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1.
Infectio ; 25(4): 262-269, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286720

RESUMEN

Abstract Objective: To analyse the clinic characteristics, risk factors and evolution of the first cohort of hospitalised patients with confirmed infection by COVID-19 in 5 Colombian institutions. Materials and methods: Is a retrospective observational study of consecutive hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed from March 01 to May 30, 2020 in Colombia. Results: A total of 44 patients were included. The median age was 62 years. 43.2% had a history of smoking, while 69.8% were overweight or obese. 88.6% had at least one comorbidity and 52.3% had three or more comorbidities. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were the most frequent comorbidities (40.9% and 34.1%, respectively). The 30-day mortality rate was 47.7% with a median of 11 days. The composite outcome occurred in the 36.4%. The biomarkers associated with mor tality risk included troponin higher than 14 ng/L (RR: 5.25; 95% CI 1.37-20.1, p = 0.004) and D-dimer higher than 1000 ng/ml (RR: 3.0; 95% CI 1.4-6.3, p = 0.008). Conclusions: The clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized Colombian was characterised by a more advanced stage of the infection.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar las características, clínicas, factores de riesgo, y la evolución de pacientes hospitalizados con infección confirmada por COVID-19 en 5 Institu ciones de Colombia. Material y método: Es un estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes consecutivos hospitalizados con diagnóstico de COVID-19 confirmado entre 01 de Febrero de 2020 y 30 de Mayo de 2020 en Colombia. Resultados: Un total de 44 pacientes fueron incluidos. La mediana de edad fue de 62 años y la mayoría del sexo masculino. El 43.2% tenían historia de tabaquismo, mientras que el 69.8% tenían sobrepeso u obesidad. El 88.6% tenían al menos una comorbilidad y el 52.3% tenían tres o más comorbilidades. La hipertensión arterial fue la comorbilidad más frecuente (40.9%), seguido de la dislipidemia (34.1%). La tasa de letalidad a 30 días fue de 47.7% y ocurrió con una mediana de 11 días. El 36.4% presentó el desenlace compuesto. Los biomarcadores asociados con el riesgo de muerte fue troponina > 14 ng/mL (RR:5.25, IC95% 1.37-20.1, p=0.004) y dímero D mayor a 1000 mg/dL (RR: 3.0, IC95% 1.4-6.3, p=0.008). Conclusiones: El curso clínico de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en colombianos hospitalizados fue un estadio más avanzado de la infección.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Biomarcadores , COVID-19 , Pacientes , Tabaquismo , Comorbilidad , Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Mortalidad , Colombia , Sobrepeso , Cursos , Infecciones , Obesidad
2.
Clin Ter ; 172(5): 427-434, 2021 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625774

RESUMEN

Background: Adequate training in tobacco, nicotine dependence and treatment is lacking in Medical School education. With the rise in popularity of electronic alternatives to cigarettes, future physicians should also be provided with the more recent scientific evidence on these products during their undergraduate studies. We introduced an e-learning course for Medical School students and assessed its effec-tiveness of increasing knowledge on these topics. Methods: We developed 16 didactic modules divided in 3 courses: tobacco dependence (TDI), treating tobacco dependence (TDII) and electronic products and tobacco control (TDIII). The course was offered to 4th, 5th, and 6th year Medical School students in Italy. To assess learning outcomes, we examined the pre- to post- changes in knowledge scores associated with each course. Paired and independent samples t-tests were performed overall, and among smokers and non-smokers separately. Results: A total of 1318 students completed at least one of the courses; 21% were self-reported smokers. A significant increase in knowledge was observed at the end of TDI (pre-course: 52.1±15.9, post-course: 79.9±13.5, p<0.001), TDII (pre-course: 52.5±13.0, post-course: 66.5±12.0, p<0.001) and TDIII (pre-course: 52.2±15.3, post-course: 76.1±17.7, p<0.001). Smokers showed significantly lower improvements compared to non-smokers. Conclusions: The e-learning course was effective in increasing knowledge about tobacco dependence, treatments, and electronic ni-cotine products in advanced medical students. Given the fundamental role for healthcare practitioners in encouraging and assisting people in quitting smoking, e-learning may be a useful tool in providing up-to-date and standardized training in the area during Medical School.


