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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4733, 2019 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628302

RESUMEN

It has been argued that, when they are acutely hungry, people act in self-protective ways by keeping resources to themselves rather than sharing them. In four studies, using experimental, quasi-experimental, and correlational designs (total N = 795), we examine the effects of acute hunger on prosociality in a wide variety of non-interdependent tasks (e.g. dictator game) and interdependent tasks (e.g. public goods games). While our procedures successfully increase subjective hunger and decrease blood glucose, we do not find significant effects of hunger on prosociality. This is true for both decisions incentivized with money and with food. Meta-analysis across all tasks reveals a very small effect of hunger on prosociality in non-interdependent tasks (d = 0.108), and a non-significant effect in interdependent tasks (d = -0.076). In study five (N = 197), we show that, in stark contrast to our empirical findings, people hold strong lay theories that hunger undermines prosociality.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Hambre/fisiología , Conducta Social , Bienestar Social/psicología , Glucemia/metabolismo , Conducta de Elección/fisiología , Conducta Cooperativa , Femenino , Juegos Experimentales , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación/fisiología , Distribución Aleatoria , Recompensa , Adulto Joven
2.
Res Dev Disabil ; 94: 103494, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520962

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most studies examining parental behaviors of parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) children have taken place in free play settings and have primarily focused on examining social behaviors. Motor skill-based play settings, which are distinctly different from free play settings, have not been explicitly studied as it relates to parental behaviors in these environments. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to examine parental behaviors of parents of children with and without ASD in two distinctly different play settings. METHODS: Parental behaviors of eighteen parents of children with (n = 9) and without ASD (n = 9) were examined by observation in different play settings (free play [a social-play/traditional play based setting] and a motor skill-based play setting). The examined parental behaviors included parental encouragement, negativity, sensitivity, detachment, and intrusiveness. A 2 × 2 (group × play setting) repeated measures of ANOVA was conducted to examine the main effect of group (TD vs ASD) and play setting (a social-play based setting and a motor skill-based setting) and the interaction effect between group and play setting on parental behaviors. Post-hoc independent t-tests between groups in each setting were conducted to follow-up on significant interactions indicated in the repeated measures of ANOVA RESULTS: The repeated measures ANOVA revealed that parental encouragement showed a significant interaction effect, suggesting that the effect of group on parental encouragement depended on play setting. A post-hoc analysis revealed that parents of children with ASD showed statistically significant lower parental encouragement in a motor skill-based play setting but not in a social-play based setting compared to parents of TD children. Moreover, there was a main effect of group (parents of children with ASD vs. parents of TD children) on parental intrusiveness indicating that the mean parental intrusiveness on children with ASD was significantly higher than parents of TD children across both play settings. There were no statistically significant main or interaction effects on the other parental behaviors (parental negativity, sensitivity, and detachment) between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The current study indicated parental encouragement differences between parents of children with ASD and parents of TD children varied based on the play setting. These results identify a need to examine parental behaviors, especially parental encouragement and parental intrusiveness across various types of play settings. Furthermore, as parents of children with ASD displayed lower parental encouragement in a motor skill-based play setting compared to parents of TD children, future studies are warranted to improve parental encouragement of parents of children with ASD in a motor skill-based play setting.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Destreza Motora , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Juego e Implementos de Juego/psicología , Adulto , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Preescolar , Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Res Dev Disabil ; 93: 103445, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376505

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children with disabilities often experience delays in one or more domains of development including motor skill delays. Delays in motor skill development may put children further behind their peers without disabilities in respect to aspects of early learning. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to examine how gross motor skills mediated the relationship of age and the observable child behaviors of compliance and adaptive behavior in a group of young children (2-4 years) with developmental disabilities around one time point. METHODS: Children with developmental disabilities (N = 113) were assessed on direct measures of motor skills and the child behaviors of compliance and adaptive behavior. Two independent simple mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS, an ordinary least squares path analysis appropriate for small sample sizes. RESULTS: Age had a positive relationship with gross motor skills (a = .66, p < .001) when the outcome variable was adaptive behavior and age had a positive relationship with gross motor skills (a = .66, p < .001) when the outcome variable was compliance. CONCLUSIONS: Motor skill development may promote or hinder development in other childhood behaviors such as compliance and adaptive behavior.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Desarrollo Infantil , Discapacidades del Desarrollo , Destreza Motora , Factores de Edad , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Conducta Infantil , Preescolar , Correlación de Datos , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/diagnóstico , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/fisiopatología , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(9): 819-825, 2019 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426899

