract of E. officinalis enhanced the growth of human keratinocytes in culture. E. officinalis contains the compounds that would be beneficial for human skin health because enhanced growth of keratinocytes would promote wound healing.


Asunto(s)
Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Sustancias de Crecimiento/farmacología , Queratinocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Phyllanthus emblica/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Sustancias de Crecimiento/análisis , Humanos , Queratinocitos/citología , Extractos Vegetales/análisis
10.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(2): 770-778, 2019 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795011

RESUMEN

Purpose: PACAP1-38, a member of the secretin/glucagon superfamily, is expressed in the developing retina with documented neuroprotective effects. However, its function in retinal cell differentiation has yet to be elucidated. Our goals, therefore, were to identify PAC1 expressing cells morphologically, investigate the PACAP1-38 action functionally, and establish PACAP1-38 regulated events developmentally during the first postnatal week in rat retina. Methods: P1 retinal sections or whole mounts of Wistar rats were used to reveal PAC1 and calbindin immunoreactive structures. P1, P3, or P7 pups were injected intravitreally with 100 pmol PACAP1-38. Tissues were harvested 24 hours post-treatment, then processed for calbindin immunohistochemistry to determine horizontal cell number, or 6, 12, 24 hours post-treatment for real-time PCR and immunoblots to detect PCNA expression. To localize proliferating cells, anti-PCNA antibody was applied. Results: We showed various PAC1 expressing cells in RPE, NBL, and GCL in P1 retina including calbindin positive horizontal cells. We found that PACAP1-38 induced a marked cell number increase at P3 and P7 and showed upregulated cell proliferation as its mechanism; however, it was ineffective at P1. PACAP1-38 induced proliferative cells localized in the NBL, and double-marker studies demonstrated that the induced proliferative cells were horizontal cells. Conclusions: PACAP1-38 appears to act in retinal differentiation by inducing mitosis selectively in a time and cell specific manner through PAC1. The control of horizontal cell proliferation raises the novel possibilities that (1) PACAP1-38 may be a major player in retinal patterning and (2) PACAP signaling may be critical in retinoblastoma.


Asunto(s)
Sustancias de Crecimiento/fisiología , Polipéptido Hipofisario Activador de la Adenilato-Ciclasa/fisiología , Retina/crecimiento & desarrollo , Células Horizontales de la Retina/citología , Animales , Western Blotting , Calbindinas/metabolismo , Recuento de Células , Diferenciación Celular , Proliferación Celular , Femenino , Expresión Génica , Masculino , Microscopía Confocal , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Receptores del Polipéptido Activador de la Adenilato-Ciclasa Hipofisaria/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Células Horizontales de la Retina/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210301, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608979

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: After bone resorption, ions and degraded organic components are co-released into the extracellular space. Ions and growth factors, although different in their biological nature, induce a common and coordinated chemotactic effect. Conditioned media has been used successfully in bone regeneration by promoting endogenous cell recruitment. Likewise, calcium alone act as a paracrine chemotactic signal, inducing the host's undifferentiated progenitor cell infiltration into the implanted biomaterials. The aim of the present study was to compare the chemotactic effect of calcium and conditioned media in primary calvarial cells. METHODS: The chemotactic cell response was evaluated in vitro using an agarose spot and a wound healing assay. In addition, we used a calvarial bone explant model ex-vivo. The healing potential was also tested through an in vivo model, a critical-size calvarial bone defect in mice. For the in vivo experiment, cell-free calcium-containing or conditioned media-containing scaffolds were implanted, and MSC's seeded scaffolds were used as positive control. After seven weeks post-implantation, samples were retrieved, and bone regeneration was evaluated by µCT and histological analysis. Osteogenic gene expression was evaluated by qPCR. RESULTS: We found that chemotactic cell migration in response to either calcium or conditioned media was equivalent in vitro and ex vivo. Accordingly, µCT analysis showed that bone regeneration induced by the MSC's seeded scaffolds was similar to that obtained with cell-free calcium or conditioned media-containing scaffolds. Pre-treatment with SB202190, a highly selective p38 inhibitor, abrogated the chemotactic effect induced by conditioned media. In contrast, p38 activity was not essential for the calcium-induced chemotaxis. Moreover, BAPTA-AM treatment, a cytosolic calcium chelator, decreased the chemotactic effect and the expression of key osteogenic genes induced by calcium or conditioned media. CONCLUSION: We show that calcium ions alone not only mimic the conditioned media chemotactic effect, but also induce an osteogenic effect similar to that produced by transplanted MSC's in vivo. Furthermore, the chemotactic effect induced by conditioned media is calcium and p38 dependent. The rise in cytosolic calcium might integrate the different signaling pathways triggered by conditioned media and extracellular Ca2+. This calcium-driven in situ bone regeneration is a promising and convenient alternative to promote endogenous cell recruitment into the injured bone site. This pre-clinical cell-free and growth factor-free approach might avoid the disadvantages of the ex vivo cell manipulation.