Asunto(s)
Instrucción por Computador , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Estudiantes de Medicina , Tabaquismo , Calor , Humanos , Facultades de Medicina , Tabaquismo/terapia
3.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48450

RESUMEN

A Vitrine do conhecimento considerando o contexto epidemiológico decorrente da pandemia do coronavírus e estudos que indicam associação entre tabagismo e desfechos mais graves da Covid-19 (doença causada pelo novo coronavírus), este espaço reúne materiais criados para orientar e informar as redes estaduais e municipais de controle do tabagismo, parceiros do controle do tabaco e demais interessados nas duas temáticas.


Asunto(s)
Tabaquismo , Coronavirus
4.
J Addict Nurs ; 32(3): 188-196, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473448

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a Transtheoretical-Model-based and WhatsApp-text-message-supported smoking cessation program for pregnant women and to evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: This study is a pretest-posttest designed, randomized controlled and quasi-experimental intervention research. The study was conducted on 50 pregnant women, 25 of them in the intervention group and 25 of them in the control group. A theory-based motivational individual counseling initiative has been applied to the intervention group, and WhatsApp text messages have been sent 3 days a week, in accordance with the stages of change to support the interviews. RESULTS: In the final follow-up, 60% of pregnant women in the intervention group and 36% of pregnant women in the control group quit smoking. All participants indicated they would recommend the WhatsApp-text-message-supported smoking cessation program. Transtheoretical-Model-based and WhatsApp-text-message-supported smoking cessation programs were found to be effective in reducing nicotine dependency scores and carbon monoxide levels of pregnant women and quitting smoking. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The smoking cessation program used in the research may be applied by midwives or nurses trained on the subject to help pregnant women quit smoking.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Envío de Mensajes de Texto , Tabaquismo , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Fumar
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1627, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488694

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Salameh et al. developed the Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11) that assesses nicotine dependence among adult waterpipe smokers. In view of the high waterpipe use among Lebanese youth and other neighboring countries, it was deemed necessary to check the psychometric properties of the LWDS-11, originally adapted to the Lebanese population, to measure nicotine dependence among adolescents. METHODS: Two cross-sectional investigations were conducted; Study 1 (January and May 2019) enrolled a total of 449 students who were exclusive waterpipe smokers; this sample was used to conduct the exploratory factor analysis. Study 2 enrolled another sample composed of 243 waterpipe smoking adolescents. This sample was independent from the first one and was used to conduct the confirmatory analysis. RESULTS: The results also showed that 312 (69.5%) [95% CI 0.652-0.738] had high waterpipe dependence (scores of ≥10). Results of the factor analysis in sample 1 showed that all LWDS-11 items were extracted following the factor analysis. Items converged over a solution of one factor; total variance explained = 70.45%, αCronbach = 0.96). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis were as follows: the Maximum Likelihood Chi-Square = 129.58 and Degrees of Freedom = 45, which gave a χ2/df = 2.88. For non-centrality fit indices, the Steiger-Lind Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.08 [0.071-0.106]. Moreover, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) value was 0.77. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results suggest that the LWDS-11 has good psychometric properties to measure waterpipe dependence among adolescents. We hope this tool would serve the benefit of research and epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Pipas de Agua , Tabaquismo , Fumar en Pipa de Agua , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tabaquismo/diagnóstico , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Fumar en Pipa de Agua/epidemiología
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574823

RESUMEN

We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the Korean national five-day residential smoking cessation program and the factors affecting the long-term smoking cessation of participants. The residential smoking cessation program (2017-2018) recruited smokers with a smoking duration ≥ 20 years and who have attempted to quit smoking more than twice and/or smokers with chronic morbidities. Participants underwent an intensive intervention, including individual psychological therapy, group therapy, medical counseling, and pharmacotherapy. The 6-month continuous abstinence rate (CAR) was assessed via self-reports, the urine cotinine levels, and/or expired-air carbon monoxide levels. Logistic regression was used to analyze the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) to assess factors related to smoking cessation. Overall, 484 participants who completed the residential program and questionnaire were evaluated. The 3- and 6-month CAR were 81.82% and 63.22%, respectively. The aOR of 6-month continuous abstinence was lower among participants with severe nicotine dependence (aOR: 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26-0.81) and higher among participants with combination therapy of varenicline with short-term nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (aOR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.07-2.51), with higher self-efficacy (aOR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.15-3.37). The residential smoking cessation program was effective. High self-efficacy, combination therapy of varenicline with short-term NRT, and low nicotine dependence were associated with a high 6-month CAR.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Tabaquismo , Humanos , Fumar , Dispositivos para Dejar de Fumar Tabaco , Vareniclina
12.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(2): 339-345, set. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1291629