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight can strain astronaut physical, physiological, and mental well-being, whereas maintaining astronaut operational performance remains an essential goal. Although various cognitive tests have been used for spaceflight assessment, these have been challenged on their lack of operational relevance.METHODS: To address this gap, we developed and characterized the Robotic On-Board Trainer for Research (ROBoT-r) system, based on the Robotic On-Board Trainer (ROBoT) currently used for astronaut training on Canadarm2 track-and-capture activities. The task requires use of dual hand-controllers (6 degrees of freedom) to grapple an incoming vehicle in free-drift in a time-limited setting. After developing a platform for conducting research studies, characterization testing of ROBoT-r was completed by 14 astronaut-like volunteers (35 ± 11 yr; N = 5 women) over 16 sessions each.RESULTS: We describe the design and capabilities of the ROBoT-r system for conducting operationally relevant research on human performance. Version 6.2 of the system supports H-II Transfer Vehicle track-and-capture operations within a multimillion component, physics-enabled 3D model using NASA's DOUG graphics platform. It has configurable task initialization and auto-run capabilities, saves 38 variables continuously at 20 Hz throughout each run, provides the user quantitative feedback after each run, and provides summaries after each session. Detailed performance characterization data is reported for future experimental planning purposes.DISCUSSION: ROBoT-r's range of performance variables enables detailed and quantitative performance assessment. Its use in spaceflight will help provide insight into operational performance, as well as allowing investigators to compare these results with more traditional cognitive tests to help better understand the interaction between individual cognitive abilities and operational performance.Ivkovic V, Sommers B, Cefaratti DA, Newman G, Thomas DW, Alexander DG, Strangman GE. Operationally relevant behavior assessment using the Robotic On-Board Trainer for Research (ROBoT-r). Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(9):819-825.


Asunto(s)
Astronautas/psicología , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/instrumentación , Enseñanza Mediante Simulación de Alta Fidelidad/métodos , Vuelo Espacial , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Adulto , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Competencia Profesional , Robótica , Adulto Joven
5.
Nurse Res ; 27(2): 32-37, 2019 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468886

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Non-participatory video research is useful for observing and analysing interactions between clinicians, patients and technology. However, few clinical nursing studies have used non-participatory video observation and there is limited literature describing the approach. AIM: To describe a study that used non-participatory video observation in general practice. DISCUSSION: The authors' experience of non-participatory video research methods indicates that the acceptability of the technique, workplace organisation and consultation space have implications for preparation and data collection. Strategies for success include engaging stakeholders early on, obtaining contextual knowledge and piloting the approach. CONCLUSION: Non-participatory video observation is valuable in understanding interactions between nurses and patients in a naturalistic setting. Careful planning is essential to ensure alignment between research aims, context and technology. The methods for analysing data must be chosen carefully to ensure the research question is answered. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Video observation provides rich data. Careful planning and engagement of participants is required for successful conduct of studies that use the technique.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Investigación en Enfermería Clínica/métodos , Comunicación , Medicina General , Relaciones Enfermero-Paciente , Grabación en Video , Australia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Factores de Riesgo
6.
Evol Anthropol ; 28(6): 303-320, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418959

RESUMEN

To understand how our brain evolved and what it is for, we are in urgent need of knowledge about the cognitive skills of a large variety of animal species and individuals, and their relationships to rapidly disappearing social and ecological conditions. But how do we obtain this knowledge? Studying cognition in the wild is a challenge. Field researchers (and their study subjects) face many factors that can easily interfere with their variables of interest. Although field studies of cognition present unique challenges, they are still invaluable for understanding the evolutionary drivers of cognition. In this review, I discuss the advantages and urgency of field-based studies on animal cognition and introduce a novel observational approach for field research that is guided by three questions: (a) what do animals fail to find?, (b) what do they not do?, and (c) what do they only do when certain conditions are met? My goal is to provide guidance to future field researchers examining primate cognition.


