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1.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2521-2529, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591864

RESUMEN

The enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay to detect antibodies in serum is a complementary tool for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC). Presence of at least one glycoprotein band corresponding to a Taenia solium (T. solium) antigen indicates a positive result; however, EITB assays have multiple glycoprotein bands, and previous work has suggested that band patterns may have additional diagnostic value. We included 58 participants with a definitive diagnosis of NCC who received care at the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía in Mexico City. Three different EITB tests were applied to participants' serum samples (LDBio, France; US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]; and Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos [InDRE]). There was substantial variability in specific glycoprotein band patterns among the three assays. However, in age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression models, the number of glycoprotein bands was positively associated with the presence of vesicular extraparenchymal cysts (InDRE adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.60 p < 0.001; CDC aOR 6.31 p < 0.001; LDBio aOR 2.45 p < 0.001) and negatively associated with the presence of calcified parenchymal cysts (InDRE aOR 0.63 p < 0.001; CDC aOR 0.25 p < 0.001; LDBio aOR 0.44 p < 0.001). In a sensitivity analysis also adjusting for cyst count, results were similar. In all three EITB serum antibody tests, the number of glycoprotein bands consistently predicted cyst stage and location, although magnitude of effect differed.


Asunto(s)
Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Glicoproteínas/análisis , Proteínas del Helminto/análisis , Neurocisticercosis/diagnóstico , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/análisis , Antígenos Helmínticos/análisis , Antígenos Helmínticos/inmunología , Femenino , Francia , Glicoproteínas/inmunología , Proteínas del Helminto/inmunología , Humanos , Masculino , México , Neurocisticercosis/parasitología , Oportunidad Relativa , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Taenia solium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Taenia solium/inmunología
2.
Acta Trop ; 207: 105445, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224076

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to identify and treat carriers of adult Taenia solium present in two rural Venezuelan communities through examination of faecal samples by coproscopical analysis, and by the application of a polyclonal and a monoclonal (VP-1) coproantigen ELISA. Both the polyclonal and monoclonal ELISA's were negative when tested with soluble extracts of adults of Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana and Trichuris trichura. The polyclonal ELISA was positive for soluble extracts adults of T. solium and T. saginata, whereas the monoclonal ELISA, which recognizes a glycoprotein, was restricted to T. solium, and was also negative with faecal samples from five cases of T. saginata adult infections. In the first community studied, Potrero Largo (Total population: 300), of 248 faecal samples examined, 2 individuals were positive for Taenia spp eggs by coproscopical analysis and the VP-1 ELISA, and yielded T. solium adults upon purging. In contrast, when the polyclonal coproAg ELISA was applied to the same 248 faecal samples, there were a considerable number of positives. Indeed, seven patients highly positive in the polyclonal ELISA did not yield a Taenia spp upon purging and were negative in the VP-1 ELISA. In the second community studied La Yuca (Total population 560), none of the 333 individuals who donated faeces was positive for Taenia spp eggs. Many, however, were infected with a range of intestinal helminth and protozoan parasites. A total of 76 faecal samples with representative intestinal parasite were then tested in the polyclonal and VP-1 assays. Of these, many gave an unacceptable number of significant optical densities in the polyclonal coproAg ELISA. In contrast, all were negative in the VP-1 ELISA, thus providing evidence for the species specificity of the VP-1 ELISA in faecal samples. These results with the VP-1 coproAg ELISA, although preliminary, justify further validation through the testing of more faecal samples from T. solium and T. saginata adult infected individuals.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Helmínticos/análisis , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animales , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Población Rural , Especificidad de la Especie , Taenia/inmunología , Taenia/aislamiento & purificación , Taenia solium/inmunología , Teniasis/epidemiología , Teniasis/parasitología , Venezuela/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
Acta Trop ; 205: 105378, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057776