Asunto(s)
Regeneración Ósea/efectos de los fármacos , Calcio/farmacología , Quimiotaxis/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Regeneración Ósea/genética , Regeneración Ósea/fisiología , Calcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Quimiotaxis/fisiología , Medios de Cultivo Condicionados , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Sustancias de Crecimiento/genética , Sustancias de Crecimiento/metabolismo , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/citología , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/efectos de los fármacos , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/fisiología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Osteogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Osteogénesis/genética , Osteogénesis/fisiología , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Cráneo/citología , Andamios del Tejido/química , Microtomografía por Rayos X , Proteínas Quinasas p38 Activadas por Mitógenos/metabolismo
12.
Poult Sci ; 98(9): 3685-3694, 2019 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690569

RESUMEN

The effectiveness of some common combination of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) on growth performance, gut health, and meat quality was evaluated during the medication and withdrawal period in broilers. A total of 540 male Arbor Acre broilers at 0 D of age were randomly assigned to 5 treatments, with 6 replicates of 18 chicks. Broilers received diets during the medication period (0 to 42 D) as follows: NC (control diet without AGP), EN (NC + enduracidin 8 ppm + colistin sulfate 8 ppm), BZ (NC + bacitracin zinc 40 ppm + colistin sulfate 8 ppm), CT (NC + chlortetracycline 50 ppm + colistin sulfate 8 ppm), and VG (NC + virginiamycin 20 ppm + colistin sulfate 8 ppm). Broilers were switched to the same finisher diet without AGP during the withdrawal period (43 to 49 D). The feed:gain ratio in EN, BZ, CT, and VG groups were significantly decreased by 0.07, 0.10, 0.06, and 0.05 during 0 to 42 D (P < 0.05), but increased by 0.19 (P > 0.05), 0.33 (P > 0.05), 0.49 (P < 0.05), and 0.69 (P < 0.05) during the withdrawal period, respectively. The jejunum villus height (VH) increased in EN group (P < 0.05) and crypt depth (CD) reduced in BZ, CT, and VG groups (P < 0.05) at 42 D, while jejunum VH increased in EN and BZ groups (P < 0.05) at 49 D compared to NC group (P < 0.05). Meat quality detection at 49 D found all AGP groups with the higher cook loss of the breast muscle, while CT group with the higher cook loss of thigh muscle. Consequently, the overall effects of 4 AGP combinations in the whole period were not significant on growth performance. Their poor growth performance during the withdrawal period should be partly attributed to the falling off a cliff of most digestive enzyme activities from 42 to 49 D. Attention should be paid to the adverse effects of AGP supplementation on meat quality, especially cook loss.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Pollos/fisiología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Sustancias de Crecimiento/metabolismo , Sistema Inmunológico/efectos de los fármacos , Carne/análisis , Animales , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Tracto Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Sustancias de Crecimiento/administración & dosificación , Sistema Inmunológico/fisiología , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria
13.
Int J Cancer ; 144(5): 1170-1179, 2019 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307035