Asunto(s)
Antropología/métodos , Conducta Apetitiva/fisiología , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Pan troglodytes/fisiología
7.
J Med Syst ; 43(8): 256, 2019 Jun 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256330

RESUMEN

Automated human activity analysis has been, and remains, a challenging problem. Security and surveillance are essential issues in today's world. Any behavior which is uncommon in occurrence and deviates from customarily understood action could be termed as suspicious. For different application regions, while identifying human exercises, fundamentally three angles are taking in worry for human movement recognition system: Segmentation, feature extraction, and activity classification. This model aims at automatic detection of abnormal behavior in surveillance videos. In this proposed work adaptive linear activity classification method and internet of things (IoT) frameworks are used to detection human activities as well as to find out who is doing unusual activities. The enhanced plan of the built environment condition will give a better observation. Such framework can be actualized in peoples in general places, for example, shopping centers, airports, and railway station or any private premises where security is the prime concern. The proposed ALAC method validated through simulation using MATLAB and VB.net software. Its ability to detect the activity of human the simulation result shows the effectiveness using ALAC method, Overall 97% efficiency achieved by using ALAC method.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Terrorismo/prevención & control , Grabación en Video , Algoritmos , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/instrumentación
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3087, 2019 07 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300648

RESUMEN

The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) contain the somas of first-order sensory neurons critical for somatosensation. Due to technical difficulties, DRG neuronal activity in awake behaving animals remains unknown. Here, we develop a method for imaging DRG at cellular and subcellular resolution over weeks in awake mice. The method involves the installation of an intervertebral fusion mount to reduce spinal movement, and the implantation of a vertebral glass window without interfering animals' motor and sensory functions. In vivo two-photon calcium imaging shows that DRG neuronal activity is higher in awake than anesthetized animals. Immediately after plantar formalin injection, DRG neuronal activity increases substantially and this activity upsurge correlates with animals' phasic pain behavior. Repeated imaging of DRG over 5 weeks after formalin injection reveals persistent neuronal hyperactivity associated with ongoing pain. The method described here provides an important means for in vivo studies of DRG functions in sensory perception and disorders.


Asunto(s)
Ganglios Espinales/diagnóstico por imagen , Microscopía Intravital/métodos , Percepción del Dolor/fisiología , Células Receptoras Sensoriales/fisiología , Animales , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/instrumentación , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Calcio/química , Femenino , Formaldehído/administración & dosificación , Formaldehído/toxicidad , Ganglios Espinales/citología , Ganglios Espinales/fisiología , Proteínas Fluorescentes Verdes/química , Proteínas Fluorescentes Verdes/genética , Microscopía Intravital/instrumentación , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Transgénicos , Modelos Animales , Imagen Óptica/instrumentación , Imagen Óptica/métodos , Dolor/inducido químicamente , Dolor/fisiopatología , Fotones , Vigilia
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2715, 2019 06 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222009

RESUMEN

Most adaptive behaviors require precise tracking of targets in space. In pursuit behavior with a moving target, mice use distance to target to guide their own movement continuously. Here, we show that in the sensorimotor striatum, parvalbumin-positive fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) can represent the distance between self and target during pursuit behavior, while striatal projection neurons (SPNs), which receive FSI projections, can represent self-velocity. FSIs are shown to regulate velocity-related SPN activity during pursuit, so that movement velocity is continuously modulated by distance to target. Moreover, bidirectional manipulation of FSI activity can selectively disrupt performance by increasing or decreasing the self-target distance. Our results reveal a key role of the FSI-SPN interneuron circuit in pursuit behavior and elucidate how this circuit implements distance to velocity transformation required for the critical underlying computation.