RESUMEN

In the 1930's Kozen Yoshino published 6 papers on Taenia solium. One of these papers is particularly important because it describes the outcomes of experimental infections with T. solium tapeworms in four volunteers, Yoshino being one of them. The paper was written in an old form of the Japanese language, making it almost inaccessible to most researchers around the world. Here we provide a non-literal translation of this work and some brief comments by the translators. Each of the four volunteers swallowed three or five cysticerci recovered from an experimentally infected pig. Each person was found to have harbored 2 - 5 tapeworms when the infections were terminated by drug treatment between 120 and 451 days after infection. The pre-patent period recorded by Yoshino's volunteers was between 62 and 72 days based on the first appearance of gravid proglottids (GPs) in the feces. In one subject, the number of GPs appearing in each bowel movement was tracked daily for 371 days following the first appearance of GPs in the feces, together with the number of bowel movements each day. GPs were observed on 275 of the 284 days on which the subject defecated during which observations were made. There was a decline in the number of GPs over the observation period; proglottids were observed on 97% of all days on which defecation occurred, they were present on 87% of days in the last month of infection. The cumulative number of GPs for a month in the 1st, 6th and 12th months of patent infection was 334, 174 and 126, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Heces/parasitología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/parasitología , Animales , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Japón , Porcinos
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 107, 2020 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028912

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, Taenia solium can cause cysticercosis in humans (including neurocysticercosis) and in pigs through ingestion of eggs and taeniasis in humans through ingestion of raw/undercooked pork contaminated with mature cysts. It is now recognised globally as one of the most prevalent food-borne parasitic diseases. The majority of cases have been reported in developing countries where consumption of food produced under unhygienic conditions is prevalent, exacerbated by lack of food safety education. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and practices of consumers towards pork safety in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, where T. solium cysticercosis is endemic in pigs and humans. METHODS: Three-hundred-and-sixty-one (361) participants were conveniently interviewed on consumer knowledge (harmfulness of T. solium cysticercosis, ability to identify cysts, trustworthiness of registered butcheries and legal requirements) and practices (storage of pork and method(s) of cooking pork safely) through a structured questionnaire. Chi-square for association of variables was used to compare differences in the districts. RESULTS: Overall, 73.1% of the study group from both districts agreed that pork forms an important part of their diet. Consumers (54.2%: 189/349) agreed that pork infected with T. solium cysts could be harmful, and 57.3% (188/328) indicated their inability to identify T. solium cysts in pork when slaughtered at home. Although 69.5% (234/352) trusted pork bought from butcheries, only 52.2% (187/358) were aware that butcheries must present a registration certificate in order to operate. This coincides with the fact that very few (< 10%) were aware of the legal requirements in terms of disease control, slaughter and food preparation. Most consumers (88.7%: 268/302) kept pork in the fridge and only 11.3% (34/302) kept it in a freezer (p = 0.02). Although not significantly different between the districts (p = 0.15), consumers in Alfred Nzo (71.4%: 152/213) and OR Tambo (61.2%: 74/12) mostly cooked pork as a stew, followed by braai/barbeque and frying or baking. This was in line with the fact that consumers in Alfred Nzo (79%: 147/186) and OR Tambo (80.8%: 120) preferred well-cooked pork; the main reason for this was the belief that cooking kills germs (43.6%: 121/277) followed by rendering the meat tasty (26.4%: 73/277). CONCLUSIONS: Consumers surveyed in the two districts were somewhat aware that T. solium cysticercosis could be harmful, although some were not able to identify T. solium cysts in pork. They also lacked sufficient knowledge regarding butchery certification and other legal requirements related to disease control, slaughter and food preparation. Practices related to cooking have the potential to promote the transmission of human taeniasis and the fact that most respondents preferred stewed pork could be a positive sign, as the cysts are destroyed during the cooking process. Results from this study are useful for the development of a control and prevention strategy targeted towards consumers, and the creation of awareness of food safety, with special emphasis on T, solium cysticercosis.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Conocimiento , Carne de Cerdo/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Culinaria , Estudios Transversales , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/prevención & control , Enfermedades Endémicas , Femenino , Parasitología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/parasitología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Carne de Cerdo/efectos adversos , Prevalencia , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Teniasis/parasitología , Teniasis/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
5.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105208, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589829