RESUMEN

Although programmed death (PD)-1 immune checkpoint therapies target the immune system, the relationship between inflammatory factors and the clinical outcome of anti-PD-1 therapy for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not fully understood. Here we examined the association between soluble immune mediators and the outcome of treatment with PD-1 inhibitors in patients with advanced/recurrent NSCLC. In two independent cohorts, we assessed the levels of 88 different soluble immune mediators in peripheral blood before and after anti-PD-1 treatment, and evaluated their associations with clinical outcomes. In the training cohort, the plasma levels of chitinase 3-like-1 and GM-CSF before treatment (p = 0.006 and p = 0.005, respectively) and changes in the plasma levels of CXCL2, VEGF, IFNα2, and MMP2 after treatment (p < 0.001, p = 0.019, p = 0.019, and p = 0.012, respectively) were significantly correlated with PFS. The change in the plasma CXCL2 level was also significantly associated with treatment-related AEs (p = 0.017). In the validation cohort, however, only the changes in the plasma levels of CXCL2 and MMP2 after treatment were associated with PFS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.006, respectively), and these changes were maintained during the course of anti-PD-1 therapy in patients who showed better clinical outcomes, even in those with tumor pseudoprogression. Since CXCL2 and MMP2 can be easily measured by minimally invasive blood sampling, they could be useful for monitoring of clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients receiving PD-1 inhibitor therapy.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/tratamiento farmacológico , Factores Inmunológicos/sangre , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Receptor de Muerte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inhibidores , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/sangre , Quimiocina CXCL2/sangre , Estudios de Cohortes , Sustancias de Crecimiento/sangre , Humanos , Interferón alfa-2/sangre , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangre , Metaloproteinasa 2 de la Matriz/sangre , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/sangre , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/tratamiento farmacológico , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/sangre
14.
J Anal Toxicol ; 43(2): 134-137, 2019 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476085

RESUMEN

The objectives of the present study was to investigated the ractopamine (RAC) distribution and depletion process in various tissues of goat including liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, fat, bile, brain and the eyes. The experiment was carried out on 21 goats (18 treated and 3 controls). Treated goats were orally administered RAC in a dose of 1 mg/kg body mass per day for last 28 days and randomly sacrificed on withdrawal days of 0.25, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. RAC in all matrices were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry. After 21 days treatment discontinuation, the levels of RAC in bile reached at 13.48 ± 3.36 mg/L, which was significantly higher than that in the other tissues. The concentrations of RAC were followed by kidney, the excretory organ and liver, the major metabolic organ (4.49 ± 0.16 mg/kg for kidney and 1.81 ± 0.11 mg/kg for liver, respectively). The residual concentration of the drug in the eyes of goat was less than that in bile, kidney, liver, lung and spleen on withdrawal days 0.25. RAC residues was higher than the limits of detection = 0.15 µg/mL in liver on Day 21. These findings demonstrated that liver can serve as an alimentary matrix and as a matrix for the control of RAC abuse hypothetically except for urine.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo de Drogas/métodos , Residuos de Medicamentos/farmacocinética , Cabras , Sustancias de Crecimiento/farmacocinética , Fenetilaminas/análisis , Drogas Veterinarias/farmacocinética , Animales , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Monitoreo de Drogas/veterinaria , Residuos de Medicamentos/análisis , Sustancias de Crecimiento/análisis , Límite de Detección , Espectrometría de Masas , Especificidad de Órganos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Distribución Tisular , Drogas Veterinarias/análisis
15.
Allergy ; 74(4): 685-697, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402955

