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1.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48234

RESUMEN

O número de fumantes diminuiu no Brasil e o grupo de ex-usuários de tabaco é cada vez maior. Os dados são da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS 2019), realizada pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), com o apoio o Ministério da Saúde, e divulgada nesta segunda-feira (31), quando é celebrado o Dia Mundial sem Tabaco.


Asunto(s)
Tabaco , Brasil/etnología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 954, 2021 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078351

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This systematic review of prospective longitudinal primary studies sought to determine whether electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use by teenagers who had never smoked conventional tobacco cigarettes (tobacco cigarettes) at baseline was associated with subsequently commencing tobacco cigarette smoking. METHODS: The review followed the principles of a systematic review and meta-analysis. A key word search identified peer-reviewed articles published between 1 January 2005 and 2 October 2019 from seven bibliographic databases and one search engine. Using pre-prepared inclusion/exclusion criteria two researchers independently screened abstracts, and subsequently, full text papers. Selected articles were quality assessed in duplicate. Data on study participants characteristics, exposure and outcome measures were recorded in an adapted Cochrane Data Extraction Form. Feasibility assessment was done to detect clinical heterogeneity and choose an approach to meta-analysis. Analysis comprised pairwise random effects meta-analyses, and sensitivity and subgroup analyses. RESULTS: From the 6619 studies identified, 14 one-off primary studies in 21 articles were suitable for inclusion. The participants ages ranged from 13 to 19 years and comprised teenagers based in Europe and North America. Nine of the 14 one-off studies, with follow-up periods between 4 and 24 months, met the criteria for inclusion in a meta-analysis of the association between ever use of e-cigarettes and subsequent initiation of tobacco cigarette use. Based on primary study adjusted odds ratios, our meta-analysis calculated a 4.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.00-5.48, I2 68%, 9 primary studies) times higher odds of commencing tobacco cigarette smoking for teenagers who had ever used e-cigarettes at baseline, though the odds ratio were marginally lower (to 3.71 times odds, 95%CI: 2.83-4. 86, I2 35%, 4 primary studies) when only the four high-quality studies were analysed. CONCLUSION: The systematic review found that e-cigarette use was associated with commencement of tobacco cigarette smoking among teenagers in Europe and North America, identifying an important health-related harm. Given the availability and usage of e-cigarettes, this study provides added support for urgent response by policymakers to stop their use by teenagers to decrease direct harms in this susceptible population group, as well as to conserve achievements in diminishing tobacco cigarette initiation.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Vapeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , América del Norte , Estudios Prospectivos , Tabaco , Adulto Joven
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1094, 2021 06 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098910

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Amongst the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit, the experience of food insecurity has been attributed to a lack of money to buy enough food of sufficient quality to sustain a family, although a preference for alcohol and tobacco over food has also been cited. The purpose of the article was to compare dietary patterns and expenditure on food, alcoholic beverages and tobacco between survey participants who reported food insecurity and those who did not. METHODS: A countrywide cross-sectional health survey was carried out among 1886 adult Greenlandic Inuit in 2018. Diet was estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Food insecurity status was based on the household hunger scale. Analyses were carried out by univariate general linear models adjusted for age, sex and social position. RESULTS: Nine percent of the participants reported food insecurity. Food insecurity was higher among younger participants, men and participants with low social position. Food insecure participants more often chose an unhealthy dietary pattern (43% vs. 32%) and they reported a higher energy intake. The food insecure spent the same amount of money on food as other participants but less on nutritious food and more on non-nutritious food. The cost per kilojoule (kJ) of the food of the food insecure was lower than that of the food secure (DKK 8.0 and 9.0 per 1000 kJ, respectively). The food insecure participants also spent considerably more on alcohol and tobacco. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that it is not only unemployment and lack of money that creates food insecurity and unhealthy dietary patterns in Greenland. Food insecure participants gave higher priority to buying non-nutritious food, alcohol and tobacco than did food secure participants. There seems to be at least two population subgroups in Greenland with poverty and substance use, respectively, as the immediate determinants for food insecurity. The results are important for the design of interventions against food insecurity and unhealthy dietary patterns.