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Compreender as representações sociais dos enfermeiros sobre a educação permanente direcionada aos agentes comunitários de saúde nas ações de combate ao tabagismo. Metodologia: Pesquisa qualitativa, exploratória, descritiva, utilizando-se a Teoria das Representações Sociais. O cenário foram 14 Unidades Básicas de Saúde situadas em uma cidade mineira, com a participação de 21 enfermeiros. Realizou-se entrevistas semiestruturadas para a coleta de dados. Para a análise dos dados, foi utilizado a Análise de Conteúdo segundo Bardin e o auxílio do software OpenLogos® na versão 2.1 para a edição textual dos dados. Artigo elaborado segundo as diretrizes do Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR). Resultados: As representações evidenciam que os enfermeiros compreendem que é importante realizar a educação permanente para os agentes comunitários de saúde, porém não as realizam especificamente para o tema tabagismo. Conclusão: Ações de educação permanente realizadas pelos enfermeiros se mostraram essenciais para o aprimoramento das ações de combate ao tabagismo desenvolvidas pelos agentes comunitários de saúde, visto que, no atual cenário estas atividades se encontram fragilizadas. (AU)


Objective: To understand the social representations of nurses about permanent education directed to community health agents in actions to combat smoking. Methods: Qualitative, exploratory, descriptive research, using the Theory of Social Representations. The scenario was 14 Basic Health Units located in a city in Minas Gerais, with the participation of 21 nurses. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. For data analysis, Content Analysis was used according to Bardin and the aid of OpenLogos® software in version 2.1 for textual data editing. Article prepared according to the guidelines of the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR). Results: The representations show that nurses understand that it is important to carry out permanent education for community health agents, but they do not perform them specifically for the topic of smoking. Conclusion: Permanent education actions carried out by nurses proved to be essential for the improvement of actions to combat smoking developed by community health agents, since, in the current scenario, these activities are weakened. (AU)


Objetivo: Comprender las representaciones sociales de las enfermeras sobre la educación permanente dirigida a los agentes de salud de la comunidad en acciones para combatir el tabaquismo. Metodos: Investigación cualitativa, exploratoria, descriptiva, utilizando la Teoría de las representaciones sociales. El escenario fue de 14 Unidades Básicas de Salud ubicadas en una ciudad de Minas Gerais, con la participación de 21 enfermeras. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas para la recopilación de datos. Para el análisis de datos, se utilizó el Análisis de contenido según Bardin y la ayuda del software OpenLogos® en la versión 2.1 para la edición de datos textuales. Artículo preparado de acuerdo con las pautas de los Estándares para el Informe de Investigación Cualitativa (SRQR). Resultados: Las representaciones muestran que las enfermeras entienden que es importante llevar a cabo una educación permanente para los agentes de salud de la comunidad, pero no las realizan específicamente para el tema del tabaquismo. Conclusión: Las acciones de educación permanente llevadas a cabo por enfermeras demostraron ser esenciales para mejorar las acciones de lucha contra el tabaquismo desarrolladas por agentes de salud comunitarios, ya que, en el escenario actual, estas actividades se debilitan. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Educación Continua , Atención Primaria de Salud , Tabaquismo , Enfermería , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1583, 2021 08 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425819