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chitinase 3-like 1 protein (CHI3L1) (YKL-40 in humans and breast regression protein [BRP]-39 in mice) is required for optimal allergen sensitization and Th2 inflammation in various chronic inflammatory diseases including asthma. However, the role of CHI3L1 in airway inflammation induced by respiratory viruses has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CHI3L1 and airway inflammation caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. METHODS: We measured YKL-40 levels in human nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) from hospitalized children presenting with acute respiratory symptoms. Wild-type (WT) and BRP-39 knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with live RSV (A2 strain). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples were obtained on day 7 after inoculation to assess lung inflammation, airway reactivity, and expression of cytokines and BRP-39. RESULTS: In human subjects, YKL-40 and IL-13 levels in NPA were higher in children with RSV infection than in control subjects. Expression of BRP-39 and Th2 cytokines, IL-13 in particular, was increased following RSV infection in mice. Airway inflammation caused by RSV infection was reduced in BRP-39 KO mice as compared to WT mice. Th2 cytokine levels were not increased in the lungs of RSV-infected BRP-39 KO mice. BRP-39 regulated M2 macrophage activation in RSV-infected mice. Additionally, treatment with anti-CHI3L1 antibody attenuated airway inflammation and Th2 cytokine production in RSV-infected WT mice. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that CHI3L1 could contribute to airway inflammation induced by RSV infection. CHI3L1 could be a potential therapeutic candidate for attenuating Th2-associated immunopathology during RSV infection.


Asunto(s)
Asma/virología , Proteína 1 Similar a Quitinasa-3/efectos adversos , Inflamación/virología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/complicaciones , Sistema Respiratorio/patología , Animales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Proteína 1 Similar a Quitinasa-3/análisis , Citocinas/metabolismo , Femenino , Sustancias de Crecimiento , Humanos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Virus Sincitiales Respiratorios , Sistema Respiratorio/virología
16.
Poult Sci ; 98(2): 904-911, 2019 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285253

RESUMEN

Antibiotic growth promoters have been widely used in poultry to improve overall performance. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has resulted in sanctions imposed on the use of antibiotics in poultry diets, and alternatives such as herbal extracts are being considered to improve growth performance. The aim of this study was to compare the performance and feed digestibility of the feed supplement Novacid, which contains organic acids, glucomannan, and phytochemicals, with that of the antibiotic growth promoter bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) in commercial broiler chickens. Six hundred 1-d-old Ross × Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly and equally assigned to six treatment groups with five replicates each (20 chicks per replicate). The chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and divided into two groups: unchallenged and challenged with E. coli (400 mg/kg Escherichia coli inoculation). Each of these groups was divided into three study groups: untreated, treated with 0.05% Novacid, and treated with 400 mg/kg BMD. At day 42, inclusion of Novacid or BMD significantly (P < 0.05) improved the performance in the unchallenged groups relative to the control group. However, in E. coli-challenged groups, Novacid and BMD did not improve performance. Ileal digestibility of crude fat, crude protein, and gross energy were reduced in the Novacid group (P < 0.05). BMD and Novacid were equally effective in controlling ileal nutrient digestibility and feed coliform count (P < 0.05). Novacid reduced cecal E. coli and Salmonella count compared to BMD and control. Thus, a phytochemical feed supplement with organic acids and glucomannan could be an effective substitute for antibiotic growth promoters in broiler diets, but cannot replace antibiotics to counter potent infectious agents such as E. coli.


Asunto(s)
Bacitracina/metabolismo , Pollos/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Digestión/efectos de los fármacos , Sustancias de Crecimiento/metabolismo , Salicilatos/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Bacitracina/administración & dosificación , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dieta/veterinaria , Escherichia coli/fisiología , Sustancias de Crecimiento/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Nutrientes/fisiología , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Distribución Aleatoria , Salicilatos/administración & dosificación
17.
Biol Reprod ; 100(1): 71-85, 2019 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107478