Asunto(s)
Salud Poblacional , Tabaco , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Inseguridad Alimentaria , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Groenlandia/epidemiología , Gastos en Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Inuits , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e043987, 2021 06 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130957

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Areca nut is one of the most widely consumed substances globally, after nicotine, ethanol and caffeine and classified as carcinogenic to humans. This study examines the disparity and determinants of areca nut consumption with and without tobacco in India. DESIGN: Nationally representative cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: We used the nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2016-2017. The analytical sample size was 74 037 individual's aged 15 years and above with a response rate of 92.9%. MEASURES: Current consumption of areca nut without tobacco and with tobacco. METHOD: We examined determinants of areca nut consumption (without tobacco and with tobacco) using multinomial logistic regression, accounting for the survey design. RESULTS: About 23.9% (95% CI 23.1 to 24.8) of the adult population consume areca nut, that is, approximately 223.79 million people in India; majority of users (14.2%-95% CI 13.5 to 14.9) consumed areca nut with tobacco. When compared with women, men were more likely to consume areca nut (with tobacco relative risk (RR)=2.02; 95% CI 1.85 to 2.21 and without tobacco RR=1.13; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.20). Age, marital status, education, occupation, caste, religion and region were significantly associated with areca nut consumption. However, the direction and magnitude of association differ with respect to the areca nut consumption with and without tobacco. CONCLUSION: The ongoing tobacco control efforts would not address the majority of areca nut users until greater attention to areca nut consumption with and without tobacco is reflected in health policies in India.


Asunto(s)
Areca , Tabaco , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Nueces
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067112

RESUMEN

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous disease arising from the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Despite multimodality treatments approximately half of all patients with locally advanced disease relapse and the prognosis of patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC is dismal. The introduction of checkpoint inhibitors improved the treatment options for these patients and pembrolizumab alone or in combination with a platinum and fluorouracil is now the standard of care for first-line therapy. However, approximately only one third of unselected patients respond to this combination and the response rate to checkpoint inhibitors alone is even lower. This shows that there is an urgent need to improve prognostication and prediction of treatment benefits in patients with HNSCC. In this review, we summarize the most relevant risk factors in the field and discuss their roles and limitations. The human papilloma virus (HPV) status for patients with oropharyngeal cancer and the combined positive score are the only biomarkers consistently used in clinical routine. Other factors, such as the tumor mutational burden and the immune microenvironment have been highly studied and are promising but need validation in prospective trials.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/patología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello/patología , Animales , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/inmunología , Humanos , Mutación/genética , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Pronóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello/inmunología , Tabaco
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065885

RESUMEN

Genetic engineering of plants has turned out to be an attractive approach to produce various secondary metabolites. Here, we attempted to produce kynurenine, a health-promoting metabolite, in plants of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens with the gene, coding for human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), an enzyme responsible for the kynurenine production because of tryptophan degradation. The presence of IDO1 gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, but the protein failed to be detected. To confer higher stability to the heterologous human IDO1 protein and to provide a more sensitive method to detect the protein of interest, we cloned a gene construct coding for IDO1-GFP. Analysis of transiently transfected tobacco protoplasts demonstrated that the IDO1-GFP gene led to the expression of a detectable protein and to the production of kynurenine in the protoplast medium. Interestingly, the intracellular localisation of human IDO1 in plant cells is similar to that found in mammal cells, mainly in cytosol, but in early endosomes as well. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the expression of human IDO1 enzyme capable of secreting kynurenines in plant cells.


Asunto(s)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/fisiología , Proteínas Fluorescentes Verdes/genética , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenasa/genética , Quinurenina/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiología , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Clonación Molecular , Proteínas Fluorescentes Verdes/metabolismo , Humanos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenasa/metabolismo , Plásmidos/genética , Estabilidad Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Transformación Bacteriana
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068004

