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1.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271232, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853079

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis (NCC) can be studied using several animal species in experimental models which contributes to the understanding of the human form of the disease. Experimental infections of Taenia spp. are vital in explaining the modes of transmission of the parasite and helps the understanding of transmission of the parasite in humans and thus may be useful in designing therapeutic and immune-prophylactic studies to combat the disease. Thus, this systematic review aims to explore the existing experimental animal models to the understanding of cysticercosis in both humans and animals and elucidate the risk factors of cysticercosis and identify the Taenia spp. used in these models. METHODOLOGY: We systematically identified all publications from the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Pubmed regarding experimental animal models using Taenia spp. that cause cysticercosis in both humans and animals. 58 studies were identified for eligibility. Of these, only 48 studies met the inclusion criteria from which data extraction was done and presented descriptively. RESULTS: Pigs, cattle, gerbils, mice, rats, voles, monkeys, cats, dogs, and goats were used in which T. solium, T. saginata, T. saginata asiatica, T. crassiceps and T. asiatica were studied. The routes used to induce disease were; oral, intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intraarterial, intracranial, intraduodenal, and surgical routes using eggs, oncospheres, and proglottids. Besides, the establishment of infection using eggs and oncospheres was affected by the route used to induce infection in the experimental animals. The cysticerci recovery rate in all the experimental studies was low and the number of animals used in these experiments varied from 1 to 84. Although not analysed statistically, sex, age, and breed of animals influenced the cysticerci recovery rate. Additionally, the cysticerci recovery rate and antibody-antigen levels were shown to increase with an increase in the dose of oncospheres and eggs inoculated in the animals. Contrasting results were reported in which the cysticerci recovery rate decreased with an increase in the dose of eggs inoculated. CONCLUSION: This review describes the various animal experiments using Taenia species that cause cysticercosis highlighting the animals used, age and their breed, the routes of infection used to induce disease and the sample size used, and the cysticerci recovery rate in these animal models.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis , Neurocisticercosis , Taenia solium , Taenia , Animales , Bovinos , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cysticercus , Perros , Humanos , Ratones , Modelos Animales , Ratas , Porcinos
2.
Neurol India ; 70(3): 1032-1040, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864635

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) due to Taenia Solium is a major public health problem. Our objective was to study patients with disseminated cysticercosis (DCC) who had NCC in the brain along with an additional site in the body and assess their clinical, radiological profile, and response to therapy. Materials and Methods: A chart review of DCC with a high lesion load of NCC ≥20 (DNCC) in the brain was performed. Results: Sixteen (M:F = 13:3) patients were diagnosed with DNCC with a mean age of presentation of 35.1 ± 14.2 years. Headache was the predominant symptom, followed by seizures (93.75%), vomiting (43.75%), behavioral disturbances (31.25%), fever (12.5%), encephalopathy (12.5%), visual disturbances (6.25%), and muscle pain and limb weakness (6.25%). CT brain showed multiple active parenchymal cysts in all, and calcifications in 68.75%. MRI brain revealed involvement of cortex and subcortical structures in all, followed by cerebellum (81.25%) and brainstem (75%). Intramedullary spinal lesion was observed in 12.5% cases. Albendazole with steroids was used in 15 patients. In 93.3% patients, there was complete improvement in seizures; 12.5% subjects had persistent memory and behavioral abnormalities. One subject required decompressive craniectomy; mortality was observed in two subjects. Conclusions: We hereby report one of the largest case series on disseminated cysticercosis with a high lesion load of NCC in the brain. A comprehensive clinical, imaging, therapeutic response with repeat imaging and long-term follow-up has given us a better understanding of this difficult-to-treat neurological disorder. We suggest cautious use of anti-parasitic therapy under the cover of corticosteroids to prevent irreversible neurological sequelae.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis , Quistes , Neurocisticercosis , Taenia solium , Adulto , Animales , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neurocisticercosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Neurocisticercosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Convulsiones , Adulto Joven
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(7): e0010606, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834558