Asunto(s)
Cuerpo Estriado/fisiología , Interneuronas/fisiología , Locomoción/fisiología , Animales , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Cuerpo Estriado/citología , Cuerpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Red Nerviosa/fisiología , Imagen Óptica , Conducta Predatoria/fisiología , Conducta Sexual Animal/fisiología
10.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(6): e12013, 2019 05 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199304

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mobile and wearable technology presents exciting opportunities for monitoring behavior using widely available sensor data. This could support clinical research and practice aimed at improving quality of life among the growing number of people with dementia. However, it requires suitable tools for measuring behavior in a natural real-life setting that can be easily implemented by others. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to develop and test a set of algorithms for measuring mobility and activity and to describe a technical setup for collecting the sensor data that these algorithms require using off-the-shelf devices. METHODS: A mobility measurement module was developed to extract travel trajectories and home location from raw GPS (global positioning system) data and to use this information to calculate a set of spatial, temporal, and count-based mobility metrics. Activity measurement comprises activity bout extraction from recognized activity data and daily step counts. Location, activity, and step count data were collected using smartwatches and mobile phones, relying on open-source resources as far as possible for accessing data from device sensors. The behavioral monitoring solution was evaluated among 5 healthy subjects who simultaneously logged their movements for 1 week. RESULTS: The evaluation showed that the behavioral monitoring solution successfully measures travel trajectories and mobility metrics from location data and extracts multimodal activity bouts during travel between locations. While step count could be used to indicate overall daily activity level, a concern was raised regarding device validity for step count measurement, which was substantially higher from the smartwatches than the mobile phones. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to clinical research and practice by providing a comprehensive behavioral monitoring solution for use in a real-life setting that can be replicated for a range of applications where knowledge about individual mobility and activity is relevant.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Observación Conductual/instrumentación , Demencia/diagnóstico , Sistemas de Información Geográfica/instrumentación , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles/normas , Actigrafía/instrumentación , Actigrafía/métodos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/normas , Demencia/fisiopatología , Demencia/psicología , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica/normas , Sistemas de Información Geográfica/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
Biol Psychol ; 146: 107712, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163191

RESUMEN

Animal models of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) contribute to understanding of the role of genetics and the biological mechanisms underlying behavioral phenotypes and inform the development of potential treatments. Translational biomarkers are needed that can both validate these models and facilitate behavioral testing paradigms for ASD in humans. Automated video tracking of movement patterns and positions recorded from overhead cameras is routinely applied in behavioral paradigms designed to elicit core behavioral manifestations of ASD in rodent models. In humans, laboratory-based observations are a common semi-naturalistic context for assessing a variety of behaviors relevant to ASD such as social engagement, play, and attention. We present information learned and suggest guidelines for designing, recording, acquiring, and evaluating video tracking data of human movement patterns based on our experience in a multi-site video tracking study of children with ASD in the context of a parent-child, laboratory-based play interaction.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Animales , Atención , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Biomarcadores/análisis , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grabación en Video
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 196: 118-128, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054376

RESUMEN

Being observed when completing physical and mental tasks alters how successful people are at completing them. This has been explained in terms of evaluation apprehension, drive theory, and due to the effects of stress caused by being observed. In three experiments, we explore how being observed affects participants' ability to recognise faces as it relates to the aforementioned theories - easier face recognition tasks should be completed with more success under observation relative to harder tasks. In Experiment 1, we found that being observed during the learning phase of an old/new recognition paradigm caused participants to be less accurate during the test phase than not being observed. Being observed at test did not affect accuracy. We replicated these findings in an line-up type task in Experiment 2. Finally, in Experiment 3, we assessed whether these effects were due to the difficulty of the task or due to the physiological stress being observed caused. We found that while observation caused physiological stress, it did not relate to accuracy. Moderately difficult tasks (upright unfamiliar face recognition and inverted familiar face recognition) were detrimentally affected by being observed, whereas easy (upright familiar face recognition) and difficult tasks (inverted unfamiliar face recognition) were unaffected by this manipulation. We explain these results in terms of the direct effects being observed has on task performance for moderately difficult tasks and discuss the implications of these results to cognitive psychological experimentation.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Reconocimiento Facial/fisiología , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Estrés Fisiológico/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos/fisiología , Adulto Joven
13.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 19(2): 135-146, mayo 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183275