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Waterpipe and cigarette smoking dependence are becoming increasingly prevalent forms of addiction globally. This study examined whether cumulative cigarette smoking and cumulative waterpipe smoking are associated with higher dependence on both cigarettes and waterpipe. METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted between February and April 2020, enrolled 363 participants drawn from all Lebanese districts. The mean age was 29.51 years, 64.8% were females, and 124 (34.2%) exclusive cigarette smokers, 189 (52.1%) exclusive waterpipe smokers, and 50 (13.8%) dual smokers (waterpipe and cigarette). We used the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) as an indicator of decreased autonomy towards nicotine, in addition to the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale-11 (LWDS11) and the Lebanese Cigarette Dependence scale (LCD). A stepwise linear regression was performed taking the HONC scores due to cigarette and waterpipe smoking, LCD and LWDS-11 scores as dependent variables. RESULTS: The results showed that in the total sample, higher cumulative cigarette smoking (B = 0.005 with a confidence interval of 0.004, 0.006) was significantly associated with higher HONC cigarette scores, whereas higher cumulative waterpipe smoking (B = -0.006 with a confidence interval of - 0.009, - 0.002) was significantly associated with lower HONC cigarette scores. Moreover, higher cumulative waterpipe smoking (B = 0.012 with a confidence interval of 0.009,0.015) was significantly associated with higher HONC waterpipe scores. The results showed that, in both sexes, higher cumulative cigarette smoking was associated with higher HONC cigarette scores and lower HONC waterpipe scores. Furthermore, higher cumulative waterpipe smoking was significantly associated with higher HONC waterpipe scores in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the fact that heavy nicotine consumption, related to both the increased frequency and smoking duration, can increase the risk of dependence. It raises the need for strategic plans to minimize and discourage the use of nicotine products in Lebanese community settings.


Asunto(s)
Pipas de Agua , Productos de Tabaco , Tabaquismo , Fumar en Pipa de Agua , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Fumar en Pipa de Agua/efectos adversos , Fumar en Pipa de Agua/epidemiología
14.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107077, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391132

RESUMEN

The current study aimed to assess single product, dual, and polytobacco use in a young adult military population and how an enforced tobacco ban during training impacts these behaviors. Participants were 810 U.S. Airmen who reported tobacco use as civilians. Participants completed baseline and one-year follow-up surveys about their tobacco use from 2016 to 2019. Each product used by a participant was assigned a score based on their frequency of use, which were summed to create a total score. Change scores were calculated by determining the difference between baseline and follow-up frequency scores. Tobacco frequency score and the categorical change (e.g., increased, decreased) were compared between groups using t-tests and Chi-squared tests, respectively, adjusting for clustering effects by squadron and base. Among single product users, 44.58% quit using tobacco products, 47.1% remained single product users, and 8.32% became dual or polytobacco users. Among dual users, 39.1% quit, 43.1% became single product users, 14.2% remained dual users, and 3.7% became polytobacco users. Among polytobacco users, 29.9% quit, 43.4% became single product users, 17.9% became dual users, and 8.8% continued poly-tobacco use. Most participants reduced the number and frequency of tobacco products used. Implementing stringent policies that further restrict tobacco use may decrease tobacco product use or frequency of use.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Cese del Uso de Tabaco , Tabaquismo , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1515, 2021 08 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362327

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nicotine is a highly addictive substance present in tobacco. This study was conducted to assess the level of nicotine dependence among smokers and smokeless tobacco users visiting dental outreach programs of B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences -Dharan, Nepal. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from June 2018 to April 2019. A total of 726 people were selected from participants of dental outreach programs of 6 districts using convenience sampling technique. The data collection was done using semi-structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview by a single researcher. History of tobacco use and level of nicotine dependency was measured using Nepali translated and validated form of Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence for smoking and smokeless tobacco. The mean age of the tobacco users was 39.55 ± 15.57. Descriptive statistics including the mean, median, percentage, standard deviations and interquartile range were computed. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, univariate and bivariate logistic regression were used where needed. RESULTS: Nicotine dependence (moderate and severe) was found in 80% of smokeless tobacco users and 48% of smokers. Among the smokeless tobacco users, nicotine dependency was found to be more with increase in duration of tobacco use (AOR = 50.25, 95%CI = 3.51-718.62, p = 0.004), low socioeconomic status (AOR = 6.27, 95%CI = 1.30-30.31, p = 0.02), less number of tobacco packets used per day and tried to quit tobacco use in last 1 year. Among smokers nicotine dependency was found to be significantly higher with smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day (AOR = 7.14, 95% CI = 2.00-25.40, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The study concluded that level of nicotine dependence for both smoking and smokeless tobacco was high among the people visiting dental outreach programs. It is high time to develop a policy to control tobacco use along with creating tobacco cessation centers. Currently, tobacco control program is mostly focusing on smoking. However, it is also important to incorporate smokeless tobacco control at policy level.