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium (neuro-)cysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease, can be associated with epileptic seizures and other neuropsychiatric (= neurological and psychiatric) disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the association of T. solium cysticercosis with selected neuropsychiatric disorders and/or symptoms (chronic headache, epileptic seizures/epilepsy and psychosis) in Mocuba district, Mozambique. METHODOLOGY: Between March and May 2018, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,086 participants aged 2 years or above in Mocuba district, Zambézia province, central Mozambique, to assess the seroprevalence of human cysticercosis and risk factors for infection, as well as to explore its relation to selected neuropsychiatric disorders. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected from each participant using a modified questionnaire designed by the Cysticercosis Working Group for Eastern and Southern Africa. Additionally, neuropsychiatric disorders, such as chronic headache, epileptic seizures/epilepsy and psychosis were assessed using four vignettes. T. solium antigen and cysticercosis IgG in serum were detected using both T. solium antigen B158/B60 enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and LDBIO Cysticercosis Western Blot, respectively. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 112/1,086 participants (10.3%) were sero-positive for T. solium antigen or antibodies. Prevalence of antibodies (6.6%; n = 72) was higher than of antigens (4.9%; n = 54). In the questionnaires, 530 (49.5%) of participants reported chronic headache, 293 (27%) had generalized epileptic seizures, 188 (18%) focal seizures and 183 (18.3%) psychosis. We found a statistically significant association between seropositivity for T. solium and chronic headache (p = 0.013). Additionally, increasing age (p = 0.03) was associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that in Mocuba, T. solium cysticercosis is prevalent and associated with self-reported chronic headache. Additionally, in the study setting, the seroprevalence of cysticercosis increased with age. However, it is not associated with other neuropsychiatric disorders such epileptic seizures/epilepsy and psychosis. Future studies are needed to confirm the high burden of neuropsychiatric disorders and their possible etiology, including neurocysticercosis, using additional serological, molecular biological and radiological diagnostic tools, as well as in-depth clinical examinations.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis , Epilepsia , Trastornos de Cefalalgia , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Taenia solium , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/etiología , Humanos , Mozambique/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Convulsiones/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(7): e0010567, 2022 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793356

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium is the most significant global foodborne parasite and the leading cause of preventable human epilepsy in low and middle-income countries in the form of neurocysticercosis. OBJECTIVES: This scoping review aimed to examine the methodology of peer-reviewed studies that estimate the burden of T. solium using disability-adjusted life years. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies must have calculated disability-adjusted life years relating to T. solium. CHARTING METHODS: The review process was managed by a single reviewer using Rayyan. Published data relating to disease models, data sources, disability-adjusted life years, sensitivity, uncertainty, missing data, and key limitations were collected. RESULTS: 15 studies were included for review, with seven global and eight national or sub-national estimates. Studies primarily employed attributional disease models that relied on measuring the occurrence of epilepsy before applying an attributable fraction to estimate the occurrence of neurocysticercosis-associated epilepsy. This method relies heavily on the extrapolation of observational studies across populations and time periods; however, it is currently required due to the difficulties in diagnosing neurocysticercosis. Studies discussed that a lack of data was a key limitation and their results likely underestimate the true burden of T. solium. Methods to calculate disability-adjusted life years varied across studies with differences in approaches to time discounting, age weighting, years of life lost, and years of life lived with disability. Such differences limit the ability to compare estimates between studies. CONCLUSIONS: This review illustrates the complexities associated with T. solium burden of disease studies and highlights the potential need for a burden of disease reporting framework. The burden of T. solium is likely underestimated due to the challenges in diagnosing neurocysticercosis and a lack of available data. Advancement in diagnostics, further observational studies, and new approaches to parameterising disease models are required if estimates are to improve.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Animales , Epilepsia , Neurocisticercosis , Taenia solium , Animales , Costo de Enfermedad , Años de Vida Ajustados por Discapacidad , Epilepsia/parasitología , Humanos , Neurocisticercosis/complicaciones , Neurocisticercosis/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercosis/epidemiología
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(3): 286-291, 2022 Jun 24.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896492