RESUMEN

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) was first reported in the province of Bali, Indonesia in 1975. Since this time, sporadic cases have been reported annually. This study reports information on 29 NCC cases (20 males and 9 females) admitted to a referral hospital in Denpasar, Bali from 2014 until 2018. Twenty-four cases were from Bali, 2 were from the province of East Nusa Tenggara, and 3 were from the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. Mean patient age was 37.2 years and 69.0% (20/29) were male. Epileptic seizures were the most common clinical manifestation (65.5%, 19/29). Serology (ELISA) was used in 14 cases (48.2%, 14/29), but only 6 cases, including one case with an inactive calcified lesion, were positive (42.9%, 6/14). Two cases underwent surgical resection after their lesions were initially misdiagnosed as brain tumors. These hospital-based findings are discussed along with the present status of NCC in Bali.


Asunto(s)
Neurocisticercosis/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercosis/epidemiología , Neurocisticercosis/terapia , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67 Suppl 2: 69-81, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231968

RESUMEN

Infections with Taenia solium cause significant public health and economic losses worldwide. Despite effective control tools, long-term sustained control/elimination of the parasite has not been demonstrated to date. Success of intervention programs is dependent on their acceptability to local communities. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and questionnaires (QS) were conducted in two study communities in eastern Zambia to assess local perceptions and acceptance of two piloted intervention strategies: one targeting pigs only ('control' study arm), and one integrated human- and pig-based ('elimination') strategy. QS (n = 227) captured data regarding participation in project activities, knowledge and perceptions of T. solium and of the interventional drugs used in the study. FGDs (n = 18) discussed perceived advantages and disadvantages of the interventions and of the project's delivery and value. QS data revealed 67% of respondents participated in at least one educational activity, and 80% correctly identified at least one disease targeted by the education. All elimination study arm respondents (n = 113) had taken the human treatment, and 98% intended to do so next time. Most (70%) indicated willingness to pay for future treatments (median 0.20 USD per dose). Of pig-owning respondents, 11/12 (92%) had allowed their pigs to be treated/vaccinated and all intended to do so again next time. Four pig owners indicated willingness to pay 0.10-0.50 USD per dose of treatment or vaccine. FGD feedback revealed positive perceptions of interventions; people reported improved health in themselves and their pigs, and fewer cysticerci in pork. Latrine use, hand washing, meat inspection and proper cooking of pork had reportedly increased since the program's inception. Preliminary assessment indicates that the piloted intervention methods are generally acceptable to the communities. The reported willingness of many respondents to pay for the medications would contribute to the feasibility of long-term, government-led T. solium intervention programs in future.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/prevención & control , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Participación del Paciente/psicología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Niclosamida/uso terapéutico , Proyectos Piloto , Praziquantel/uso terapéutico , Salud Pública , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Zambia/epidemiología
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007751, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809501

RESUMEN

In Africa, urbanization is happening faster than ever before which results in new implications for transmission of infectious diseases. For the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium, a major cause of acquired epilepsy in endemic countries, the prevalence in urban settings is unknown. The present study investigated epidemiological, neurological, and radiological characteristics of T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis (TSCT) in people with epilepsy (PWE) living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, one of the fastest growing cities worldwide. A total of 302 PWE were recruited from six health centers in the Kinondoni district of Dar es Salaam. Serological testing for T. solium cysticercosis-antigen (Ag) and -antibodies (Abs) and for T. solium taeniasis-Abs was performed in all PWE. In addition, clinical and radiological examinations that included cranial computed tomography (CT) were performed. With questionnaires, demographic data from study populations were collected, and factors associated with TSCT were assessed. Follow-up examinations were conducted in PWE with TSCT. T. solium cysticercosis-Ag was detected in three (0.99%; 95% CI: 0-2.11%), -Abs in eight (2.65%; 95% CI: 0.84-4.46%), and taeniasis-Abs in five (1.66%; 95% CI: 0.22-3.09%) of 302 PWE. Six PWE (1.99%; 95% CI: 0.41-3.56%) were diagnosed with neurocysticercosis (NCC). This study demonstrates the presence of TSCT in Dar es Salaam, however, NCC was only associated with a few cases of epilepsy. The small fraction of PWE with cysticercosis- and taeniasis-Abs may suggest that active transmission of T. solium plays only a minor role in Dar es Salaam. A sufficiently powered risk analysis was hampered by the small number of PWE with TSCT; therefore, further studies are required to determine the exact routes of infection and risk behavior of affected individuals.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/complicaciones , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/etiología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Población Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Niño , Ciudades/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Cisticercosis/patología , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagen , Epilepsia/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Adulto Joven
8.
Euro Surveill ; 24(35)2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481148