RESUMEN

El objetivo de esta investigación fue crear un instrumento de observación en el contexto del balonmano playa para analizar las acciones del portero ante los lanzamientos de los atacantes. La herramienta ha sido diseñada ad hocmediante un sistema mixto de formatos de campo y sistema de categorías exhaustivas y mutuamente excluyentes (E/ME). Está constituida por 11 criterios y 85 categorías, destacando entre ellas el jugador que lanza, el tipo de lanzamiento, la acción defensiva realizada para dificultar ese lanzamiento y la acción del portero para intentar repelerlo. Se ha realizado un análisis de Calidad del Dato y un análisis de Generalizabilidad, se ha realizado un procedimiento de concordancia consensuada. Además, se han estimado los coeficientes de correlación Pearson, Spearman, Tau b de Kendall y el índice Kappa de Cohen. Los resultados han mostrado índices adecuados de correlación (≤ 0,936) y Kappa de Cohen (≤ 0,906). Los resultados obtenidos en el análisis de Generalizabilidad son también excelentes, resultando unos coeficientes G relativo y G absoluto de 0,985, en la concordancia interobservador, y de 0.998, en la concordancia intraobserbador. En conjunto, los datos presentados en este trabajo ponen de relieve una elevada validez, precisión y fiabilidad de las observaciones efectuadas con la herramienta analizada


The objectives of this research were to create an instrument of observation to analyze the actions of the goalkeeper in handb all beach and determine the reliability of the observers, assessing the goodness of the categories and estimating the minimum number of sessions necessary to generalize with precision. The tool ad hoc has been designed using a mixed system of field format an d a system of categories, exhaustive and mutually exclusive (E / ME). It is made up of 11 criteria and 85 categorie s . The results have shown adequate correlation rates ( ≤ 0 , 936) and Cohen's Kappa ( ≤ 0 , 906). The results obtained in the Generalizability analysis are also excellent, resulting in relative G coefficients and absolute G of 0 , 985, in the interobserver agreem ent, and 0.998, for the intraobserver agreement. Overall, the results presented in this work highlight the high validity, accuracy and reliability of the observations made with the tool analyzed


Os objectivos deste trabalho foram a criação de um instrumento de observação para analisar as acções do guarda redes de andeb ol de praia e determinar a fiabilidade dos observadores, valorizando a bondade das categorias e estimar o número mínimo de sessões necessárias para generalizar com precisão. A ferramenta foi desenhada com base ad hoc mediante um sistema misto de formato de campo e sistema de categorias, exaustivas e mutuamente exclusivas (E/ME). Ela é co mposta por 11 critérios e 85 categorias. Os resultados obtidos demonstram índices adequados de relação ( ≤ 0,936) e Kappa de Cohen ( ≤ 0,906). Os resultados obtidos na análise da generalização são excelentes também, resultando coeficientes G relativo e G abs oluto de 0,985, no acordo interobservador, e de 0,998 para o acordo inter - observador. De maneira geral, os resultados apresentados neste trabalho revelam uma alta validade, precisão e fiabilidade das observações efectuadas com esta ferramente analizada


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Proyectos de Investigación , Deportes/psicología , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Generalización (Psicología) , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto/instrumentación , Docentes/psicología , Educación y Entrenamiento Físico/métodos
14.
Res Dev Disabil ; 89: 83-93, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959431