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To conduct eukaryotic expression of the leucine-rich repeat containing 15 (LRRC15), a differentially expressed protein in excretory secretory antigens of Taenia solium cysticercus, and predict its antigen epitope. METHODS: The molecular weight, stability, amino acid sequence composition, isoelectric point and T lymphocyte epitope of the LRRC15 protein were predicted using the bioinformatics online softwares ExPASy-PortParam and Protean. The full-length splicing primers were designed using PCR-based accurate synthesis, and the LRRC15 gene was synthesized. The recombinant pcDNA3.4-LRRC15 plasmid was constructed and transfected into HEK293 cells to express the LRRC15 protein. In addition, the LRRC15 protein was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting. RESULTS: The recombinant pcDNA3.4-LRRC15 plasmid was successfully constructed, which expressed the target LRRC15 protein with an approximately molecular weight of 70 kDa. Bioinformatics prediction with the ExPASy-PortParam software showed that LRRC15 was a hydrophilic protein, which was consisted of 644 amino acids and had a molecular weight of 69.89 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.6. The molecular formula of the LRRC15 protein was C3073H4942N846O953S28 and had an instability coefficient is 50.3, indicating that LRRC15 was an instable protein. Bioinformatics prediction with the Protean software showed that the dominant T-cell antigen epitopes were located in 292 to 295, 353 to 361, 521 to 526 and 555 to 564 amino acids of the LRRC15 protein, and the T-cell antigen epitopes with a high hydrophilicity, good flexibility, high surface accessibility and high antigenicity index were found in 122 to 131, 216 to 233, 249 to 254, 333 to 343, 358 to 361, 368 to 372, 384 to 386, 407 to 412, 445 to 450, 469 to 481, 553 to 564, 588 to 594, 607 to 617 and 624 to 639 amino acids. Following transfection of the recombinant pcDNA3.4-LRRC15 plasmid into HEK293 cells, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting identified LRRC15 proteins in cell secretory culture media, cell lysis supernatants and sediments. The LRRC15-His fusion protein was purified from the cell culture medium, and SDS-PAGE identified a remarkable band at approximately 70 kDa, while Western blotting successfully recognized the band of the recombinant LRRC15 protein. CONCLUSIONS: The eukaryotic expression and antigen epitope prediction of the LRRC15 protein in the excretory secretory antigens of T. solium cysticercus have been successfully performed, which provides insights into further understandings of its biological functions.


Asunto(s)
Taenia solium , Aminoácidos , Animales , Antígenos Helmínticos/genética , Cysticercus/genética , Epítopos/genética , Eucariontes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas Repetidas Ricas en Leucina , Proteínas de la Membrana , Taenia solium/genética
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 534, 2022 Jun 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692033

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniasis (TSCT) is reported to be endemic in pig producing areas around the world, causing significant disease burden and economic losses. METHODS: This cross-sectional study aimed at assessing Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) regarding TSCT in four districts, namely Mbulu, Mpwapwa, Mbinga, and Rungwe in Tanzania. Data on KAP were collected through questionnaire-based interviews and household infrastructure observations. RESULTS: Knowledge about porcine cysticercosis was good, particularly among pig keepers across the districts. Many participants had heard about the pork tapeworm (T. solium taeniasis), and the knowledge about signs/symptoms and treatment was fair, but the means of transmission and prevention measures were often unknown. Whilst most participants were familiar with epilepsy, no one knew anything about human cysticercosis and the link between cysticercosis and epileptic seizures. A similar trend is reflected through the attitudes toward the low risk perception of cysticercosis infection. Not surprisingly, the risk perception of the infection with the pork tapeworm was low too. Many participants reported not washing their hands before eating or after using the toilet which highlights potential risks for the development of human cysticercosis. Albeit nearly every participant reported using the toilet always, household observations revealed that toilets were either lacking or had no complete walls. Generally, household observations revealed a discrepancy between questionnaire answers on the one hand and the availability of toilet and handwashing facilities and the confinement of pigs on the other hand. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates knowledge gaps and adverse practices which may hinder and/or slow down the control/elimination of T. solium in endemic countries. The study results are also useful for appropriate designing of TSCT health interventions that need to be planned carefully, taking into account the local context and designing TSCT in partnership with the local communities from the beginning to the end applying a One Health approach to allow the possible sustained and best impacts.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis , Epilepsia , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Taenia solium , Teniasis , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Teniasis/epidemiología , Teniasis/prevención & control , Tanzanía/epidemiología
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010449, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653367