RESUMEN

BackgroundFew case reports on human infections with the beef tapeworm Taenia saginata and the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, diagnosed in Belgium have been published, yet the grey literature suggests a higher number of cases.AimTo identify and describe cases of taeniasis and cysticercosis diagnosed at two Belgian referral medical institutions from 1990 to 2015.MethodsIn this observational study we retrospectively gathered data on taeniasis and cysticercosis cases by screening laboratory, medical record databases as well a uniform hospital discharge dataset.ResultsA total of 221 confirmed taeniasis cases were identified. All cases for whom the causative species could be determined (170/221, 76.9%) were found to be T. saginata infections. Of those with available information, 40.0% were asymptomatic (26/65), 15.4% reported diarrhoea (10/65), 9.2% reported anal discomfort (6/65) and 15.7% acquired the infection in Belgium (11/70). Five definitive and six probable cases of neurocysticercosis (NCC), and two cases of non-central nervous system cysticercosis (non-CNS CC) were identified. Common symptoms and signs in five of the definitive and probable NCC cases were epilepsy, headaches and/or other neurological disorders. Travel information was available for 10 of the 13 NCC and non-CNS CC cases; two were Belgians travelling to and eight were immigrants or visitors travelling from endemic areas.ConclusionsThe current study indicates that a non-negligible number of taeniasis cases visit Belgian medical facilities, and that cysticercosis is occasionally diagnosed in international travellers.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Taenia saginata/aislamiento & purificación , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Bélgica/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Heces , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Teniasis/epidemiología , Centros de Atención Terciaria
9.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 26(2): 114-116, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543671

RESUMEN

Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of the cestode Taenia solium. Ocular parasitosis in humans is well recognized; however, cysticercosis of the optic nerve is rare. Here, we report a case of an adult male who presented with right-sided headache and a gradual loss of vision in the right eye. Optical coherence tomography indicated severe loss of ganglion cells in the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a predominantly suprasellar cystic lesion thought to represent an arachnoid cyst. We performed a craniotomy to excise the cyst. Histopathological examination of the excised cyst revealed internal living larvae of T. soilum. After co-administration of praziquantel and albendazole, vision was restored, and the headaches ceased. Vision has since been restored in both eyes. A higher degree of neurocysticercosis suspicion should be maintained for patients living in endemic areas who present with ophthalmic symptoms where the brain scans show cystic lesions.


Asunto(s)
Quistes Aracnoideos/diagnóstico , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Compresión Nerviosa/diagnóstico , Enfermedades del Nervio Óptico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Animales , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Quistes Aracnoideos/tratamiento farmacológico , Quistes Aracnoideos/parasitología , Cisticercosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cysticercus/aislamiento & purificación , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Síndromes de Compresión Nerviosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndromes de Compresión Nerviosa/parasitología , Enfermedades del Nervio Óptico/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades del Nervio Óptico/parasitología , Praziquantel/uso terapéutico , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación
10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 67(9): 1485-1487, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436208