RESUMEN

Enzymes with fructan exohydrolase (FEH) activity are present not only in fructan-synthesizing species but also in non-fructan plants. This has led to speculation about their functions in non-fructan species. Here, a cell wall invertase-related Zm-6&1-FEH2 with no "classical" invertase motif was identified in maize. Following heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris and in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, the enzyme activity of recombinant Zm-6&1-FEH2 displays substrate specificity with respect to inulin and levan. Subcellular localization showed Zm-6&1-FEH2 exclusively localized in the apoplast, and its expression profile was strongly dependent on plant development and in response to drought and abscisic acid. Furthermore, formation of 1-kestotriose, an oligofructan, was detected in vivo and in vitro and could be hydrolyzed by Zm-6&1-FEH2. In summary, these results support that Zm-6&1-FEH2 enzyme from maize can degrade both inulin-type and levan-type fructans, and the implications of the co-existence of Zm-6&1-FEH2 and 1-kestotriose are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Fructanos/metabolismo , Glicósido Hidrolasas/metabolismo , Inulina/metabolismo , Trisacáridos/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Glicósido Hidrolasas/genética , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/genética , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Zea mays/crecimiento & desarrollo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073690

RESUMEN

E3 ubiquitin ligases, the most important part of the ubiquitination process, participate in various processes of plant immune response. RBR E3 ligase is one of the E3 family members, but its functions in plant immunity are still little known. NtRNF217 is a RBR E3 ligase in tobacco based on the sequence analysis. To assess roles of NtRNF217 in tobacco responding to Ralstonia solanacearum, overexpression experiments in Nicotiana tabacum (Yunyan 87, a susceptible cultivar) were performed. The results illuminated that NtRNF217-overexpressed tobacco significantly reduced multiplication of R. solanacearum and inhibited the development of disease symptoms compared with wild-type plants. The accumulation of H2O2 and O2- in NtRNF217-OE plants was significantly higher than that in WT-Yunyan87 plants after pathogen inoculation. The activities of CAT and SOD also increased rapidly in a short time after R. solanacearum inoculation in NtRNF217-OE plants. What is more, overexpression of NtRNF217 enhanced the transcript levels of defense-related marker genes, such as NtEFE26, NtACC Oxidase, NtHIN1, NtHSR201, and NtSOD1 in NtRNF217-OE plants after R. solanacearum inoculation. The results suggested that NtRNF217 played an important role in regulating the expression of defense-related genes and the antioxidant enzymes, which resulted in resistance to R. solanacearum infection.


Asunto(s)
Resistencia a la Enfermedad , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Ralstonia solanacearum , Tabaco/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligasas/fisiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiología , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/fisiología , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligasas/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligasas/metabolismo
9.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-06-16. (OPS/NMH/RF/21-0010).
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54306

RESUMEN

En Perú, las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT) y los trastornos mentales son los factores principales de morbilidad y mortalidad. Además de la carga que imponen sobre la salud, también representan una carga significativa para la economía nacional, ya que su tratamiento genera gastos elevados y las personas que los sufren son más propensas al abandono del ejercicio de la profesión, al absentismo o a trabajar con capacidad reducida. Además, esta situación genera elevados costos sociales, ya que la salud mental es fundamental para el bienestar personal, las relaciones y la contribución positiva a la sociedad. En este folleto se presentan los resultados y las conclusiones principales del informe Prevención y control de las enfermedades no transmisibles y los trastornos mentales en el Perú. El caso a favor de la inversión, y se indica que la adopción de un paquete de políticas de control del tabaco, el alcohol y la sal, entre otras, contribuiría a salvar 183 000 vidas y a restaurar 2,5 millones de años de vida saludable en Perú.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Salud Mental , Tabaco , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Diabetes Mellitus , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Depresión , Ansiedad , Psicosis Alcohólicas , Psicosis Inducidas por Sustancias , Perú
10.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48203

RESUMEN

Na vida contemporânea, a tecnologia está presente em quase tudo e facilita o dia a dia. Mas também pode causar problemas graves à saúde quando unida a substâncias químicas como a nicotina que, comprovadamente, causa dependência. Vaporizadores, cigarros eletrônicos, de tabaco aquecido, pods e outros, conhecidos como Dispositivos Eletrônicos para Fumar (DEF's), são apresentados como destinados a adultos já fumantes que desejam parar de fumar e não conseguem. A realidade é que esses produtos não afastam os fumantes do fumo - ao contrário, têm atraído novos consumidores, como os jovens


Asunto(s)
Tabaco , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Tabaquismo
12.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 175: 104858, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993976