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the infection of the human central nervous system (CNS) by Taenia solium larvae that cause significant neurological morbidity. Studies on NCC pathophysiology, host-parasite interactions or therapeutic agents are limited by the lack of suitable animal models. We have previously reported that carotid injection of activated T. solium oncospheres directs parasites into the CNS and consistently reproduces NCC. This study assessed the minimal dose required to consistently obtain NCC by intracarotid oncosphere injection and compared antigen and antibody response profiles by dose-group. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three groups of pigs were infected with either 2500 (n = 10), 5000 (n = 11), or 10000 (n = 10) oncospheres. Two pigs died during the study. Necropsy exam at day 150 post-infection (PI) demonstrated viable NCC in 21/29 pigs (72.4%), with higher NCC rates with increasing oncosphere doses (4/9 [44.4%], 9/11 [81.8%] and 8/9 [88.9%] for 2500, 5000, and 10000 oncospheres respectively, P for trend = 0.035). CNS cyst burden was also higher in pigs with increasing doses (P for trend = 0.008). Viable and degenerated muscle cysticerci were also found in all pigs, with degenerated cysticerci more frequent in the 2500 oncosphere dose-group. All pigs were positive for circulating parasite antigens on ELISA (Ag-ELISA) from day 14 PI; circulating antigens markedly increased at day 30 PI and remained high with plateau levels in pigs infected with either 5000 or 10000 oncospheres, but not in pigs infected with 2500 oncospheres. Specific antibodies appeared at day 30 PI and were not different between dose-groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Intracarotid injection of 5000 or more oncospheres produces high NCC rates in pigs with CNS cyst burdens like those usually found in human NCC, making this model appropriate for studies on the pathogenesis of NCC and the effects of antiparasitic treatment.


Asunto(s)
Quistes del Sistema Nervioso Central , Neurocisticercosis , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Taenia solium , Animales , Cysticercus , Neurocisticercosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(5): e0010442, 2022 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617367

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antigen tests for diagnosis and disease monitoring in some types of neurocysticercosis (NCC) are useful but access to testing has been limited by availability of proprietary reagents and/or kits. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three previously identified IgM-secreting hybridomas whose IgM products demonstrated specificity to Taenia solium underwent variable heavy and light chain sequencing and isotype conversion to mouse IgG. Screening of these recombinantly expressed IgG anti-Ts hybridomas, identified one (TsG10) with the highest affinity to crude Taenia antigen. TsG10 was then used as a capture antibody in a sandwich antigen detection immunoassay in combination with either a high titer polyclonal anti-Ts antibody or with biotinylated TsG10 (termed TsG10*bt). Using serum, plasma, and CSF samples from patients with active NCC and those from NCC-uninfected patients, ROC curve analyses demonstrated that the TsG10-TsG10-*bt assay achieved a 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity in detecting samples known to be antigen positive and outperformed the polyclonal based assay (sensitivity of 93% with 100% specificity). By comparing levels of Ts antigen (Ag) in paired CSF (n = 10) or plasma/serum (n = 19) samples from well-characterized patients with extra-parenchymal NCC early in infection and at the time of definitive cure, all but 2 (1 from CSF and 1 from plasma) became undetectable. There was a high degree of correlation (r = 0.98) between the Ag levels detected by this new assay and levels found by a commercial assay. Pilot studies indicate that this antigen can be detected in the urine of patients with active NCC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A newly developed recombinant monoclonal antibody-based Ts Ag detection immunoassay is extremely sensitive in the detection of extra-parenchymal NCC and can be used to monitor the success of treatment in the CSF, serum/plasma and urine. The ability to produce recombinant TsG10 at scale should enable use of this antigen detection immunoassay wherever NCC is endemic. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00001205 - & NCT00001645.