Asunto(s)
Tabaquismo , Tabaco sin Humo , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiología , Tabaco , Tabaquismo/epidemiología
16.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1652021 06 17.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346644

RESUMEN

Tobacco use disorder is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Yet, in contrast to other substance use disorders, tobacco use disorder is often considered as an unhealthy lifestyle. In this article we argue that tobacco use disorder should be considered similar to other addictive disorders, and summarize supporting arguments from genetics, neuroscience, as well as treatment perspective. Considering Tobacco Use Disorder as an addictive disorder will facilitate awareness among health professionals that patients with this condition should receive proper treatment that should be reimbursed by health insurance. This will reduce the health burden of tobacco use disorder, improve quality of life of individual patients and reduce societal health care costs.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Tabaquismo , Conducta Adictiva/epidemiología , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Morbilidad , Calidad de Vida , Tabaquismo/complicaciones , Tabaquismo/epidemiología
17.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 169, 2021 08 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429067

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The number of Americans who use tobacco has decreased in the twenty-first century, but electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have increased the complexity of treating tobacco dependence. The experiences of 18 family medicine practices were explored and opportunities to improve ENDS cessation were co-created in this study. METHODS: Eighteen family medicine practices were enrolled into an implementation project to incorporate ENDS cessation into their practice. The participants' experiences were explored throughout the project using an iterative qualitative approach. The research team provided technical assistance. Semi-structured group interviews and focus groups were held with participants at the beginning, middle, and end of the project to explore participants' experiences. The collective knowledge and experiences of participants, expert consultants and the research team were fused together to co-create opportunities to improve ENDS cessation. RESULTS: Nine opportunities to improve ENDS cessation were identified in three larger categories. The first category was leading change. This included: creating a vision for change to establish buy-in from key stakeholders and educate health care professionals to improve their confidence to address ENDS. The second category was creating processes. This included: establishing criteria for screening and quality improvement for ENDS cessation; being specific when asking about ENDS; creating electronic health record systems to support incorporating ENDS cessation; using chart audits if electronic health records cannot support incorporating ENDS into tobacco cessation; and assigning roles and responsibilities to members of the clinical care team. The third category was assisting patients who use ENDS. This included: educating patients and their parents/caregivers about ENDS and their potential harms, avoiding dual use, and developing a plan to quit. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights challenges and opportunities for incorporating ENDS cessation into family medicine. The opportunities outlined here provide a practical approach which is rooted in the experiences of family physicians and their clinical care teams working to improve how they address ENDS and based on peer reviewed literature and expert input. Improving how ENDS are addressed in family medicine will require more than clinical expertise. It will also require leadership skills and the ability to create process improvements. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Tabaquismo , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria , Humanos , Médicos de Familia , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 441, 2021 08 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429396

RESUMEN

The majority of smokers relapse even after successfully quitting because of the craving to smoking after unexpectedly re-exposed to smoking-related cues. This conditioned craving is mediated by reward memories that are frequently experienced and stubbornly resistant to treatment. Reconsolidation theory posits that well-consolidated memories are destabilized after retrieval, and this process renders memories labile and vulnerable to amnestic intervention. This study tests the retrieval reconsolidation procedure to decrease nicotine craving among people who smoke. In this study, 52 male smokers received a single dose of propranolol (n = 27) or placebo (n = 25) before the reactivation of nicotine-associated memories to impair the reconsolidation process. Craving for smoking and neural activity in response to smoking-related cues served as primary outcomes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during the memory reconsolidation process. The disruption of reconsolidation by propranolol decreased craving for smoking. Reactivity of the postcentral gyrus in response to smoking-related cues also decreased in the propranolol group after the reconsolidation manipulation. Functional connectivity between the hippocampus and striatum was higher during memory reconsolidation in the propranolol group. Furthermore, the increase in coupling between the hippocampus and striatum positively correlated with the decrease in craving after the reconsolidation manipulation in the propranolol group. Propranolol administration before memory reactivation disrupted the reconsolidation of smoking-related memories in smokers by mediating brain regions that are involved in memory and reward processing. These findings demonstrate the noradrenergic regulation of memory reconsolidation in humans and suggest that adjunct propranolol administration can facilitate the treatment of nicotine dependence. The present study was pre-registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (registration no. ChiCTR1900024412).


Asunto(s)
Propranolol , Tabaquismo , Señales (Psicología) , Humanos , Masculino , Memoria , Nicotina , Fumadores , Tabaquismo/tratamiento farmacológico
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1514, 2021 08 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353308

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As a further extension of smoke-free laws in indoor public places and workplaces, the Department of Housing and Urban Development's declaration to propose a regulation that would make housing units smoke-free was inevitable. Of note is the challenge this regulation poses to current tenants of housing units who are active smokers. We aimed to assess the efficacy of a tobacco treatment clinic in public housing. The utilization of the clinic by tenants and tenants' respective outcomes regarding smoking status were used to determine the intervention's effectiveness. METHODS: Tobacco treatment clinics were held in two urban-based housing units for 1-year. The clinics provided on-site motivational interviewing and prescriptions for pharmacological agents if warranted. Outcomes collected include the tenants' clinic attendance and 3- and 6-month self-reported smoking status. RESULTS: Twenty-nine tobacco treatment clinic sessions were implemented, recruiting 47 tenants to participate in smoking cessation. The mean age of the cohort was 53 ± 12.3 years old. Of the 47 tenants who participated, 21 (44.7%) attended three or more clinic sessions. At the 3-month mark, five (10.6%) tenants were identified to have quit smoking; at 6-months, 13 (27.7%) tenants had quit smoking. All 13 of the tenants who quit smoking at the end of 6-months attended three or more sessions. CONCLUSION: An on-site tobacco treatment clinic to provide strategies on smoking cessation was feasible. Efforts are warranted to ensure more frequent follow-ups for tenants aiming to quit smoking. While further resources should be allocated to help tenants comply with smoke-free housing units' regulations, we believe an on-site tobacco treatment clinic is impactful.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Tabaquismo , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Factibilidad , Vivienda , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vivienda Popular , Tabaco
20.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 42(2): 35-41, maio-ago. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1252912

RESUMEN

O objetivo deste estudo é realizar uma revisão da literatura para identificar os principais fatores que levam às complicações em implantodontia. Os implantes osseointegráveis e sua aplicação na odontologia revolucionaram a reabilitação oral de pacientes sejam eles edêntulos totais ou parciais em busca de recuperação funcional e satisfação estética. A pesquisa científica em uma busca constante pela magnificação deste tratamento, possibilitaram o uso de reabilitações implantossuportadas como um método de tratamento previsível com um índice elevado de sucesso. No entanto, como qualquer modo de tratamento, complicações e falhas também podem ocorrer na implantodontia. Após a revisão de literatura pode-se concluir que as condições médicas do paciente, hábitos sociais e parafuncionais, inexatidão do planejamento cirúrgico e protético, conhecimento técnico e científico do cirurgião-dentista, a falta de relacionamento interdisciplinar e deficiente cooperação do paciente no pós-operatório, podem estar relacionadas às complicações no tratamento reabilitador com implantes dentários(AU)


The objective of this study is to carry out a complete literature review to elucidate and evaluate the factors that lead to complications in implantology. The osseointegrated implantsimplants and their application in dentistry have revolutionized the oral rehabilitation of patients who need this treatment, be they total or partial edentulous in search of functional recovery and aesthetic satisfaction. Scientific research and a constant search for the magnification of this treatment, allowed the use of implant-enhanced rehabilitation as a predictable treatment method with a high success rate. However, like any treatment mode, complications and failures can also occur in implantology. the patient's medical conditions, social and parafunctional habits, inaccuracy of surgical and prosthetic planning, technical and scientific knowledge of the dental surgeon, lack of interdisciplinary relationship and poor patient cooperation in the postoperative, may be related to complications in rehabilitating treatment with dental implants(AU)


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Implantes Dentales/efectos adversos , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Tabaquismo , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Diabetes Mellitus , Difosfonatos , Periimplantitis , Rehabilitación Bucal
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