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) is associated with increased rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterized by social-communicative impairments (SOC-COM) and repetitive behaviors and interests (RBI). However, little is known about the ASD symptom presentation in children with DS + ASD. AIMS: The current study sought to describe parent-report of SOC-COM and RBI symptoms on the Autism Diagnostic Interview -Revised (ADI-R) in children with DS (n = 22), DS + ASD (n = 11), and ASD (n = 66). METHOD: SOC-COM and RBI scores from the ADI-R were compared across the groups whose autism status was ascertained using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. RESULTS: Differences in SOC-COM and RBI symptom severity was observed. The general pattern of findings was ASD > DS+ASD > DS. Dissimilar ASD symptom profiles were observed across groups. In ASD, SOC-COM scores were higher than RBI scores; in DS + ASD, similar SOC-COM and RBI scores were observed. Lastly, SOC-COM impairments were highly related to verbal cognition in youth with DS + ASD but not in those with DS or ASD. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These findings suggest that children with DS + ASD have a distinct profile of ASD symptoms that differs from peers with either disorder in isolation. Thus, care should be taken in evaluating and designing treatments for this group.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Síntomas Conductuales/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Niño , Comorbilidad , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/epidemiología , Síndrome de Down/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Evaluación de Síntomas/métodos , Estados Unidos
15.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0210450, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013266

RESUMEN

Late bilinguals often report less emotional involvement in their second language, a phenomenon called reduced emotional resonance in L2. The present study measured pupil dilation in response to high- versus low-arousing words (e.g., riot vs. swamp) in German-English and Finnish-English late bilinguals, both in their first and in their second language. A third sample of English monolingual speakers (tested only in English) served as a control group. To improve on previous research, we controlled for lexical confounds such as length, frequency, emotional valence, and abstractness-both within and across languages. Results showed no appreciable differences in post-trial word recognition judgements (98% recognition on average), but reliably stronger pupillary effects of the arousal manipulation when stimuli were presented in participants' first rather than second language. This supports the notion of reduced emotional resonance in L2. Our findings are unlikely to be due to differences in stimulus-specific control variables or to potential word-recognition difficulties in participants' second language. Linguistic relatedness between first and second language (German-English vs. Finnish-English) was also not found to have a modulating influence.


Asunto(s)
Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Multilingüismo , Percepción del Habla/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pupila/fisiología , Adulto Joven
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1808, 2019 04 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000712

RESUMEN

Previous studies of strategic social interaction in game theory have predominantly used games with clearly-defined turns and limited choices. Yet, most real-world social behaviors involve dynamic, coevolving decisions by interacting agents, which poses challenges for creating tractable models of behavior. Here, using a game in which humans competed against both real and artificial opponents, we show that it is possible to quantify the instantaneous dynamic coupling between agents. Adopting a reinforcement learning approach, we use Gaussian Processes to model the policy and value functions of participants as a function of both game state and opponent identity. We found that higher-scoring participants timed their final change in direction to moments when the opponent's counter-strategy was weaker, while lower-scoring participants less precisely timed their final moves. This approach offers a natural set of metrics for facilitating analysis at multiple timescales and suggests new classes of experimental paradigms for assessing behavior.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección , Teoría del Juego , Modelos Psicológicos , Conducta Social , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución Normal , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212851, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856187

RESUMEN

Personal shark deterrents offer the potential of a non-lethal solution to protect individuals from negative interactions with sharks, but the claims of effectiveness of most deterrents are based on theory rather than robust testing of the devices themselves. Therefore, there is a clear need for thorough testing of commercially available shark deterrents to provide the public with information on their effectiveness. Using a modified stereo-camera system, we quantified behavioural interactions between Carcharodon carcharias (white sharks) and a baited target in the presence of a commercially available electric anklet shark deterrent, the Electronic Shark Defense System (ESDS). The stereo-camera system enabled accurate assessment of the behavioural responses of C. carcharias when approaching an ESDS. We found that the ESDS had limited meaningful effect on the behaviour of C. carcharias, with no significant reduction in the proportion of sharks interacting with the bait in the presence of the active device. At close proximity (< 15.5 cm), the active ESDS did show a significant reduction in the number of sharks biting the bait, but this was countered by an increase in other, less aggressive, interactions. The ESDS discharged at a frequency of 7.8 Hz every 5.1 s for 2.5 s, followed by an inactive interval of 2.6 s. As a result, many sharks may have encountered the device in its inactive state, resulting in a reduced behavioural response. Consequently, decreasing the inactive interval between pulses may improve the overall effectiveness of the device, but this would not improve the effective deterrent range of the device, which is primarily a factor of the voltage gradient rather than the stimulus frequency. In conclusion, given the very short effective range of the ESDS and its unreliable deterrent effect, combined with the fact that shark-bite incidents are very rare, it is unlikely that the current device would significantly reduce the risk of a negative interaction with C. carcharias.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras y Picaduras/prevención & control , Conducta Predatoria , Tiburones/fisiología , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Animales , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Océano Índico , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos/métodos , Sudáfrica , Grabación en Video/métodos
18.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212928, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893343