RESUMEN

Benzosuberene compounds with a pyrrolone group adhered to it are compounds extracted from the oils of Cedrus deodara plant, that bear inhibitory capabilities. Tobacco mosaic virus is known to affect crop production every year. The currently known inhibitors against TMV have a weak inhibition effect and also tend to be toxic towards non-target living organisms as well as the environment. Thus, the requirement of non-toxic potent inhibitors is the need of the hour, which led us to test our benzosuberene molecules on the binding site of TMV and check their affinity as well as stability. The non-toxic nature of these molecules has already been experimentally established. Through in-silico analysis involving docking and simulation experiments, we compared the interaction pattern of these ligand molecules with the already present inhibitors. Our investigation proved that the reported ligands (ligands 3, 7, 9, and 17 obtained -177.103, -228.632, -184.134, and - 188.075 kJ/mol binding energies, respectively) interacted with the binding site of TMV much efficiently than the known inhibitors (Ribavirin and Zhao et al. 2020 obtained 121.561 and - 221.393 kJ/mol binding energies, respectively). Moreover, they acquired a stable conformation inside the binding pocket, where a higher number of binding site residues contributed towards interaction. Thus, their structural framework can be optimized for the exploration of their antiviral properties to develop potent botanical viricides against plant virus infection.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Mosaico del Tabaco , Antivirales/farmacología , Tabaco
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 164: 44-53, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962230

RESUMEN

The APETAL2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) family was the subject of intensive research which led to the identification of several members involved in different stress responses such as salinity, drought and high temperature. The SHN/WIN clade of AP2/ERF participates in many important processes such as cutin and wax biosynthesis, ethylene signaling and gene expression. Here, we report the functional analysis of SHN1-type transcription factor, HvSHN1, from barely. The overexpression of HvSHN1 under the control of the duplicated 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco plants improved tolerance to salt, water stress and heat stress. Transgenic lines exhibited altered permeability of the cuticle and decreased stomatal density. Under heat stress, HvSHN1 transgenic lines exhibited higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity and lower MDA and H2O2 contents than did WT. The overexpression of HvSHN1 upregulated different genes involved in osmotic stress, oxidative stress, sugar metabolism, and wax biosynthesis. To understand the involvement of HvSHN1 in heat stress tolerance, promoter regions of two tobacco genes homologous to Arabidopsis genes HSP90.1 and RAP2.6 were analyzed and DRE cis-elements; binding sites of HvSHN1, were found. Interaction network of HvSHN1, predicted using STRING software, contained proteins with predicted functions related to lipids metabolism and a gene encoding Cyclin-Dependent Kinase. These results suggest that HvSHN1 is an interesting candidate for the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance especially in the context of climate change.


Asunto(s)
Hordeum , Tolerancia a la Sal , Sequías , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Hordeum/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico/genética , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1648: 462208, 2021 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000594

RESUMEN

Public exposure to pesticides through tobacco has attracted serious attention. Here we report a simultaneous screening and quantitation method for the non-target multiresidue analysis of pesticides in different tobacco types. The method involved extraction of a homogenate (20 g, containing 2 g tobacco) in ethyl acetate (10 mL), cleanup of 2 mL extract by dispersive solid phase extraction with PSA (50 mg)+C18 (50 mg)+GCB (25 mg)+MgSO4 (100 mg), followed by reconstitution in 1 mL acetonitrile:water (3:7) and analysis using HPLC with Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The high resolution accurate mass analysis was performed through sequential full-scan (resolution=35000) and variable data independent acquisition (resolution=17500) events. When the method was evaluated in a mixture of 181 pesticides, it effectively minimised matrix interferences and false negatives. The target compounds included 5 pairs of isomers and 27 pairs of isobars, which were distinguished based on chromatographic separation, mass resolving power and/or unique product ions. The screening detection limit (SDL) for 86.4% of the test pesticides was set at 5 ng/g, while the remainder had the SDLs at 10 ng/g (9.3%) and 40 ng/g (4.3%). Nearly, 75% of the compounds showed recoveries of 70-120% at 10 ng/g. The rest of the compounds showed satisfactory recoveries at 40 and 100 ng/g. In all cases, precision-RSDs were < 20%. The established method demonstrated a successful performance in four different types of tobacco matrices while aligning with the guidelines of SANTE and US-FDA. Owing to its efficiency, the method is recommended for screening and quantitation of multiclass pesticides in tobacco.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Tabaco/química , Límite de Detección , Plaguicidas/análisis , Extracción en Fase Sólida/métodos , Productos de Tabaco/análisis
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 226, 2021 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020584