Asunto(s)
Neurocisticercosis , Taenia solium , Animales , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos , Antígenos Helmínticos , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G , Inmunoglobulina M , Ratones , Neurocisticercosis/diagnóstico , Proteínas Recombinantes , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Taenia solium/genética
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 876839, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35619649

RESUMEN

Human cysticercosis by Taenia solium is the major cause of neurological illness in countries of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Americas. Publication of four cestode genomes (T. solium, Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus and Hymenolepis microstoma) in the last decade, marked the advent of novel approaches on the study of the host-parasite molecular crosstalk for cestode parasites of importance for human and animal health. Taenia crassiceps is another cestode parasite, closely related to T. solium, which has been used in numerous studies as an animal model for human cysticercosis. Therefore, characterization of the T. crassiceps genome will also contribute to the understanding of the human infection. Here, we report the genome of T. crassiceps WFU strain, reconstructed to a noncontiguous finished resolution and performed a genomic and differential expression comparison analysis against ORF strain. Both strain genomes were sequenced using Oxford Nanopore (MinION) and Illumina technologies, achieving high quality assemblies of about 107 Mb for both strains. Dotplot comparison between WFU and ORF demonstrated that both genomes were extremely similar. Additionally, karyotyping results for both strains failed to demonstrate a difference in chromosome composition. Therefore, our results strongly support the concept that the absence of scolex in the ORF strain of T. crassiceps was not the result of a chromosomal loss as proposed elsewhere. Instead, it appears to be the result of subtle and extensive differences in the regulation of gene expression. Analysis of variants between the two strains identified 2,487 sites with changes distributed in 31 of 65 scaffolds. The differential expression analysis revealed that genes related to development and morphogenesis in the ORF strain might be involved in the lack of scolex formation.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis , Taenia solium , África , Animales , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Genómica , Humanos , Taenia solium/genética
10.
Acta Trop ; 232: 106517, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595093

RESUMEN

There is a lack of vaccine against human cysticercosis, thus making a huge population at the risk of infection. In this study, we chose a novel potential antigen molecule Taenia solium 14-3-3.3 (Ts14-3-3.3) and optimized it as sp-Ts14-3-3.3 (sp is immunoglobulin H chain V-region precursor, partial) in order to construct recombinant plasmids pMZ-X3-Ts14-3-3.3 and pMZ-X3-sp-Ts14-3-3.3. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups for immunization: pMZ-X3-Ts14-3-3.3, pMZ-X3-sp-Ts14-3-3.3, pMZ-X3 plasmid control group and PBS control group. Compared with two control groups, the proliferation level of splenic lymphocytes increased significantly in pMZ-X3-Ts14-3-3.3 and pMZ-X3-sp-Ts14-3-3.3 groups and reached the maximum in week 6. And the same case arose as cytokines associated with Th1 response, IFN-γ, and IL-2 while those with Th2 response, IL-4, IL-10 went up and reached the maximum in week 4. The levels of serum specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a rose and reached the maximum in week 6, 4 and 6, respectively. Meanwhile, the proportion of CD4+/CD8+ splenic T lymphocytes increased and reached the peak in week 6. The results indicated that the recombinant plasmids pMZ-X3-Ts14-3-3.3 and pMZ-X3-sp-Ts14-3-3.3 can induce specific cellular and humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice with immunization. Notably, the recombinant plasmid pMZ-X3-sp-Ts14-3-3.3 has a better immune effect, which proves that Ts14-3-3.3 enjoys a higher possibility as a potential antigen molecule to T. solium vaccine.


Asunto(s)
Taenia solium , Vacunas , Animales , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos , Inmunidad , Inmunoglobulina G , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Plásmidos/genética , Taenia solium/genética
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 150, 2022 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477431

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium typically affects resource-poor communities where pigs are allowed to roam freely, and sanitation and hygiene levels are suboptimal. Sustainable, long-term strategies are urgently needed to control the disease. Geographically targeted interventions, i.e. screening or treatment of taeniosis among people living near infected pigs (defined as ring screening and ring treatment, respectively), have been shown to be effective control options in Peru. However, these results might not be directly generalizable to sub-Saharan African settings. Pig movements play a vital role in the transmission and, consequently, the success of ring interventions against T. solium. The aim of the present study was to explore roaming patterns of pigs in T. solium endemic communities in Zambia as a first step toward evaluating whether ring interventions should be considered as a treatment option in Zambia. METHODS: In total, 48 free-roaming pigs in two rural neighborhoods in the Eastern Province of Zambia were tracked using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Tracking took place in April (end of the rainy season) 2019 and October (end of the dry season) 2019. The number of revisitations and the time spent within rings of different radii (50, 100 and 250 m) around the coordinates of each pig owner's household were calculated for each pig. RESULTS: The total tracking time for 43 pigs in the final analysis set ranged between 43 and 94 h. Pigs spent a median of 31% and 13% of the tracked time outside the 50- and 100-m radius, respectively, although large variations were observed between pigs. Overall, 25 pigs (58%) went outside the 250-m ring at least once, and individual excursions lasting up to 16 h were observed. In the dry season, 17 out of 23 pigs went outside the 250-m radius compared to only eight out of 20 pigs in the rainy season (P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: In our study sites in Zambia, the majority of pigs spent most of their time within 50 or 100 m of their owner's home, and these results are comparable with those on Peruvian pigs. Both radii could therefore be considered reasonable options in future ring interventions.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Taenia solium , Animales , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Humanos , Población Rural , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Zambia/epidemiología
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(4): e0010265, 2022 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404983