RESUMEN

Reproductive performance of female pigs that do not receive sufficient colostrum from birth is permanently impaired. Whether lactocrine deficiency, reflected by low serum immunoglobulin immunocrit (iCrit), affects patterns of endometrial gene expression during the periattachment period of early pregnancy is unknown. Here, objectives were to determine effects of low iCrit at birth on the adult endometrial transcriptome on pregnancy day (PxD) 13. On the first day of postnatal life, gilts were assigned to high or low iCrit groups. Adult high (n = 8) and low (n = 7) iCrit gilts were bred (PxD 0), and humanely slaughtered on PxD 13 when tissues and fluids were collected. The endometrial transcriptome was defined for each group using mRNAseq and microRNAseq. Reads were mapped to the Sus scrofa 11.1 genome build. Mature microRNAs were annotated using miRBase 21. Differential expression was defined based on fold change (≥ ±1.5). Lactocrine deficiency did not affect corpora lutea number, uterine horn length, uterine wet weight, conceptus recovery, or uterine luminal fluid estrogen content on PxD 13. However, mRNAseq revealed 1157 differentially expressed endometrial mRNAs in high versus low iCrit gilts. Differentially expressed genes had functions related to solute transport, endometrial receptivity, and immune response. Six differentially expressed endometrial microRNAs included five predicted to target 62 differentially expressed mRNAs, affecting similar biological processes. Thus, lactocrine deficiency on the first day of postnatal life can alter uterine developmental trajectory with lasting effects on endometrial responses to pregnancy as reflected at the level of the transcriptome on PxD 13.


Asunto(s)
Endometrio/metabolismo , Sustancias de Crecimiento/deficiencia , Lactancia/fisiología , Preñez , Porcinos , Transcriptoma , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Calostro/fisiología , Implantación del Embrión/efectos de los fármacos , Endometrio/efectos de los fármacos , Endometrio/patología , Femenino , Regulación del Desarrollo de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Edad Gestacional , Sustancias de Crecimiento/farmacología , Embarazo , Preñez/genética , Preñez/metabolismo , Porcinos/genética , Porcinos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efectos de los fármacos
18.
Poult Sci ; 98(2): 1012-1016, 2019 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165460

RESUMEN

Consumer concern on the quality of products and animal welfare has greatly increased during the past decades. Dietary synthetic antibiotic products used as growth promoters have been restricted or banned in many countries. Edible plants, essential oils, or their main components were suggested as natural feed supplements to improve growth, products' quality, and welfare-related parameters. Thymol (THY), a main component of oregano essential oil, has been proved as an effective antimicrobial and antioxidant compound. Tocopherol (TOC) evidenced antioxidant activity with potential as a growth promoter and a synergic antioxidant activity between TOC and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) has also been reported. Herein, we evaluated whether broiler diet supplementation with THY, and THY with a formulation mix containing TOC and AP (1:0.5:0.5, respectively) have potential as growth enhancers under commercial conditions. Potential protective effects against foot pad dermatitis and hock burns were also evaluated. Newly hatched male broiler chicks with similar body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 groups (4 replicates each) as follows: Basal (no feed supplements added), Promotor (Basal + 6.26 µmol flavomycin/kg feed), BHT (Basal + 1.33 mmol of buthylated hidroxytoluene (BHT)/kg feed), Prom-BHT (Basal + 6.26 µmol flavomycin/kg feed + 1.33 mmol of BHT/kg feed), TOC-AP (Basal + 0.67 mmoles of TOC + 0.67 mmoles of AP/kg feed), THY (Basal + 1.33 mmoles of THY/kg feed), and THY-TOC-AP (Basal + 0.67 mmoles of THY + 0.67 mmoles of a mix 1:1 of TOC-AP). Along 7 wk, BW, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated. Skin injuries were assessed at 35 d of age. At the end of the study (42 d), compared to Basal group, similarly enhanced final BW were observed in all groups but TOC-AP. No main differences between groups were detected in feed intake, feed conversion ratio, or skin injuries. Findings suggest that THY itself or in combination with TOC-AP may have value as a natural growth enhancer alternative for broilers.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Ácido Ascórbico/análogos & derivados , Pollos , Sustancias de Crecimiento/farmacología , Timol/farmacología , alfa-Tocoferol/farmacología , Animales , Ácido Ascórbico/administración & dosificación , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacología , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Enfermedades del Pie/prevención & control , Enfermedades del Pie/veterinaria , Masculino , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , Distribución Aleatoria , Timol/administración & dosificación , alfa-Tocoferol/administración & dosificación
19.
Microbiome ; 6(1): 211, 2018 11 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482240