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Abscission is an active, organized, and highly coordinated cell separation process enabling the detachment of aerial organs through the modification of cell-to-cell adhesion and breakdown of cell walls at specific sites on the plant body known as abscission zones. In Arabidopsis thaliana, abscission of floral organs and cauline leaves is regulated by the interaction of the hormonal peptide INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA), a pair of redundant receptor-like protein kinases, HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-LIKE2 (HSL2), and SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SERK) co-receptors. However, the functionality of this abscission signaling module has not yet been demonstrated in other plant species. RESULTS: The expression of the pair of NbenIDA1 homeologs and the receptor NbenHAE.1 was supressed at the base of the corolla tube by the inoculation of two virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) constructs in Nicotiana benthamiana. These gene suppression events arrested corolla abscission but did not produce any obvious effect on plant growth. VIGS plants retained a higher number of corollas attached to the flowers than control plants, an observation related to a greater corolla breakstrength. The arrest of corolla abscission was associated with the preservation of the parenchyma tissue at the base of the corolla tube that, in contrast, was virtually collapsed in normal corollas. In contrast, the inoculation of a viral vector construct that increased the expression of NbenIDA1A at the base of the corolla tube negatively affected the growth of the inoculated plants accelerating the timing of both corolla senescence and abscission. However, the heterologous ectopic overexpression of citrus CitIDA3 and Arabidopsis AtIDA in N. benthamiana did not alter the standard plant phenotype suggesting that the proteolytic processing machinery was unable to yield active peptides. CONCLUSION: Here, we demonstrate that the pair of NbenIDA1 homeologs encoding small peptides of the IDA-like family and the receptor NbenHAE.1 control cellular breakdown at the base of the corolla tube awhere an adventitious AZ should be formed and, therefore, corolla abscission in N. benthamiana flowers. Altogether, our results provide the first evidence supporting the notion that the IDA-HAE/HSL2 signaling module is conserved in angiosperms.


Asunto(s)
Flores/crecimiento & desarrollo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tabaco/genética , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Flores/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/crecimiento & desarrollo , Alineación de Secuencia , Transducción de Señal/genética , Tabaco/crecimiento & desarrollo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946385

RESUMEN

Radopholus similis is a migratory endoparasitic nematode that is extremely harmful to host plants. Venom allergen-like proteins (VAPs) are members of the cysteine-rich secretory protein family that are widely present in plants and animals. In this study, we cloned a VAP gene from R. similis, designated as RsVAP. RsVAP contains an open reading frame of 1089 bp encoding 362 amino acids. RsVAP is specifically expressed in the esophageal gland, and the expression levels of RsVAP are significantly higher in juveniles than in other life stages of R. similis. This expression pattern of RsVAP was consistent with the biological characteristics of juveniles of R. similis, which have the ability of infection and are the main infection stages of R. similis. The pathogenicity and reproduction rate of R. similis in tomato was significantly attenuated after RsVAP was silenced. In tobacco leaves transiently expressing RsVAP, the pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) induced by a bacterial flagellin fragment (flg22) was inhibited, while the cell death induced by two sets of immune elicitors (BAX and Gpa2/RBP-1) was repressed. The RsVAP-interacting, ras-related protein RABA1d (LeRabA1d) was identified in tomato hosts by yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. RsVAP may interact with LeRabA1d to affect the host defense response, which in turn facilitates nematode infection. This study provides the first evidence for the inhibition of plant defense response by a VAP from migratory plant-parasitic nematodes, and, for the first time, the target protein of R. similis in its host was identified.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas del Helminto/inmunología , Lycopersicon esculentum/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/inmunología , Inmunidad de la Planta , Tabaco/inmunología , Tylenchida/inmunología , Animales , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/parasitología , Tabaco/parasitología , Tylenchida/fisiología
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2563, 2021 05 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963185

