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1.
Pediatrics ; 145(Suppl 2): S175-S180, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358208

RESUMEN

Adolescent use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has increased dramatically, with younger and nicotine-naive adolescents starting to use these devices and use them more frequently than combustible cigarettes. In emerging evidence, it is shown that e-cigarettes are not effective in helping adult smokers quit and that youth using e-cigarettes are at risk for becoming nicotine dependent and continuing to use as adults. Important gaps in our knowledge remain regarding the long-term health impact of e-cigarettes, effective strategies to prevent and reduce adolescent e-cigarette use, and the impact of provider screening and counseling to address this new method of nicotine use.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Evaluación del Impacto en la Salud , Salud Pública , Tabaquismo/etiología , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Consejo , Estudios Transversales , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Riesgo , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/prevención & control , Estados Unidos , Vapeo/epidemiología , Vapeo/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(14): e19414, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243361

RESUMEN

The role of nursing students as future health promoters of healthy behaviors is influenced by their attitude towards smoking. A cross-sectional study using a self-administered survey was performed to analyze smoking prevalence among undergraduate the nursing students who attend nursing faculties in 2 European countries (Spain and Portugal) during academic period 2015 to 2016. A total of 1469 subjects were surveyed (response rate of 79.8%). An 80% of the students were female with a mean age of 21.9 (4.8) years. The overall prevalence of tobacco use was 18.9%, with an average percentage of 16.2% in Portugal and 18.3% in Spain. Statistical significance was observed in relation to smoke and previous studies (16.4% vs 27.1%; P < .001). Only 1.1% of the students reported using electronic cigarette. 15.8% of smokers started smoking while at university with statistical gender and previous studies differences (P < .001). Fagerström and Richmond test showed low nicotine dependence (2.8 ±â€Š2) and moderate motivation to stop smoking (4.9 ±â€Š3), respectively. Smoking prevalence among nursing students was slightly higher than the general European population. For that reason, measures to reduce tobacco use have to be focused on students and university policies on tobacco control should be a challenge in the future.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Enfermería/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Estudios Transversales , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Portugal/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales , Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , España/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
3.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(5): L1004-L1007, 2020 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233791
5.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 220(2): 79-85, mar. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-186416

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Analizar si existen factores sociales que influyan en la estancia hospitalaria prolongada (EHP) de pacientes con agudización grave de EPOC (AEPOC), además de factores clínico-demográficos. Metodología: Estudio de cohortes prospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes consecutivos que ingresaron por AEPOC en un servicio de Neumología. Se registraron variables demográficas, clínicas (tabaquismo, exacerbaciones e infecciones, disnea, impacto según cuestionario CAT, función pulmonar, comorbilidades, oxigenoterapia y ventilación no invasiva) y sociales (situación económica, disponibilidad y sobrecarga de cuidador, dependencia en actividades básicas e instrumentales, riesgo social y uso de servicios sociales), utilizando cuestionarios e índices como Barthel, Lawton-Brody, Zarit, Barber y Gijón. Se realizó un análisis univariante y multivariante mediante un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados: Se incluyeron 253 pacientes, y la edad media fue de 68,9+/-9,8años. El 77,1% fueron varones. En el modelo de regresión logística se incluyeron tabaquismo activo, valor del FEV1, puntuación en CAT >10, disnea 3-4 de la mMRC, presencia de gérmenes en cultivos de esputo, comorbilidad cardiovascular, anemia, oxigenoterapia domiciliaria, vivir solo, residencia en zona rural, sobrecarga del cuidador y la detección de riesgo/problema sociofamiliar. Las variables que se asociaron de forma independiente con la posibilidad de una EHP fueron la puntuación en cuestionario CAT >10 (OR=8,9; p=0,04) y la detección de riesgo/problema sociofamiliar (OR=2,6; p=0,04). Fumar activamente fue predictor de estancia más breve (OR=0,15; p=0,002). Conclusiones: Variables relacionadas con la esfera social juegan un papel relevante en la estancia hospitalaria, además del impacto de la enfermedad y la persistencia del tabaquismo en pacientes con AEPOC graves


Objective: To determine whether there are social factors that affect the prolonged hospital stay (PHS) of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation (COPDE), as well as clinical-demographic factors. Methodology: We conducted a prospective cohort study that consecutively included patients who were admitted to a Pneumology department for COPDE. We recorded demographic, clinical (tobacco use, exacerbations and infections, dyspnoea, impact according to CAT questionnaire, pulmonary function, comorbidities, oxygen therapy and noninvasive ventilation) and social (financial status, caregiver availability and overload, dependence for basic and instrumental activities, social risk and use of social services) variables, employing questionnaires and indices such as Barthel, Lawton-Brody, Zarit, Barber and Gijón. We performed a univariate and multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model. Results: The study included 253 patients, with a mean age of 68.9+/-9.8years; 77.1% of whom were men. The logistic regression model included active tobacco use, FEV1 value, CAT score >10, dyspnoea 3-4 on the MMRC, the presence of bacteria in sputum cultures, cardiovascular comorbidity, anaemia, home oxygen therapy, living alone, rural residence, caregiver overload and detecting social-family risks/problems. The variables independently associated with the possibility of PHS were a CAT score >10 (OR, 8.9; P=.04) and detecting a social-family risk/problem (OR, 2.6; P=.04). Active smoking was a predictor of shorter stays (OR, 0.15; P=.002). Conclusions: Variables related to the social sphere play a relevant role in hospital stays, as do the impact of the disease and the persistent use of tobacco by patients with severe COPD exacerbation


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Brote de los Síntomas , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria/estadística & datos numéricos , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Predicción , Tabaquismo/epidemiología
6.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 220(2): 100-108, mar. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-186419

RESUMEN

Objetivo: La hipertrofia ventricular izquierda es el marcador de daño de órgano diana más frecuente en la hipertensión arterial. Habitualmente se realiza un ECG para su identificación. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la utilidad pronóstica de otras alteraciones electrocardiográficas en pacientes hipertensos, más allá de la hipertrofia ventricular. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron 1.003 pacientes hipertensos mayores de65años. Se recogieron factores de riesgo, historia cardiovascular previa y tratamiento médico. Se analizaron diferentes alteraciones electrocardiográficas, incluyendo índice de Sokolow-Lyon, índice de Cornell, presencia de sobrecarga ventricular y bloqueos de rama, entre otros. Se llevó a cabo un seguimiento de 2años con recogida de eventos cardiovasculares mayores (mortalidad, infarto de miocardio, accidentes cerebrovascular o ingreso por insuficiencia cardiaca). Resultados: La edad media de la población era de 72,9+/-5,8años, con un 47,5% de varones. Durante el seguimiento el 13,9% sufrieron un evento cardiovascular mayor. Estos pacientes eran de mayor edad, más fumadores y practicaban menos ejercicio físico, sin presentar diferencias en el tratamiento antihipertensivo empleado ni en el control tensional. El patrón de sobrecarga ventricular (HR: 1,93; IC95%: 1,160-3,196; p=0,011) y el bloqueo completo de rama izquierda (HR: 2,27; IC95%: 1,040-4,956; p=0,040) se comportaron como factores electrocardiográficos predictores independientes de eventos cardiovasculares mayores, no así la hipertrofia ventricular izquierda por Sokolow y/o Cornell. Conclusiones: En pacientes hipertensos, la existencia en el ECG basal de un bloqueo completo de rama izquierda o un patrón de sobrecarga ventricular identifica a una población de mayor riesgo cardiovascular


Objective: Left ventricular hypertrophy is the most common marker of target organ damage in arterial hypertension. Electrocardiograms are typically performed to identify left ventricular hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to analyse the prognostic utility of other electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with arterial hypertension, beyond ventricular hypertrophy. Materials and methods: The study included 1003 patients older than 65years with arterial hypertension. We recorded risk factors, previous cardiovascular history and medical treatment and analysed various electrocardiographic abnormalities including the Sokolow-Lyon index, the Cornell index, ventricular overload and branch blocks. The study conducted a 2-year follow-up, recording the major cardiovascular events (mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke and hospitalisation for heart failure). Results: The study population's mean age was 72.9+/-5.8years, 47.5% of whom were men. During the follow-up, 13.9% of the patients experienced a major cardiovascular event. These patients were older, more often smokers and engaged in less physical exercise, without presenting differences in the antihypertensive therapy or blood pressure control. The ventricular overload pattern (HR: 1.93; 95%CI: 1.160-3.196; P=.011) and the complete left bundle branch block (HR: 2.27; 95%CI: 1.040-4.956; P=.040) behaved as independent electrocardiographic predictors of major cardiovascular events; however, left ventricular hypertrophy using the Sokolow and/or Cornell index did not behave as such. Conclusions: For patients with hypertension, the presence in the baseline electrocardiogram of complete left bundle branch block or a pattern of ventricular overload identifies a population at increased cardiovascular risk


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Electrocardiografía/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda/etiología , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios de Seguimiento , Conducta Sedentaria , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Bloqueo de Rama/epidemiología
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227405, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945093

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Khat abuse and psychopathy are both strongly related to criminal activity. Higher rates of substance use in people with psychopathy are hypothesized to be related to psychopathic personality traits, which include high sensation seeking, low conscientiousness and neuroticism, impulsivity, and irresponsibility. Little is known, however, about the association between psychopathy and khat abuse among prisoners in Ethiopia. Therefore, we evaluated the presence of these two factors in prisoners in the correctional institution in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a cross-sectional study design to collect data from 336 prisoners from June 5 to July 5, 2017. Study participants were selected by a systematic random sampling technique. Khat abuse was assessed with the Drug Abuse Screening Tool and psychopathy with the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. We also assessed nicotine dependence with the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence; alcohol use disorder, with the alcohol use disorder identification test; adverse traumatic life events, with the Life Events Checklist; and social support, with the Oslo 3-Item Social Support Scale. Data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed in bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Variables with a P value < 0.05 in the final fitted model were declared to be significantly associated with the outcome variable. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of lifetime khat use was 59.9%, and the prevalence of khat abuse in prisoners with psychopathy was 78.0%. Prisoners with psychopathy had a three times higher odds ratio of abusing khat than those without psychopathy (AOR = 3.00 [1.17-7.67]). Among the confounders, a family history of substance use (AOR = 2.50 [1.45-4.31]), poor support (AOR = 2.28 [1.11-4.67]), alcohol use disorder (AOR = 7.78 [4.16-14.53]), and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (AOR = 2.26 [1.45-4.31]) were also positively associated with khat abuse. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of khat abuse was higher in prisoners with possible or probable psychopathy.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/epidemiología , Catha , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Tabaquismo/epidemiología
8.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 52(1): 47-53, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-185983

RESUMEN

El Proyecto ÉVICT (Evictproject.org), a raíz del aumento de consumo de cannabis en población juvenil española, ha estudiado su asociación con el tabaco, concluyendo que el consumo conjunto de tabaco y cannabis: tiene una influencia en el proceso de aprender a fumar, pues el inicio puede ser conjunto y con influencia bidireccional; tiene una influencia en el desarrollo de dependencia pues su interacción es relevante para el desarrollo de este trastorno, y tiene una influencia en la toxicidad, pues probablemente, el fumar tabaco y cannabis genera mayores problemas que fumar solo una de las 2. Y, por tanto, el equipo EVICT emite unas consideraciones en prevención: diferenciar uso medicinal y recreativo; comunicar que fumar cannabis no es terapéutico ni inocuo, y puede ayudar a generar dependencia de nicotina o, menos frecuentemente, al propio cannabis. Consideraciones en abordaje y tratamiento: en personas que consumen tabaco/cannabis debemos plantear como primera opción el cese de las 2 sustancias. Consideraciones en reducción de daños: a quienes solo consumen productos de tabaco/cannabis, los programas serían más aplicables a aquella cuyo consumo se considere más problemático


EVICT project has noted the increase in cannabis use in the Spanish youth population, and has studied its association with tobacco, concluding that: It has an influence in the learning to smoke process: The beginning can be combined and with bi-directional influence. It has an influence on dependence the development of dependence. Their interaction is relevant in the development of dependence. It has an influence on toxicity: Smoking tobacco and cannabis generates greater problems than smoking tobacco alone. And, therefore, the EVICT team issues some considerations: Prevention considerations. Differentiate between therapeutic and recreational use. Smoking cannabis is not therapeutic nor innocuous, and can affect the development of nicotine dependence, or, less frequently, cannabis dependence. Approach and treatment considerations. In A first option of cessation of both must be proposed in people who consume tobacco and cannabis Harm Reduction. To those that only consume tobacco/cannabis: Harm Reduction programs should be more applicable to those in whom consumption is considered more problematic


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumadores , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Abuso de Marihuana/epidemiología , Codependencia Psicológica , Tabaquismo/prevención & control , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia
9.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(1): 101-110, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903234

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Sexual minorities are at heightened risk for substance use disorders (SUDs). Discrimination based on sexual orientation may be an important factor in this increased risk, but differences across age have not been systematically examined. We examined age-varying associations of sexual orientation discrimination with alcohol use disorder (AUD), tobacco use disorder (TUD), and drug use disorder (DUD). METHODS: We used data from US participants aged 18-50 years who reported non-heterosexual identity, attraction, or behavior (N = 2375) in a nationally representative survey. We examined the prevalence of sexual orientation discrimination across age and its salience as a risk factor for AUD, TUD, and DUD for gay/lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual identifying individuals using time-varying effect modeling. RESULTS: Sexual orientation discrimination was most prevalent in early young adulthood but was positively associated with greater odds of AUD, TUD, and DUD only at later ages. We found statistically significant associations at ages 24.5-40.0 for AUD, ages 32.5-42.9 for DUD, and ages 39.3-43.2 for TUD. For example, discrimination at age 30 was associated with 2.1 times greater odds of AUD (95% CI 1.3, 3.3) compared to those who reported no discrimination at that age. Discrimination at age 35 was associated with 2.8 times greater odds of DUD (95% CI 1.2, 6.6) relative to no discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual orientation discrimination is significantly associated with SUDs and risk varies across age. Thus, age should be considered in the development of prevention and treatment of AUD, TUD, and DUD, particularly for sexual minorities.


Asunto(s)
Factores de Edad , Heterosexualidad/psicología , Sexismo/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(4): 4390-4403, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832948

RESUMEN

Explore whether waterpipe dependence in young Lebanese adults would have any effect on modifying the association between risk conception, attitude, and other risky behaviors. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese university students (3384 students). Waterpipe dependence was associated with higher association of alcohol dependence and cigarette dependence by 76.7% and higher excitement for dangerous behaviors by 7.1%. It was significantly associated with increased association of cigarette dependence and alcohol dependence by 66.8%, with the thinking of a behavior of being not dangerous by 239%, with having motives for risky behaviors by 74.1%, with ever having unsafe sex by 111.74%, and between having motives for risky behaviors and ever having unsafe sex by 61.95%. Waterpipe dependence was associated with higher motives, excitement, and perception of risk and risky behaviors, namely cigarette dependence, alcohol dependence, and unsafe sex. Moreover, it was associated with higher risky behavior interdependence.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Actitud , Asunción de Riesgos , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Sexo Inseguro , Fumar en Pipa de Agua/epidemiología , Fumar Cigarrillos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiología , Masculino , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
11.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(1): 1-8, 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1049727

RESUMEN

Objective: Periodontal diseases are very common dental disease. Many risk factors may play significant role in the periodontal disease initiation and progression. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of khat chewing, smoking, age and gender on periodontal status among Yemeni adults. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 1231 patients attending the outpatient dental polyclinics of University of Science and Technology during the academic years 2017/2018. All completed sheets were collected throughout the year by the supervisors. Data cleaning, descriptive statistics, and inferential statistics were then performed. Results: Khat chewers were more frequent than non-chewers counterparts (60.7% vs. 39.3%). The prevalence of smoking was 25.5% (297 patients). Study results indicated that periodontitis is more associated with female gender and participants aged more than 35 years old. Results also showed that female and age older participants aged more than 35 years were significantly associated with gingival recession. Mean number of the teeth with gingival recession in male patients were higher than in females. Male gender and patients aged more than 35 years old were significantly associated with furcation involvement. Conclusion: The present study has shown females gender and age older than 35 seem to be risk factors of periodontal diseases. Males has more teeth affected by gingival recession and more furcation involvement (AU)


Objetivo: As doenças periodontais são patologias dentárias com alta prevalência. Diversos fatores de risco podem desempenhar papel significativo no início e progressão das doenças periodontais. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos da mastigação de khat, tabagismo, idade e gênero na condição periodontal de adultos iemenitas. Material e Métodos: Este estudo transversal foi realizado em 1231 pacientes atendidos nas policlínicas odontológicas ambulatoriais da Universidade de Ciência e Tecnologia durante os anos acadêmicos de 2017/2018 através de um questionário para coleta de dados préestabelecido. Todas os questionários preenchidos foram coletados ao longo do ano pelos supervisores. A apuração dos dados, estatística descritiva e estatística inferencial foram realizadas. Resultados: os mastigadores de Khat foram mais frequentes do que as não-mastigadores (60,7% vs. 39,3%). A prevalência de tabagismo foi de 25,5% (297 pacientes). Os resultados do estudo indicaram que a periodontite está mais associada ao gênero feminino e aos participantes com mais de 35 anos de idade. Os resultados também mostraram que participantes do gênero feminino e acima de 35 anos foram significativamente associadas à recessão gengival. O número médio de dentes com recessão gengival em pacientes do gênero masculino foi maior que no feminino. O gênero masculino e os pacientes com mais de 35 anos de idade foram significativamente associados ao envolvimento da furca. Conclusão: O presente estudo mostrou que o gênero feminino e a idade acima de 35 anos parecem ser fatores de risco para doenças periodontais. Pacientes do gênero masculino têm mais dentes afetados pela recessão gengival e mais envolvimento de furca.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Adulto Joven , Enfermedades Periodontales/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Catha , Masticación , Enfermedades Periodontales/etiología , Periodontitis/etiología , Periodontitis/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/complicaciones , Yemen/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Defectos de Furcación/etiología , Defectos de Furcación/epidemiología , Distribución por Edad , Catha/efectos adversos , Recesión Gingival/etiología , Recesión Gingival/epidemiología
12.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190055, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826111

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Despite the low incidence rates of tuberculosis (TB) in the Federal District (FD), there are socioeconomic discrepancies allied to intense population growth in recent years, which demonstrates the need to study the trend of the disease in different regions of the FD. OBJECTIVE: To describe the trend of morbidity and mortality due to TB in the FD from 2006 to 2015. METHODS: Ecological study, with descriptive and analytical components, historical series type. RESULTS: There was a decreasing trend in incidence rates (IR) (from 15.1 per 100,000 inhabitants to 11.7 per 100,000 inhabitants, r = -0.50) and in the cure rate (from 86.0% to 74.7, r = -0.91); people experiencing homelessness and incarceration have relative risks from 5 to 16 times higher than the general population; higher IR were found in Paranoá (27.5 per 100,000 inhabitants) and in Estrutural (17.3 per 100,000 inhabitants), areas with poor socioeconomic indicators and demografic explosion during the study period. A higher mean lethality rate was found in Águas Claras (8.5%) and in Lago Sul (7.0%), regions that have a high concentration of homeless and elderly people. CONCLUSION: TB persists as an important public health problem in the FD, especially in impoverished areas, with significant population growth or a high concentration of elderly or vulnerable populations.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Comorbilidad , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Notificación de Enfermedades , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Sistemas de Información , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Características de la Residencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
13.
Orv Hetil ; 160(52): 2047-2053, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868011

RESUMEN

Introduction: The harmful effects represent an important public health problem in tha world. Aim: Our aim is to report and compare the results of screenings performed in Hungary's Comprehensive Health Screening Program 2010-2020-2030 (MÁESZ) with international data. Method: During the 9-year continuous screening, we analyzed the data of 71 922 women and 60 934 men in the 18-80-year-old population and examined the occurrence of regular daily smokers. Data were collected with the help of special screening data sheets. Results: 24.4% of males and 24.2% of females smoked regularly during the 9-year screening period. Between 2012 and 2015, smoking prevalence showed a temporary significant decline, then, from 2016, it started to increase again. The downturn coincided with the opening of national tobacco stores. In men, the proportion of smokers was significantly higher in young adults (18-25 years) than in women. Later in life, the difference leveled off and even between 46-55 years, the prevalence of smoking was greater in women. There is a difference in smoking patterns between the two genders, which is probably related to marriage and motherhood in women. After 56 years, the proportion of smokers in both genders decreased rapidly. The prevalence of smoking in Hungary in all age groups significantly exceeds the European and world average. Transient increases in middle-aged women have also been reported in European surveys. Conclusion: Compared to 2010, the proportion of smokers has decreased in Hungary, but a new surge observed after 2015 is not a positive phenomenon. We find the high proportion of smoking women worrying. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(52): 2047-2053.


Asunto(s)
Fumar/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Hungría/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Sexuales , Fumar/tendencias , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Tabaco sin Humo , Adulto Joven
14.
S Afr Med J ; 109(12): 971-977, 2019 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865961

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol, tobacco and unregulated substance use contributes to the global burden of disease. Admission to hospital provides an opportunity to screen patients for substance use and offer interventions. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and nature of substance use and treatment as well as interest in harm reduction among inpatients from four hospitals in the City of Tshwane, South Africa. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, sociodemographic and substance use data were collected from 401 patients using the World Health Organization's Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Demographic characteristics were analysed using descriptive statistics. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of moderate- to high-risk tobacco and unregulated substance use in relation to demographic characteristics were also done. RESULTS: Most patients were South African (88%) and black African (79%), over half were female (57%), and they were relatively young (median age 38 years). Most (82%) lived in formal housing. Over half (56%) had completed high school, and 33% were formally employed. Bivariate analysis found substance use-related admission to be higher where scores for tobacco and unregulated substance use were moderate to high (13% v. 0.3%, p<0.05). A notably higher (p<0.1) proportion of participants with no/low tobacco and unregulated substance use had completed high school, were employed and were cohabiting/married compared with those with moderate to high scores. Across the hospitals, 32% (129/401) of the participants had moderate- to high-risk use of at least one substance: tobacco (28%, 111/401), alcohol (10%, 40/401), cannabis (7%, 28/401), opioids (2%, 9/401) and sedatives (2%, 9/401). Of these 129 participants, 10% had accessed professional help, many (67%, 78/129) wanted to learn more about harm reduction, and most (84%, 108/129) said that they were willing to participate in a community-based harm reduction programme. Multivariate analysis found moderate- to high-risk tobacco and unregulated substance use to be positively associated with male sex (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9 - 21.5), age <38 years (aOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2 - 8.9), moderate- to high-risk alcohol use (aOR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1 - 8.4; p=0.027) and being admitted to Tshwane District Hospital (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.1 - 12.2). It was negatively associated with employment (aOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 - 0.6). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate- to high-risk substance use is an undetected, unattended comorbidity in the hospital setting in Tshwane, particularly among young, single, unemployed men. Clinicians should identify and respond to this need. Further research is required on the implementation of in-hospital substance use screening and treatment interventions.


Asunto(s)
Reducción del Daño , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Adulto , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Empleo , Femenino , Hospitales Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Marihuana/epidemiología , Abuso de Marihuana/prevención & control , Estado Civil , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/prevención & control , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Admisión del Paciente , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/prevención & control
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1684, 2019 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842834

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) who drink alcohol and use tobacco are particularly vulnerable to tobacco-induced diseases due to an already compromised immune system. This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with tobacco use (cigarette and snuff) among PLWH who drink heavily. METHODS: Participants (n = 623) on antiretroviral therapy for HIV who reported heavy drinking using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and AUDIT-C were recruited from six hospitals in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The Fagerström test was used to assess nicotine dependence. Chi Square tests and modified Poisson regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with tobacco use. RESULTS: Almost half of the participants reported ever smoking (44.0%; CI: 40.1-47.9) and about a quarter reported ever using snuff (25.5%; CI: 22.2-29.1). Current smokers and current snuff users comprised 27.3% (CI: 23.9-30.9) and 19.1% (CI: 16.2-22.3) of all participants respectively. Among current smokers, 37.9% (CI: 30.8-45.3) were moderately/highly dependent on nicotine. Current 'any tobacco product users' (ATPU: use cigarettes or snuff) were 45.4% (CI: 41.5-49.3) while 1.0% (CI: 0.4-2.0) currently used cigarettes and snuff. Adjusted regression analyses showed that, compared to males, females were less at risk of being: ever smokers (Relative Risk Ratio [RRR] = 0.33; CI: 0.27-0.41), current smokers (RRR = 0.18; CI: 0.12-0.25), and ATPU (RRR = 0.75; CI: 0.63-0.89) but were more at risk of ever snuff use (RRR = 5.23; CI: 3.31-8.25), or current snuff use (RRR = 26.19; CI: 8.32-82.40) than males. Ever snuff users (RRR = 1.32; CI: 1.03-1.70), current snuff users (RRR = 1.40; CI: 1.03-1.89) and ATPU (RRR = 1.27; CI: 1.07-1.51) were more at risk of reporting significant depressive symptoms. We found no significant associations between smoking status and years on ART and viral load. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of cigarette and snuff use among PLWH who drink heavily. Tobacco use cessation interventions tailored specifically for this population and according to their tobacco product of choice are urgently needed given their vulnerability to ill-health.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Tabaco sin Humo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
20.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(6): 547-553, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-189849

RESUMEN

Objective: To identify the effect of social capital on adolescent smoking. Method: A stratified random sample of 1313 7th and 8th grade students from three counties in Transylvania, Romania, completed a self-administered questionnaire on smoking-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. The impact of social capital was measured (personal and community activities, school achievements and smoking-related knowledge). Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used to measure the association between social participation and smoking. Results: Experimenting with smoking was mostly related to knowledge about smoking, academic performance and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure at home. The strongest risk factor of adolescent smoking was the smoking behaviour of classmates: those who reported a significant proportion of smokers among their classmates were nine times more likely to smoke themselves than in other cases (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 9.05). Those who considered smoking to be harmless were 4 times more likely to be smokers than those who considered this behaviour to be dangerous (aOR: 4.28). Poor academic results increased adolescents' smoking (aOR: 3.22 and 2.66). The odds were significantly higher for smoking, if they had an active social life (aOR: 2.54). Regular church attendance proved to be a protective factor (aOR: 0.45). Conclusions: Several social capital factors can play a role in adolescent smoking. The organization and the development of community activities aimed at prevention must strengthen the factors related to the community's social capital to reduce the likelihood of teenage smoking


Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto del capital social sobre el consumo de tabaco en adolescentes. Método: El estudio se realizó en un grupo aleatorizado y estratificado compuesto por 1313 estudiantes de séptimo y octavo grado de tres municipios en Transilvania (Rumanía). Los participantes contestaron un cuestionario autocumplimentado en relación con el consumo de tabaco y sobre actitudes y comportamientos respecto a este. El impacto del capital social, entendido como actividades personales y comunitarias, así como el desarrollo académico y la información sobre el consumo de tabaco, fueron algunas de las medidas. Resultados: Experimentar con el hábito de fumar se relaciona principalmente con el conocimiento sobre dicha adicción, el rendimiento académico y la exposición al consumo de tabaco en el hogar. El mayor riesgo para el consumo se deriva de la interacción con compañeros de clase que incurren en el consumo de tabaco. En tal caso, la probabilidad de consumo aumenta nueve veces (odds ratio ajustada [ORa]: 9,05). Quienes consideraron que fumar es inofensivo tuvieron cuatro veces más probabilidades de ser fumadores que quienes consideraron este comportamiento como peligroso (ORa: 4,28). En cuanto a los/las estudiantes con bajo rendimiento académico se observa un mayor incremento del consumo (ORa: 3,22 y 2,66). Al mismo tiempo, dicho patrón también se observa entre aquellos/as con un entorno social activo (ORa: 2,54). La asistencia a la iglesia de manera regular es un factor protector (ORa: 0,45). Conclusiones: Diferentes aspectos relacionados con el capital social se asocian al consumo de tabaco en adolescentes. La organización de actividades y el desarrollo comunitario deberán tener en cuenta estos aspectos para prevenir el consumo de tabaco. Hay que prestar especial atención a la clase social con el fin de reducir las probabilidades de consumo en adolescentes


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Capital Social , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Rumanía/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Protectores , Estudios Transversales , Participación Social
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