RESUMEN

Cysticercosis is caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of pork tapeworm. In intraocular cysticercosis the cyst enters the subretinal space via the choroid and then gains entry into the vitreous cavity by piercing the retina. It is well established that the cyst can incite extensive intraocular inflammation. Other complications such as epiretinal membrane and cataract have been reported in the literature. Thus far, epiretinal membrane in intraocular cysticercosis has been reported at the site of entry of the cyst into the vitreous cavity. The data on the extent of epiretinal membrane is sparse. We report a rare case of migrating subretinal cysticercosis with extensive epiretinal membrane and subretinal fibrosis.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/complicaciones , Membrana Epirretinal/etiología , Infecciones Parasitarias del Ojo/complicaciones , Adolescente , Animales , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Membrana Epirretinal/diagnóstico , Membrana Epirretinal/cirugía , Infecciones Parasitarias del Ojo/diagnóstico , Infecciones Parasitarias del Ojo/parasitología , Femenino , Fibrosis/diagnóstico , Fibrosis/etiología , Fibrosis/cirugía , Humanos , Enfermedades Raras , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Vitrectomía/métodos
11.
J Parasitol ; 105(4): 642-650, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436487

RESUMEN

Taenia solium is a helminth parasite that causes 2 diseases in humans: cysticercosis and taeniasis. The establishment of T. solium metacestodes in the central nervous system causes neurocysticercosis, while development of the adult tapeworm in the small intestine causes taeniasis. Serological diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is performed by Western blot with an enriched fraction of glycoproteins that has been extensively used for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. The lectin-bound fraction that is used for this assay contains 7 antigenic glycoproteins. These antigenic proteins are considered to be highly specific for cysticercosis when tested with heterologous parasitic diseases. However, recent studies show that people with taeniasis have cross-reactive antibodies against the neurocysticercosis diagnostic glycoproteins and vice versa. Nevertheless, it is not known if these diagnostic proteins are expressed in the adult stage of the parasite. In this paper, we describe the location of 3 of these glycoproteins in T. solium adults and cysticerci using polyclonal antibodies raised against a synthetic peptide based on the amino acid sequence of TS14, a recombinant protein T24H, and the native GP50. The glycoproteins' distribution was different in invaginated and evaginated cysticerci as well as in adult tapeworms. Specifically, the 3 glycoproteins studied were differentially expressed during embryogenesis. Our findings indicate that expression of the diagnostic glycoproteins is developmentally regulated; this is noteworthy since these glycoproteins are considered specific for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis but nevertheless are present in different structures throughout the development of T. solium. Here we describe the glycoprotein expression and localization, which can be important in understanding their biological functions. In addition, our results help clarify the cross-reaction observed between people with neurocysticercosis and taeniasis to TS14, T24H, and GP50, which are used as diagnostic antigens for neurocysticercosis.


Asunto(s)
Glicoproteínas/análisis , Neurocisticercosis/diagnóstico , Taenia solium/química , Teniasis/diagnóstico , Animales , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/inmunología , Antígenos Helmínticos/análisis , Antígenos Helmínticos/inmunología , Antígenos Helmínticos/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Reacciones Cruzadas , Cysticercus/anatomía & histología , Cysticercus/química , Cysticercus/aislamiento & purificación , Glicoproteínas/inmunología , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Cabras , Humanos , Sueros Inmunes/inmunología , Inmunohistoquímica , Neurocisticercosis/inmunología , Conejos , Taenia solium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/inmunología
12.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 17: 100306, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303222