RESUMEN

Non-random gene organization in eukaryotes plays a significant role in genome evolution. Here, we investigate the origin of a biosynthetic gene cluster for production of defence compounds in oat-the avenacin cluster. We elucidate the structure and organisation of this 12-gene cluster, characterise the last two missing pathway steps, and reconstitute the entire pathway in tobacco by transient expression. We show that the cluster has formed de novo since the divergence of oats in a subtelomeric region of the genome that lacks homology with other grasses, and that gene order is approximately colinear with the biosynthetic pathway. We speculate that the positioning of the late pathway genes furthest away from the telomere may mitigate against a 'self-poisoning' scenario in which toxic intermediates accumulate as a result of telomeric gene deletions. Our investigations reveal a striking example of adaptive evolution underpinned by remarkable genome plasticity.


Asunto(s)
Avena/genética , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/genética , Redes y Vías Metabólicas/genética , Telómero/genética , Avena/metabolismo , Grano Comestible/genética , Evolución Molecular , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Hibridación Fluorescente in Situ , Familia de Multigenes , RNA-Seq , Secuencias Repetitivas de Ácidos Nucleicos , Saponinas/biosíntesis , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/genética , Sintenía/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 659875, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055723

RESUMEN

Background and Aim: "Social norms" (SN)-interventions are aimed at changing existing misperceptions regarding peer substance use by providing feedback on actual norms, thereby affecting personal substance use. It is unknown whether SN-intervention effects previously demonstrated in US students can be replicated in German students. The aim of the INSIST-study was to examine the effects of a web-based SN-intervention on substance use. Design: Cluster-controlled trial. Setting: Eight Universities in Germany. Participants and Measurements: Students were recruited at four intervention vs. four delayed intervention control Universities. 4,463 students completed baseline, 1,255 students (59% female) completed both baseline and 5-months follow-up web-based surveys on personal and perceived peer substance use. Intervention participants received feedback contrasting personal and perceived peer use with previously assessed use and perceptions of same-sex, same-university peers. Intervention effects were assessed via multivariable mixed logistic regression models. Findings: Relative to controls, reception of SN-feedback was associated with higher odds for decreased alcohol use (OR: 1.91, 95% CI 1.42-2.56). This effect was most pronounced in students overestimating peer use at baseline and under or accurately estimating it at follow-up (OR: 6.28, 95% CI 2.00-19.8). The OR was 1.33 (95% CI 0.67-2.65) for decreased cannabis use in students at intervention Universities and was statistically significant at 1.70 (95% CI 1.13-2.55) when contrasting unchanged and decreased with increased use. Regarding tobacco use and episodes of drunkenness, no intervention effects were found. Conclusions: This study was the first cluster-controlled trial suggesting beneficial effects of web-based SN-intervention on alcohol and cannabis use in a large sample of German University students. Clinical Trial Registration: The trial registration number of the INSIST-study is DRKS00007635 at the "German Clinical Trials Register."


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Universidades , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Estudiantes , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco
20.
J Plant Physiol ; 261: 153429, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932764

RESUMEN

Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are carcinogens that accumulate in tobacco leaves during curing, storage, and processing, and their amounts in processed tobacco vary dependent on several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here, we assessed the hypothesis that there is a link between reactive oxygen species levels in leaves and TSNA formation during curing. First, we show that burley varieties KT 204LC and NCBH 129LC accumulate TSNAs to different levels but not as a result of a variety-specific abundance of TSNA precursors. Next, we measured the levels of reactive oxygen species, and we show that the variety that accumulates more TSNAs, NCBH 129LC, had significantly higher levels of hydrogen peroxide than KT 204LC. The NCBH 129LC also has more oxidatively damaged and glutathionylated proteins. Finally, we analyzed the antioxidant levels in KT 204LC and NCBH 129LC and their tolerance to oxidative stress. NCBH 129LC contained more of the essential antioxidant glutathione and was more tolerant to the oxidative stress-generating compound paraquat. Collectively, our data suggest that there is indeed a link between foliar oxidative stress parameters and the extent to which TSNAs accumulate in cured tobacco leaves.


Asunto(s)
Nitrosaminas/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo
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