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infections with the tapeworm Taenia solium (taeniosis and cysticercosis) are Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) highly endemic in Madagascar. These infections are however underdiagnosed, underreported and their burden at the community level remains unknown especially in rural remote settings. This study aims at assessing the prevalence of T. solium infections and associated risk factors in twelve remote villages surrounding Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Ifanadiana District, Madagascar. METHODOLOGY: A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in June 2016. Stool and serum samples were collected from participants. Tapeworm carriers were identified by stool examination. Taenia species and T. solium genotypes were characterised by PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. Detection of specific anti-cysticercal antibodies (IgG) or circulating cysticercal antigens was performed by ELISA or EITB/Western blot assays. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the 459 participants with paired stool and blood samples included ten participants from seven distinct villages harbored Taenia spp. eggs in their stools samples DNA sequencing of the cox1 gene revealed a majority of T. solium Asian genotype (9/10) carriage. The overall seroprevalences of anti-cysticercal IgGs detected by ELISA and EITB were quite similar (27.5% and 29.8% respectively). A prevalence rate of 12.4% of circulating cysticercal antigens was observed reflecting cysticercosis with viable cysts. Open defecation (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3) and promiscuity with households of more than 4 people (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) seem to be the main risk factors associated with anticysticercal antibodies detection. Being over 15 years of age would be a risk factor associated with an active cysticercosis (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.7). Females (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) and use of river as house water source (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-1.5) were less likely to have cysticercosis with viable cysts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicates a high exposure of the investigated population to T. solium infections with a high prevalence of cysticercosis with viable cysts. These data can be useful to strengthen public health interventions in these remote settings.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis , Quistes , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Taenia solium , Teniasis , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cysticercus , Femenino , Humanos , Madagascar/epidemiología , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Prevalencia , Bosque Lluvioso , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Taenia solium/genética , Teniasis/epidemiología
14.
EMBO Rep ; 23(5): e55054, 2022 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357756

RESUMEN

Parasitic helminths are often associated with immunoregulation, which allows them to survive in their hosts in the face of type 2 immune responses. They achieve this feat through the secretion of multiple immunomodulatory factors. In this issue of EMBO Reports, Prodjinotho et al show that the parasitic cestode Taenia solium induces regulatory T-cell responses in mice and humans through the release of the metabolic enzyme Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), which may be a conserved pathway of immunoregulation in many helminths (Prodjinotho et al, 2022).


Asunto(s)
Helmintos , Parásitos , Taenia solium , Animales , Glutamato Deshidrogenasa , Ratones , Linfocitos T Reguladores
15.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 80(3): 248-254, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239816