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sub-therapeutic antibiotics are widely used as growth promoters in the poultry industry; however, the resulting antibiotic resistance threatens public health. A plant-derived growth promoter, Macleaya cordata extract (MCE), with effective ingredients of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, is a potential alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. Altered intestinal microbiota play important roles in growth promotion, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. RESULTS: We generated 1.64 terabases of metagenomic data from 495 chicken intestinal digesta samples and constructed a comprehensive chicken gut microbial gene catalog (9.04 million genes), which is also the first gene catalog of an animal's gut microbiome that covers all intestinal compartments. Then, we identified the distinctive characteristics and temporal changes in the foregut and hindgut microbiota. Next, we assessed the impact of MCE on chickens and gut microbiota. Chickens fed with MCE had improved growth performance, and major microbial changes were confined to the foregut, with the predominant role of Lactobacillus being enhanced, and the amino acids, vitamins, and secondary bile acids biosynthesis pathways being upregulated, but lacked the accumulation of antibiotic-resistance genes. In comparison, treatment with chlortetracycline similarly enriched some biosynthesis pathways of nutrients in the foregut microbiota, but elicited an increase in antibiotic-producing bacteria and antibiotic-resistance genes. CONCLUSION: The reference gene catalog of the chicken gut microbiome is an important supplement to animal gut metagenomes. Metagenomic analysis provides insights into the growth-promoting mechanism of MCE, and underscored the importance of utilizing safe and effective growth promoters.


Asunto(s)
Bencilisoquinolinas/farmacología , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/microbiología , Sustancias de Crecimiento/farmacología , Lactobacillus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Animales , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Probióticos/farmacología , Ranunculales/química
20.
PLoS Genet ; 14(11): e1007766, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462643

RESUMEN

Dietary, pharmacological and genetic interventions can extend health- and lifespan in diverse mammalian species. DNA methylation has been implicated in mediating the beneficial effects of these interventions; methylation patterns deteriorate during ageing, and this is prevented by lifespan-extending interventions. However, whether these interventions also actively shape the epigenome, and whether such epigenetic reprogramming contributes to improved health at old age, remains underexplored. We analysed published, whole-genome, BS-seq data sets from mouse liver to explore DNA methylation patterns in aged mice in response to three lifespan-extending interventions: dietary restriction (DR), reduced TOR signaling (rapamycin), and reduced growth (Ames dwarf mice). Dwarf mice show enhanced DNA hypermethylation in the body of key genes in lipid biosynthesis, cell proliferation and somatotropic signaling, which strongly correlates with the pattern of transcriptional repression. Remarkably, DR causes a similar hypermethylation in lipid biosynthesis genes, while rapamycin treatment increases methylation signatures in genes coding for growth factor and growth hormone receptors. Shared changes of DNA methylation were restricted to hypermethylated regions, and they were not merely a consequence of slowed ageing, thus suggesting an active mechanism driving their formation. By comparing the overlap in ageing-independent hypermethylated patterns between all three interventions, we identified four regions, which, independent of genetic background or gender, may serve as novel biomarkers for longevity-extending interventions. In summary, we identified gene body hypermethylation as a novel and partly conserved signature of lifespan-extending interventions in mouse, highlighting epigenetic reprogramming as a possible intervention to improve health at old age.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN , Epigénesis Genética , Hígado/metabolismo , Longevidad/genética , Envejecimiento/genética , Envejecimiento/metabolismo , Animales , Restricción Calórica , Metilación de ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Femenino , Sustancias de Crecimiento/metabolismo , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/genética , Longevidad/fisiología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Endogámicos DBA , Ratones Mutantes , Receptor Tipo 3 de Factor de Crecimiento de Fibroblastos/genética , Transducción de Señal , Sirolimus/farmacología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA