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1.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(1)2020 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253889

RESUMEN

We aimed to evaluate the effects of stage-matched repeated individual behavioural counselling (RIBCS) on the basis of the transtheoretical model (TTM) as an intervention to reduce and stop smoking. This study was conducted over a period of one year where all smokers presenting to a chest clinic in a tertiary centre were enrolled, each was classified on the basis of stage of readiness to change and underwent repeated counselling for a period of six months and each session was preceded and succeeded with filling of Fagerstorm test for nicotine dependence. Over the period of a year, 207 patients participated in this study, the mean age was 50.74±14.74 years; mean duration of tobacco use was 29.43±14.72 years; 64.3% were illiterate, 11.6% primary education, 14.1% were matric and while 10.1% were graduate. About 73% of smokers reported high level of nicotine dependence (FTND score >5/10). In the present study mean dependence score was 6.0±1.96; 44 (21.3%) were in pre-contemplation stage, 93 (44.9%) were in contemplation, 57 (27.5%) were in preparation and 13 (6.3%) were in action. The point prevalence excellence rate in follow up-I was 15%, follow up-II was 35.3% and follow up-III was 61.9% which was statistically significant. When we took both abstinence and reduction in smoking behaviour as one, p-value was <0.05. The point prevalence of abstinence rate (questionnaire validated) 1 month to 6 months was almost 4 times. Our intervention (RIBCS) succeeded in increasing the abstinence rates during the study period among smokers with a lower motivation to quit (pre-contemplators and contemplators) as well as those ready to quit (preparators). This is significant because of most existing smoking-cessation interventions target only motivated smokers, with few having a positive effect in smokers with a lower motivation to quit.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar/terapia , Tabaquismo/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Consejo/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Estudios Prospectivos , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tabaquismo/complicaciones , Tabaquismo/diagnóstico , Tabaquismo/psicología , Adulto Joven
2.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 47(1): 19-24, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088743

RESUMEN

Abstract Background Sleep disorders are common in psychiatric diseases. Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are two major anxiety disorders that are associated with sleep disorders. Objective We hypothesized that poor sleep quality continues in PD and GAD during remission. Therefore, in this study we aimed to compare the sleep quality of patients with PD and GAD to that of healthy controls. Methods The study included patients with PD (n = 42) and GAD (n = 40) who had been in remission for at least 3 months and healthy control volunteers (n = 45). The patients were administered the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results The total PSQI scores of the GAD group were significantly increased in comparison to those of the PD (p = 0.009) and control (p < 0.001) groups. The rate of poor sleep quality in GAD during remission (77.5%) was greater than that of the PD (47.6%) and control (51.1%) groups (p = 0.011). Discussion GAD is a chronic and recurrent disease. In this study, it was found that the deterioration in sleep quality of patients with GAD may continue during remission. In the follow-up and treatment of patients, it is appropriate to question about sleep symptoms and to plan interventions according to these symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos de Ansiedad/complicaciones , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/etiología , Calidad del Suelo , Trastorno de Pánico/complicaciones , Trastornos de Ansiedad/tratamiento farmacológico , Tabaquismo/psicología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Trastorno de Pánico/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Captación de Serotonina/uso terapéutico , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Inhibidores de Captación de Serotonina y Norepinefrina/uso terapéutico , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente
3.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 117(1-2): 7-13, 2020 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008606

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines on smoking cessation contain recommendations for various evidence-based methods. The goal of this study was to provide a represen- tative analysis for Germany of the percentage of smokers who try to quit smoking at least once per year, the use of evidence-based methods and other methods of smoking cessation, and potential associations of the use of such methods with the degree of tobacco dependence and with socioeconomic features. METHODS: Data from 19 waves of the German Smoking Behavior Questionnaire (Deutsche Befragung zum Rauchverhalten, DEBRA), from the time period June/July 2016 to June/July 2019, were analyzed. Current smokers and recent ex-smokers (<12 months without smoking) were asked about their smoking cessation attempts in the past year and the methods they used during the last attempt (naming more than one method was permitted). The degree of tobacco dependence in current smokers was assessed with the Heaviness of Smoking Index. RESULTS: Out of 11 109 current smokers and 407 recent ex-smokers, 19.9% (95% confidence interval: [19.1; 20.6]) had tried to quit smoking at least once in the preceding year. 13.0% of them [11.6; 14.5] had used at least one evidence-based method during their last attempt. The stronger the tobacco dependence, the more likely the use of an evidence-based method (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27 [1.16; 1.40]). Pharmacotherapy (nicotine replacement therapy, medication) was used more com- monly by persons with higher incomes (OR = 1.44 per 1000 euro/month [1.28; 1.62]). Electronic cigarettes were the most commonly used single type of smoking cessation support (10.2 % [9.0; 11.6]). CONCLUSION: In Germany, only one in five smokers tries to quit smoking at least once per year. Such attempts are only rarely supported by evidence-based methods and are thus likely to fail. The high cost of treatment must be borne by the individual and thus fall disproportionately on poorer smokers. It follows that there is an urgent need for vered by health insurance pro- viders, in order to give all smokers fair and equal access to the medical care they need.


Asunto(s)
Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Alemania , Humanos , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tabaquismo/psicología
4.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(1): 101-110, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903234

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Sexual minorities are at heightened risk for substance use disorders (SUDs). Discrimination based on sexual orientation may be an important factor in this increased risk, but differences across age have not been systematically examined. We examined age-varying associations of sexual orientation discrimination with alcohol use disorder (AUD), tobacco use disorder (TUD), and drug use disorder (DUD). METHODS: We used data from US participants aged 18-50 years who reported non-heterosexual identity, attraction, or behavior (N = 2375) in a nationally representative survey. We examined the prevalence of sexual orientation discrimination across age and its salience as a risk factor for AUD, TUD, and DUD for gay/lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual identifying individuals using time-varying effect modeling. RESULTS: Sexual orientation discrimination was most prevalent in early young adulthood but was positively associated with greater odds of AUD, TUD, and DUD only at later ages. We found statistically significant associations at ages 24.5-40.0 for AUD, ages 32.5-42.9 for DUD, and ages 39.3-43.2 for TUD. For example, discrimination at age 30 was associated with 2.1 times greater odds of AUD (95% CI 1.3, 3.3) compared to those who reported no discrimination at that age. Discrimination at age 35 was associated with 2.8 times greater odds of DUD (95% CI 1.2, 6.6) relative to no discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual orientation discrimination is significantly associated with SUDs and risk varies across age. Thus, age should be considered in the development of prevention and treatment of AUD, TUD, and DUD, particularly for sexual minorities.


Asunto(s)
Factores de Edad , Heterosexualidad/psicología , Sexismo/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 28(1): 81-86, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070429

RESUMEN

Cue-induced craving among smokers is a well-documented phenomenon. Conditioning theory is used to explain how stimuli elicit cravings. Attachment theory may explain additional influences on cue-induced craving. This study tested the effects of cigarette cues and attachment figure cues on craving and affect. Cue-reactivity as a function of cue type was examined to explore the magnitude of craving effect sizes for each cue type. Thirty-six smokers (27 men) were exposed to cigarette cues (i.e., cigarette) and attachment figure cues (i.e., digital photos of people identified as attachment figures). Neutral to cue exposure differences in craving and affect were assessed. Sixty-one percent of participants reported increased craving to the cigarette cue (M = 61.1, SD = 29.4) compared to the neutral cue (M = 46.6, SD = 28.8), Mdiff = 20.7 (10.60, 30.73), Yt (23) = 4.24, p = .0003. When exposed to an attachment figure photo, 56% participants reported decreased craving (M = 38.2, SD = 31.6) compared to the neutral photo (M = 50.9, SD = 29.8), Mdiff = -15.73 (-30.83, -0.63), Yt (21) = -2.17, p = .042. There was a significant difference in the craving for cigarette cues (M = 14.5, SD = 22.8 (CI: 6.94, 22.39)), and attachment figure photos (M = -12.7, SD = 28.6 (CI: -22.38, -3.01); t(35) = 4.3, p < .001). The effect sizes for cigarette cues and attachment figure photos were d = .50, d = .42, respectively. Participants' responses to attachment cues were not influenced by their reactivity to cigarette cues or their attachment figure's smoking status. Findings support a plausible model in which an attachment figure photo decreases craving via affect regulation. Further research on cues that have an inhibitory effect on craving may inform new cessation strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Ansia , Señales (Psicología) , Apego a Objetos , Productos de Tabaco , Tabaquismo/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumadores , Adulto Joven
6.
Ann Epidemiol ; 40: 13-20.e4, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711840

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether childhood maltreatment is associated with smoking behaviors and lifetime nicotine dependence and if associations are moderated by sex. We examined these associations among individuals who ever reported being regular smokers. METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examined relationships between retrospectively self-reported child maltreatment (parent/caregiver-perpetrated emotional, physical, sexual abuse, and neglect; and non-parent/caregiver-perpetrated sexual abuse) and self-reported smoking behaviors among individuals with a history of regular smoking. Outcomes were any current smoking in early adulthood (mean age = 28 years), current smoking in adolescent study waves only, adulthood only, and adolescence and adulthood (n = 3581); and lifetime history of nicotine dependence (n = 3594) per the Fagerstrom scale. RESULTS: Poly-maltreatment (aRR for 2+ vs. 0 exposures = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.34) was associated with lifetime nicotine dependence; associations between nicotine dependence and neglect and non-parent/caregiver sexual abuse by force were only present in women. Neglect and non-parent/caregiver sexual abuse by nonphysical threat were associated with continued smoking, and an association between non-parent/caregiver sexual abuse by physical force and continued smoking was also noted in women only. Women who experienced poly-maltreatment were less likely to report current smoking in adolescence but not adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest in a nationally representative sample of ever regular smokers, child maltreatment is associated with outcomes that suggest an inability to quit smoking and some associations may vary by sex.


Asunto(s)
Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Conducta Adictiva , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Fumar Cigarrillos/efectos adversos , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Tabaquismo/psicología , Adulto Joven
7.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 66(6): 1053-1062, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679596

RESUMEN

Rates of certain tobacco products have decreased over the past decade, but nicotine use disorder is still prevalent among adolescents. New trends in tobacco use, such as in the use of electronic cigarettes, are creating alarm. This article reviews nicotine addiction and measurement in adolescents, along with potential health risks and comorbidities. Various psychosocial and pharmacologic interventions are reviewed along with novel interventions that show promise for reducing tobacco use in this vulnerable population.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Estimulantes Ganglionares/efectos adversos , Nicotina/efectos adversos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Vapeo , Adolescente , Humanos , América del Norte/epidemiología , Psicología del Adolescente , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/etiología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Tabaquismo/terapia , Vapeo/epidemiología , Vapeo/psicología , Vapeo/terapia
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 748, 2019 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744528

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Trauma exposure and alcohol use are closely related, and large proportion of trauma-exposed individuals use alcohol. The data presented in this paper were obtained as part of a study on substance use disorder and associated factors among prisoners in the correctional institution in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. Therefore, in this study we examined comorbidity of traumatic life experiences and alcohol use disorder in inmates of correctional institution in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of lifetime alcohol use disorder was 40.1%, and the prevalence of alcohol use disorder among prisoners with lifetime trauma exposure was 44.0%. Participants with multiple trauma exposures had 2.5-fold higher odds of association for alcohol use disorder than their counterparts (AOR = 2.47 [1.23-4.94]). Living in urban areas (AOR = 4.86 [2.38-9.94]), presence of psychopathy (AOR = 3.33 [1.25-8.86]), khat abuse (AOR = 7.39 [3.99-13.68]), and nicotine dependence (AOR = 2.49 [1.16-5.34]) were also positively associated with alcohol use disorder. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder was higher among prisoners with lifetime trauma exposure. Also, this study indicates that prisoners with multiple trauma exposures had higher odds of association for alcohol use disorder than those with no trauma exposure. A public health intervention targeting survivors of traumatic experiences needs to be designed and implemented.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Prisioneros/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Catha/química , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Tabaquismo/psicología
9.
Psicothema ; 31(4): 393-399, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634083

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Delay discounting (DD) and cigarette demand contribute to an understanding of nicotine reward and dependence. However, no prior attempt has been made to examine the effect of a history of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) on DD and tobacco demand in current smokers. This study sought to compare DD and cigarette demand in smokers with and without a history of AUD. METHODS: The sample comprised 43 smokers with a history of AUD and 49 with no history of drug use. Participants completed the DD task and the 19-item version of the Cigarette Purchase Task. Mazur's equation and the Koffarnus et al. model were used to derive the discounting rates and elasticity of demand, respectively. RESULTS: Smokers with a history of AUD discounted delayed rewards more steeply (Mlogk= -1.77, SD=1.46) than those without such a history (Mlogk= -2.32, SD=1.04). No statistically significant differences in cigarette demand emerged between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The excessive preference for immediate rewards in smokers with a history of AUD suggests that impulsive choice persists even after alcohol abstinence. As DD constitutes an important marker of poor treatment outcomes, targeting this specific facet of impulsivity in broader clinical interventions might be helpful.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/psicología , Descuento por Demora , Refuerzo en Psicología , Fumadores/psicología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Adulto , Análisis de Varianza , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(11): 4141-4152, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664387

RESUMEN

This study aimed to estimate the strength of association among smokers with variables regarding mental health, family functionality, and use of other psychoactive substances. This is a case-control observational study developed from March to November 2016. The study was conducted in a Brazilian Midwest municipality with 646 subjects, of which 323 were cases. In the model, the case group comprised subjects with a certain degree of tobacco dependence. The control group included subjects that were not exposed to tobacco. Concerning tobacco use time, the mean exposure of the case group was 25.65 years. In the multiple logistic regression analysis model the following were positively associated: non-white skin color (p = 0.002); years of study ≤ 8 (p < 0.001); having children (p < 0.001); informal work (p = 0.024); not having a health plan (p < 0.001); high family dysfunction (p = 0.007); AUDIT ≥ 8 (p < 0.001); depression (p < 0.001); having illicit drug in lifetime (p < 0.001); living with other people (p = 0.003) and no religion (p = 0.001). This study reinforces the vulnerability of smokers, associating variables correlated to the field of mental health, and innovates by discussing the influence of family relationships on nicotinic dependence.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Adulto , Brasil , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumadores/psicología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/psicología , Tabaquismo/psicología
11.
Psychiatry Res ; 281: 112562, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521838

RESUMEN

We performed a systematic review of the studies employing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in subjects with smoking addiction. High-frequency (HF) rTMS over the prefrontal cortex (PFC), in particular the left dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), might represent a save and innovative treatment tool for tobacco consumption and craving in nicotine-dependent otherwise healthy people. rTMS can be effective for this indication also in patients with schizophrenia, but the results are conflicting and sufficient evidence from large-scale trials is still lacking. Promising results have been obtained using particular techniques for brain stimulation, such as deep rTMS and theta burst stimulation. Multiple-target HF rTMS can also have a potential in smoking cessation. fMRI and EEG recordings have proven to be useful for objectively assessing the treatment effects. TMS is likely to be most effective when paired with an evidence-based self-help intervention, cognitive-behavioral interventions and nicotine replacement therapy. However, the most recent studies employed different protocols and yielded heterogeneous results, which should be replicated in further controlled studies with larger sample sizes and rigorous standards of randomization. To date, no recommendation other than that a possible efficacy of HF-rTMS of the left DLPFC can be made for alternative rTMS procedures in nicotine craving and consumption.


Asunto(s)
Ansia/fisiología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabaquismo/psicología , Tabaquismo/terapia , Estimulación Magnética Transcraneal/métodos , Adulto , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Corteza Prefrontal/diagnóstico por imagen , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiopatología
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547229

RESUMEN

There were high smoking rates among young male college students in Korea. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of and factors affecting abstinence from smoking following smoking cessation service attendance in this population. Data were collected between 1 August 2015 and 20 August 2018. Participants were administered more than nine face-to-face and telephone counseling sessions by trained tobacco cessation specialists for six months. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 4, 6, and 12 weeks, and 6 months after the quit date. A total of 3978 male college student smokers were enrolled; their mean age was 23.17 (±3.45) years. Almost one-third of the participants (64.9%) reported that they had attempted to quit during the past year. The number of cigarettes smoked per day, CO ppm, and Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence score at the baseline were negatively associated with abstinence, while motivational variables-importance, confidence, and readiness-were positively associated with abstinence. Our results suggest that provision of visiting smoking cessation services can be an active intervention platform for college student smokers who need professional assistance or support. Active and accessible support should be provided to such people. Visiting a smoking cessation service may result in increased long-term abstinence rates in such students.


Asunto(s)
Fumadores/psicología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , República de Corea , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
13.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(6): 561-566, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512887

RESUMEN

While most tobacco users want to quit using tobacco, only a small minority succeed in quitting. Affective attitudes might influence health-related intentions and behavior. Emotional attachment to tobacco brands is an aspect of such affective attitudes. The aim of this study is to investigate emotional attachment to the personal snus or cigarette pack, as well as associations with quitting plans, among snus users and smokers. A sample of 1,450 smokers and 1,423 snus users (16-83 years, mean age 41 years, 41% women) was recruited from a web panel and weighted according to national statistics on smoking and snus use. Positive package-related feelings loaded on a single component in principal component analysis. Multinomial adjusted regressions were performed for smokers and snus users, with quitting plans as the dependent variable (no quitting plan, plan to quit within 6 months, plan to quit later) and emotional attachment as an independent variable. Smokers and snus users often endorsed statements expressing positive feelings related to buying and using their choice of tobacco brand, with endorsements ranging from 17% to 73%. Adjusted multinomial regressions showed that emotional attachment was associated with lower likelihood of planning to quit smoking within the next 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.68, p < .001) and lower likelihood of planning to quit snus use within the next 6 months (AOR = 0.54, p < .001) or later (AOR = 0.81, p < .01). Emotional attachment to tobacco brands is negatively associated with quitting plans among smokers and snus users. Policies to reduce brand attachment might lead to increased quitting plans and potentially increased quit attempts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Asociación , Emociones , Motivación , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar/psicología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Tabaco sin Humo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega , Oportunidad Relativa , Tabaquismo/rehabilitación , Adulto Joven
15.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 19(75): 505-520, sept. 2019. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-187228

RESUMEN

La presente investigación pretende definir y contrastar un modelo explicativo del consumo de alcohol y tabaco, y la práctica de actividad física en función de las cinco dimensiones del autoconcepto en una muestra de 2.134 adolescentes de la provincia de Granada (España). Los instrumentos empleados fueron el Cuestionario de Autoconcepto Forma-5, Test para la Identificación de Trastornos en el Uso de Alcohol-AUDIT, Test para la Dependencia a la Nicotina-FTND y un cuestionario ad-hoc para controlar la práctica de actividad física. En esta investigación se planteó un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales que se ajustó de forma adecuada (χ2 = 79,476; gl = 8; p = 0,000; CFI = 0,968; NFI = 0,964; IFI = 0,968; RMSEA = 0,065). Los resultados obtenidos muestran una relación positiva entre el consumo de alcohol y el consumo de tabaco, y relaciones negativas entre el autoconcepto familiar, emocional y académico con el consumo de alcohol


The present research aims to define and contrast an explanatory model of alcohol and tobacco consumption, and the practice of physical activity according to the five dimensions of self-concept in a sample of 2.134 adolescents from the province of Granada (Spain). The instruments used were the Self-concept Questionnaire Form-5, Test for the Identification of Disorders in the Use of Alcohol-AUDIT, Test for the Nicotine-FTND Unit and an ad-hoc questionnaire to control the practice of physical activity. In this research, a model of structural equations was presented that was adjusted appropriately (χ2 = 79.476, gl = 8, p = 0,000, CFI = 0,968, NFI = 0,964, IFI = 0,968, RMSEA = 0,065). The results obtained show a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and tobacco consumption, and negative relationships between family, emotional and academic self-concept with alcohol consumption


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Autoimagen , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Noxas/toxicidad , Alcoholismo/psicología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Modelos Estructurales , Psicología del Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , España
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 203: 66-71, 2019 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404851

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST) use in South Asia, ST dependence in this population has not been studied. Therefore, it is of interest to explore if ST dependence measures developed and validated in the western countries are of similar relevance to ST users who are culturally different and use distinct ST products. The aim of this study is to assess ST dependence among its users in Bangladesh by employing ST dependence scales based on three different approaches to measure tobacco dependence. METHODS: Data collected from a community-based sample of exclusive ST users living in Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 200) were used for this study. Three ST dependence measures, Tobacco Dependence Screener (TDS), Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence for ST users (FTND-ST), and Oklahoma Scale for Smokeless Tobacco Dependence (OSSTD), were translated in Bangla and administered to the study participants. Saliva samples were collected for cotinine measurement. Reliability and concurrent and construct validity of FTND-ST and OSSTD were examined. RESULTS: Median cotinine concentration of the study participants was 440.2 (min = 2.9, max = 1874) ng/ml and 47% of them had TDS-based dependence diagnosis. Women had higher mean OSSTD, FTND-ST, and TDS scores as compared to men (p < 0.001). OSSTD demonstrated better reliability (α = 0.93) than FTND-ST, and TDS (α = 0.64 and 0.86, respectively). Concurrent validity of FTND-ST as evaluated by TDS, OSSTD, and cotinine concentration was affirmative. CONCLUSION: The FTND-ST is a valid and reliable tool to measure physical dependence among ST users in Bangladesh. The study was unable to replicate the structure of OSSTD.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/psicología , Autoinforme/normas , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Tabaco sin Humo/efectos adversos , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Cotinina/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Saliva/química , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tabaquismo/diagnóstico , Tabaco sin Humo/análisis , Adulto Joven
17.
Health Psychol ; 38(12): 1069-1074, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436440

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Given the number of annual interactions between people who smoke and health care providers, even low-efficacy interventions would be expected to have a large cumulative effect on smoking prevalence. Efforts to improve uptake of tobacco dependence treatment guidelines have had limited success. It remains unclear whether complex social motivations influence treatment decision-making among providers, despite widespread understanding of the condition's impact on morbidity. METHOD: Clinicians from across the United States participated in a computer-based survey of potential explicit tobacco treatment biases, relative to care of hypertension. Items corresponded to framework domains of Weiner's causal attribution theory of social motivation (Weiner, 1993). Single-word, open-response items were used to gain insight into the frequency of spontaneous perceptions regarding treatment of each condition. Implicit association testing (IAT) measured strength of association between images of smoking and evaluation of guilt versus innocence. RESULTS: Significant differences in agreement scores were identified within the causal attribution, emotional response, and help investment domains. Single-word answers confirmed a significant difference in emotional response to tobacco treatment (28.1% vs. 10.5%, p = .02), and suggested the difference was driven by the frequent perception of frustration (75% vs. 0%, p = .07). IAT revealed incompatibility between images of smoking and words conveying "innocence" compared with "guilt" (latency 1,846 ms vs. 1,113 ms, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Complex social motivations may be operational in the context of tobacco dependence treatment, limiting provider willingness to follow treatment guidelines. If confirmed, this represents a critical obstacle to sophisticated guideline implementation, and should be addressed in future implementation strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Fumar/psicología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 473, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370907

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Current literature suggests there may be a relationship between sex hormones, which dramatically increase during pregnancy, and nicotine use behaviors. We hypothesized that higher progesterone and progesterone:estradiol ratio (P/E2) would be associated with less smoking-related symptomatology (SRS), better mood and fewer cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) during ad libitum smoking and following overnight abstinence in pregnant women. Associations between SRS, mood, smoking behavior and sex hormones were estimated using multiple linear regression with adjustment for CPD and pregnancy trimester. RESULTS: There were 35 second trimester and 42 third trimester participants. Participants mean age was 26.2 (SD: 4.1), they smoked 11.3 CPD (SD: 4.4) and the mean nicotine dependence score was 4.94 (SD: 1.98). There were no statistically significant associations between progesterone levels, estradiol levels, or the P/E2 ratio and SRS or mood measures during ad libitum smoking or following overnight abstinence in this sample of pregnant women. Similarly, there were no associations between sex hormone levels and number of CPD smoked during the ad libitum period. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no significant associations between sex hormones and SRS, mood or smoking behavior in this sample of pregnant women. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01811225), December 6, 2012.


Asunto(s)
Fumadores/psicología , Fumar/psicología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Adulto , Afecto/fisiología , Estudios Transversales , Estradiol/sangre , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Embarazo , Segundo Trimestre del Embarazo , Tercer Trimestre del Embarazo , Progesterona/sangre , Fumar/sangre , Tabaquismo/sangre
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450707

RESUMEN

Stress is robustly associated with tobacco smoking and relapse. African Americans experience greater difficulty quitting compared to whites, yet no studies have examined race differences in physiological stress biomarkers during a quit attempt. This pilot study compared cortisol levels among treatment-seeking African American and white smokers, and relapse rates. Adult smokers (N = 115; n = 72 African American, n = 43 White) received eight sessions of group cognitive behavioral therapy plus transdermal nicotine patches. Assessments included demographics, salivary cortisol (collected at session 1, the end-of-therapy [EOT], and one-month post-therapy), and carbon monoxide-verified smoking relapse. Overall, cortisol levels declined over the course of the day at baseline, the EOT, and the one-month follow-up. African Americans exhibited lower cortisol levels compared to Whites at baseline and the EOT, but not at the one-month follow-up. In addition, African American smokers exhibited flatter slopes compared to Whites at each time point. Relapse rates were greater among African Americans at the EOT and one-month follow-up. The attenuated cortisol pattern observed in African Americans may indicate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) exhaustion and aid our understanding of tobacco-related disparities. There is a need to focus on stress mechanisms and specific intervention approaches in order to eliminate racial/ethnic differences.


Asunto(s)
Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Estrés Fisiológico , Fumar Tabaco , Tabaquismo , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Grupos de Población Continentales , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/etnología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar Tabaco/sangre , Fumar Tabaco/etnología , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Fumar Tabaco/terapia , Dispositivos para Dejar de Fumar Tabaco , Tabaquismo/sangre , Tabaquismo/etnología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Tabaquismo/terapia
20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 203: 83-87, 2019 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408770

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As of March 2019, JUUL electronic cigarettes are the most popular e-cigarette on the U.S. market, but little is known of nicotine exposure and dependence on JUUL and user experience. METHODS: JUUL users participated in a community-based study involving questionnaires, saliva collection and a qualitative interview. RESULTS: Fifteen participants were enrolled (80% male, 53% White) and had an average age of 29.8 (standard deviation = 10) years. Daily exposure to nicotine assessed via salivary cotinine was similar to those reported for other e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette users in general. The majority reported low to moderate nicotine dependence. Qualitative interview themes included: the importance of social networks in adoption and use of the product; device features such as small size and vapor cloud reinforced product use; the product provided satisfaction compared to a tobacco cigarette; and a perceived sense of addiction to the product. CONCLUSIONS: JUUL e-cigarettes expose users to levels of nicotine similar to other e-cigarettes but may be more satisfying due to unique device features. JUUL may be quite acceptable to tobacco cigarette smokers who are seeking to quit. However, it holds addictive potential and can reinforce long-term nicotine use.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Nicotina/administración & dosificación , Satisfacción Personal , Refuerzo en Psicología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Adulto , Conducta Adictiva/inducido químicamente , Conducta Adictiva/diagnóstico , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Cotinina/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nicotina/efectos adversos , Nicotina/análisis , Saliva/química , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tabaquismo/diagnóstico , Tabaquismo/terapia , Adulto Joven
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