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The burden of premature mortality associated with human cysticercosis is largely ignored mainly due to poor record-keeping in Taenia solium endemic regions. OBJECTIVE: To document mortality and survival characteristics of an historical cohort with cysticercosis. METHODS: The years of onset of symptoms and death untill 1957 were extracted from published reports of a British military cohort (n=450) examined in London in the early twentieth century. Data were entered into a Kaplan Meier survival analysis with the presence (or absence) of clinical manifestations as independent variables, which were then fitted into a Cox proportional hazards model to determine their significance. RESULTS: Cysticercosis was responsible for 24 (52.2%) of 46 deaths in the first 15 years of follow-up in comparison to 7 (19.4%) of 36 deaths in the 20-40 years of follow-up period. In the univariate and Cox analyses, intracranial hypertension (hazard ratio [HR]: 8.26; CI: 4.71, 14.49), ocular cysticercosis (HR: 6.60; CI: 3.04, 14.33), and mental disorder (HR: 3.98; CI: 2.22, 7.13) but not epilepsy (HR: 0.66; CI: 0.20, 2.18) were associated with mortality. Over half of all deaths in the first 15 years of follow-up were attributed to cysticercosis. CONCLUSIONS: Several deaths occurred early after acquiring cysticercotic infection. Intracranial hypertension, ocular cysticercosis, and mental disorder but not epilepsy were predictors of mortality in this cohort.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis , Epilepsia , Hipertensión Intracraneal , Taenia solium , Animales , Cisticercosis/complicaciones , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/historia , Epilepsia/complicaciones , Humanos , Reino Unido/epidemiología
16.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264898, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286329

RESUMEN

Taenia solium is an important cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide and remains endemic in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Transmission of this parasite is still poorly understood despite the design of infection experiments to improve our knowledge of the disease, with estimates for critical epidemiological parameters, such as the probability of human-to-pig infection after exposure to eggs, still lacking. In this paper, a systematic review was carried out and eight pig infection experiments were analyzed to describe the probability of developing cysts. These experiments included different pathways of inoculation: with ingestion of proglottids, eggs, and beetles that ingested eggs, and direct injection of activated oncospheres into the carotid artery. In these experiments, different infective doses were used, and the numbers of viable and degenerated cysts in the body and brain of each pig were registered. Five alternative dose-response models (exponential, logistic, log-logistic, and exact and approximate beta-Poisson) were assessed for their accuracy in describing the observed probabilities of cyst development as a function of the inoculation dose. Dose-response models were developed separately for the presence of three types of cysts (any, viable only, and cysts in the brain) and considered for each of the four inoculation methods ("Proglottids", "Eggs", "Beetles" and "Carotid"). The exact beta-Poisson model best fit the data for the three types of cysts and all relevant exposure pathways. However, observations for some exposure pathways were too scarce to reliably define a dose-response curve with any model. A wide enough range of doses and sufficient sample sizes was only found for the "Eggs" pathway and a merged "Oral" pathway combining the "Proglottids", "Eggs" and "Beetles" pathways. Estimated parameter values from this model suggest that a low infective dose is sufficient to result in a 50% probability for the development of any cyst or for viable cyst infections. Although this is a preliminary model reliant on a limited dataset, the parameters described in this manuscript should contribute to the design of future experimental infections related to T. solium transmission, as well as the parameterization of simulation models of transmission aimed at informing control.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Cisticercosis , Quistes , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Taenia solium , Animales , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología
17.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 46(1): 72-74, 2022 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35232709

RESUMEN

Human cysticercosis is an emerging infection caused by the larvae of Taenia solium (Cysticercus cellulosae). The most common sites for cysticercosis are the central nervous system, subcutaneous tissues, eyes, and muscles. Isolated intramuscular cysticercosis without brain involvement is rare and only a few reports are available in children. Here, we report two children with isolated intramuscular cysticercosis who presented with the swellings that were diagnosed by ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Both of them responded well to steroids and albendazole treatment, showing a complete resolution of the swelling.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis , Taenia solium , Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Animales , Biopsia con Aguja Fina , Niño , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Cisticercosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Ultrasonografía
18.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 50(8): E214-E216, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35302290

RESUMEN

Human cysticercosis caused by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm-Taenia solium, is a potentially dangerous systemic disease with vague clinical manifestations. Subcutaneous and muscular tissues are most commonly involved followed by, the eye and brain. A variety of clinical presentations, pathology that ranges from simple cysts to calcified lesions, and limited familiarity with the parasitic infection can make it challenging to diagnose. Cysticercosis when present as an isolated lesion. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can play an important role in the early and rapid detection of this disease, particularly when the lesion is superficial and /or easily sampled. We report a case of cysticercosis diagnosed on FNAC in a 35-year-old female, who presented with an isolated swelling in the neck.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis , Taenia solium , Adulto , Animales , Biopsia con Aguja Fina , Cisticercosis/patología , Citodiagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Diagnóstico Erróneo
19.
Int J Parasitol ; 52(6): 377-383, 2022 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182540