RESUMEN

Physiological signals may be used as objective markers to identify emotions, which play relevant roles in social and daily life. To measure these signals, the use of contact-free techniques, such as Infrared Thermal Imaging (IRTI), is indispensable to individuals who have sensory sensitivity. The goal of this study is to propose an experimental design to analyze five emotions (disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise) from facial thermal images of typically developing (TD) children aged 7-11 years using emissivity variation, as recorded by IRTI. For the emotion analysis, a dataset considered emotional dimensions (valence and arousal), facial bilateral sides and emotion classification accuracy. The results evidence the efficiency of the experimental design with interesting findings, such as the correlation between the valence and the thermal decrement in nose; disgust and happiness as potent triggers of facial emissivity variations; and significant emissivity variations in nose, cheeks and periorbital regions associated with different emotions. Moreover, facial thermal asymmetry was revealed with a distinct thermal tendency in the cheeks, and classification accuracy reached a mean value greater than 85%. From the results, the emissivity variations were an efficient marker to analyze emotions in facial thermal images, and IRTI was confirmed to be an outstanding technique to study emotions. This study contributes a robust dataset to analyze the emotions of 7-11-year-old TD children, an age range for which there is a gap in the literature.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Conducta Infantil/fisiología , Modelos Psicológicos , Termografía/métodos , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/instrumentación , Temperatura Corporal/fisiología , Niño , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Emociones/fisiología , Cara/diagnóstico por imagen , Cara/fisiología , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Rayos Infrarrojos , Masculino , Tiempo de Reacción , Termografía/instrumentación
19.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 12(1): 7-10, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184487

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Elaborar, validar e testar a confiabilidade intra e interavaliadores de escalas observacionais para exame das técnicas motoras do saque flutuante com apoio, bloqueio ofensivo simples e defesa de manchete. Método: Participaram da validação de conteúdo e testagem da confiabilidade dezesseis (16) treinadores de voleibol com mais de 10 anos de experiência. Foram avaliadas cinco ações de cada uma das técnicas motoras, executadas por cinco atletas de voleibol federados. Foi utilizado o teste Kappa Múltiplo (KM) para análise estatística da força de concordância intra e interavaliadores e o nível de significância foi de p<0.05. Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que as três escalas obtiveram índices de concordância (≥87.5%) para a validade de conteúdo. Quanto à confiabilidade intra-avaliadores, os resultados demonstraram que as escalas observacionais saque, bloqueio e defesa obtiveram força de concordância boa (0.40≤KM≤0.59). A análise da confiabilidade interavaliadores das escalas observacionais saque (KM=0.75) e defesa (KM=0.66) obtiveram força de concordância muito boa e a escala observacional bloqueio (KM=0.82) obteve força de concordância excelente. Conclusões: As escalas criadas são confiáveis e adequadas para a análise das técnicas motoras saque flutuante com apoio, bloqueio ofensivo simples e defesa de manchete


Objetivo: Elaborar, validar y probar la confiabilidad intra e inter-evaluadores de escalas de observación para el examen de las técnicas motoras del saque flotante con apoyo, bloqueo ofensivo sencillo y defensa baja. Método: Participar en la validación del contenido y prueba de confiabilidad dieciséis entrenadores de voleibol con más de diez años de experiencia. Fueron evaluadas cinco acciones de cada una de las técnicas motoras, ejecutadas por cinco atletas de voleibol federados. Se utilizó la prueba Kappa Múltiple (KM) para el análisis estadístico de las fuerzas de concordancia intra e inter-evaluadores y el nivel de significancia fue de p<0.05. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que las tres escalas obtuvieron índices de concordancia de (≥87.5%) para la validez de contenido. En cuanto a la confiabilidad intra-evaluadores, los resultados demostraron que las escalas de observación de saque, bloqueo y defensa obtuvieron fuerza de concordancia buena (0.40≤KM≤0.59). El análisis de la confiabilidad inter-evaluadores de las escalas de observación saque (KM= 0.75) y defensa (KM=0.66) obtuvieron fuerza de concordancia muy buena y la escala de observación de bloqueo (KM=0.82) obtuvo fuerza de concordancia excelente. Conclusiones: Las escalas creadas son confiables y adecuadas para el análisis de las técnicas motoras de saque flotante con apoyo, bloqueo ofensivo simple y defensa baja


Objective: Elaborate, validate and test the intra and inter-expert reliability of observational scales for the examination of the volleyball techniques, floating serve with support, simple offensive blocking and underhand defense. Methods: Sixteen coaches of the brazilian national volleyball team with more than ten years of practice in this sport, participated in the validation. Each coach evaluated five actions of each volleyball technique, performed by five federated volleyball athletes. Multiple Kappa test (KM) was used for statistical analysis of inter and intra-expert agreement strength and the significance level adopted was p <0.05. Results: The three scales obtained agreement indexes (≥87.5%) for content validity. Regarding intra-expert reliability, the results demonstrated that the observational, blocks, and defense scales had good agreement strength (0.40≤KM≤0.59). Regarding the inter-expert reliability, the observational scales serve (KM=0.75) and defense (KM=0.66) presente very good agreement strength and the observational scale block (KM=0.82) obtained excellent concordance strength. Conclusions: The scales are reliable and suitable for the analysis of motor skills floating serve with support, simple offensive blocking and underhand defense


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Voleibol/fisiología , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Destreza Motora/fisiología , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Prueba de Esfuerzo/métodos , Aptitud Física/fisiología
20.
Geroscience ; 41(1): 89-100, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737727

RESUMEN

Neural inefficiency is inferred when higher brain activations are associated with similar or worse performance. Improved neural efficiency is achieved when task-related brain activations are reduced after practice. No information is available on the effect of fear-of-falling (FOF) on brain activation during walking. We hypothesized that the presence of FOF would be associated with neural inefficiency and with a delay in improving neural efficiency during dual-task walking. Task conditions included single-task walk (STW), Alpha (cognitive interference), and dual-task walk (DTW). Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-derived HbO2 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was used to quantify task-related changes in brain activation. Practice included three repeated counterbalanced trials for each task. Participants with FOF (n = 19; mean age = 79.84 ± 6.01 years; %female = 68.42) and without FOF (n = 56; mean age = 76.73 ± 6.39 years; %female = 44.64) were included. The presence of FOF was associated with slower stride velocity (estimate = - 12.354; p = 0.0154) and with greater increases in PFC HbO2 from STW to DTW (estimate = 0.303, p = 0.0009) and from Alpha to DTW (estimate = 0.387, p < 0.0001). Compared to controls, participants reporting FOF demonstrated an attenuated decline in PFC HbO2 from the first to the second DTW trials (estimate = 0.264; p = 0.0173). In contrast, compared to controls, participants with FOF demonstrated greater decline in Alpha PFC HbO2 from trial 1 to trial 2 (estimate = - 0.419, p < 0.0001) and from trial 1 to 3 (estimate = - 0.281, p = 0.0006). The change in PFC HbO2 over repeated STW trials was not significant and was not moderated by FOF status. The presence of FOF was associated with higher and inefficient PFC activation during DTW in older adults.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , Miedo/psicología , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiopatología , Caminata/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Cognición/fisiología , Femenino , Marcha/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Características de la Residencia , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta
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