RESUMEN

Racemose neurocysticercosis is an aggressive infection caused by the aberrant expansion of the cyst form of Taenia solium within the subarachnoid spaces of the human brain and spinal cord, resulting in the displacement of the surrounding host tissue and chronic inflammation. We previously demonstrated that the continued growth of the racemose bladder wall is associated with the presence of mitotically active cells but the nature and control of these proliferative cells are not well understood. Here, we demonstrated by immunofluorescence that the racemose cyst has an active mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signalling pathway that is inhibited after treatment with metformin, which reduces racemose cell proliferation in vitro, and reduces parasite growth in the murine model of Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis. Our findings indicate the importance of insulin receptor-mediated activation of the MAPK signalling pathway in the proliferation and growth of the bladder wall of the racemose cyst and its susceptibility to metformin action. The antiproliferative action of metformin may provide a new therapeutic approach against racemose neurocysticercosis.


Asunto(s)
Quistes , Metformina , Neurocisticercosis , Taenia solium , Animales , Humanos , Metformina/farmacología , Metformina/uso terapéutico , Ratones , Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por Mitógenos , Neurocisticercosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Neurocisticercosis/parasitología
20.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(6): 600-605, 2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35128890

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in the awareness rate of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among medical professionals before and after training in Fangcheng County, a disease-elimination pilot area of Henan Province, so as to evaluate the effectiveness of the training. METHODS: Three townships in Fangcheng County were randomly selected as the study townships, including Dushu, Bowang and Yangji townships, while Erlangmiao, Yanglou and Xiaoshidian townships in the county were randomly selected as the control townships. The grassroots medical professionals in the study townships were given once training on T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge each year from 2016 to 2020, while those in the control townships were given no interventions. All village-level doctors and a part of township-level public health professionals were sampled from the study and control townships as intervention and control groups. The baseline and final assessments of the awareness of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge were performed using questionnaire survey in intervention and control groups in 2016 and 2020, and the awareness of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge was compared between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 663 medical professionals were investigated in Fangcheng County from 2016 to 2020, including 474 participants in the intervention group and 189 participants in the control group. Results from the 2016 baseline survey showed that the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge was 28.83% (47/163) among grassroots medical professionals in Fangcheng County, and there were no significant differences in the awareness between the intervention (32.47%, 25/77) and control groups (25.58%, 22/86) (χ2 = 0.939, P > 0.05), between men (30.50%, 43/141) and women (18.18%, 4/22) (χ2 = 1.406, P > 0.05) or between village- (31.39%, 43/137) and township-level medical professionals (15.38%, 4/26) (χ2 = 2.727, P > 0.05), while significant differences were found in the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among medical professionals in terms of education levels (χ2 = 8.190, P < 0.05) and duration of working experiences (χ2 = 12.617, P < 0.05), and the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge increased with education levels among medical professionals (χ2 = 6.768, P < 0.05). Only 5.52% (9/163) of the medical professionals had a history of diagnosis and therapy of T. solium taeniasis or cysticercosis, and only 1.23% (2/163) received training on T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge during the past 5 years. Results from the 2020 questionnaire survey showed a higher awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among medical professionals in the intervention group (93.55%, 116/124) than in the control group (46.60%, 48/103) (χ2 = 61.845, P < 0.05), and no significant differences were seen in the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among medical professionals in terms of gender, level of medical professionals, duration of working experiences or history of diagnosis/therapy of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in the intervention group (χ2 = 1.089, 0.140, 0.081 and 0.453, all P values > 0.05), while there was a significant difference in the awareness rate among medical professionals with different education levels (χ2 = 36.338, P < 0.05). In addition, the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge significantly increased among medical professionals with various chracteristics in 2020 than in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: In the low-prevalence areas of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis, long-term and persistent training may improve the awareness of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among grassroots medical professionals, which facilitates the timely identification of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis and the establishment of a sensitive disease surveillance system.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis , Taenia solium , Teniasis , Animales , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/prevención & control , Femenino , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Conocimiento , Masculino , Teniasis/epidemiología , Teniasis/prevención & control
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