RESUMEN

The metacestodes of Taenia solium and Taenia hydatigena are the cause of cysticercosis in pigs. T. solium is also responsible of the taeniosis/neurocysticercosis complex in humans, constituting a main cause of epilepsy cases across endemic countries. T. hydatigena is non-zoonotic, but its occurrence in pigs contributes significantly to false positive reactions should genus-species serological methods be used for diagnosis of T. solium porcine cysticercosis. T. hydatigena is often considered not common in pigs in Africa compared to T. solium. On the basis of the evidence that these two cestodes coexist in Cameroon, we examined the viscera of 305 pigs for the identification of the metacestodes of T. hydatigena in Bénoué division, North Region of Cameroon. Tongue, masticatory muscles and heart were sliced for the identification of T. solium cysticerci (TMH dissection test). Twenty seven (8.85%) and 16 (5.24%) pigs were found infected with the metacestodes of T. solium and T. hydatigena, respectively. The difference between the two rates of infection was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Serum samples were also collected for the evaluation of an inhibition ELISA (i-ELISA) specific to antibodies anti- T. solium or anti-T. hydatigena cysticerci. After incubation of these sera with cyst fluid of T. solium, T. hydatigena, T. multiceps multiceps, T. multiceps gaigeri and T. saginata to eliminate cross-reactions among cestodes parasites, the i-ELISA indicated that 26.56% and 28.52% slaughtered pigs had predominant specific antibodies to cyst fluid of T. solium and T. hydatigena, respectively. Combination of TMH dissection test, i-ELISA and a standard indirect ELISA in a Bayesian simulation approach revealed a true prevalence of 19.27% (0.7-49.27, CI 95%) and 24.85% (5.17-48.34, CI 95%) of porcine cysticercosis due to T. solium and T. hydatigena, respectively. These results indicated that T. hydatigena is as prevalent as T. solium in pigs in the North of Cameroon.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia/patogenicidad , Teniasis/veterinaria , Animales , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Autopsia/veterinaria , Teorema de Bayes , Camerún/epidemiología , Cysticercus/aislamiento & purificación , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Corazón/parasitología , Músculos Masticadores/parasitología , Prevalencia , Especificidad de la Especie , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Taenia/inmunología , Taenia/aislamiento & purificación , Taenia solium/inmunología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Taenia solium/patogenicidad , Teniasis/diagnóstico , Teniasis/epidemiología , Teniasis/parasitología , Lengua/parasitología , Vísceras/parasitología
13.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 17: 100299, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303223

RESUMEN

Porcine and human cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of tapeworm Taenia solium, is a zoonosis in southern Africa and known to be endemic in South Africa, mainly in Eastern Cape Province. No efforts to control or eradicate this parasite have been made, despite the increasing occurrence in most Eastern Cape districts, except for routine meat inspection at local abattoirs. The parasite poses a potentially serious agricultural problem, public health risk and economic loss amongst Eastern Cape smallholder pig production communities. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of routine meat inspection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in pigs from rural smallholder/subsistence production systems in Eastern Cape Province villages. The effectiveness of meat inspection, by registered meat inspectors, in the detection of pigs infected with T. solium cysts was assessed and compared with whole carcass dissection as the "gold standard" method. The commercial antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (B158/B160 Ag-ELISA) kit screened all the slaughtered animals. The proportion of pigs found infected with T. solium cysts, as measured by meat inspection, was lower (5%, 9/180) than with carcass dissection (18.9%, 34/180) and B158/B60 Ag-ELISA test (21.6%, 38/176). Four out of 180 carcasses were heavily infested with T. solium cysts, evenly distributed throughout the carcasses, to a level impossible to enumerate. Of the remaining 176 carcasses, approximately 526 cysticerci, distributed at various anatomical regions of the pig, were counted during carcass dissection. Sites with higher cyst counts, such as the back and hind leg, do not form part of the normal meat inspection regime. The level of agreement (Kappa statistic) between dissection (gold standard) and meat inspection of the two districts was negative (-0.1955). There was a slight agreement in the Kappa statistic (0.0328) between dissection and B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. This study confirms that current meat inspection procedures alone are not sufficiently sensitive to detect all cases of porcine cysticercosis at the abattoirs and require modifications, or should be supplemented by other methods. A risk-based meat safety assurance system, such as HACCP, that considers specific food safety aspects before and after the abattoir (point of slaughter) should be followed. Before slaughter, aspects such as origin, husbandry practices and on-farm animal health control should be considered; after slaughter, the abattoir should inform the next entity in the supply chain of the limitations of meat inspections and the real meaning of an "Approval" stamp. New validated testing methods that can be routinely used should be developed, and government should develop policies and legislation that promotes a risk-based meat safety assurance system throughout the food supply chain.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Inspección de Alimentos , Carne/parasitología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis/parasitología , Mataderos , Animales , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cysticercus/aislamiento & purificación , Disección/veterinaria , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Inspección de Alimentos/normas , Carne/normas , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Porcinos , Zoonosis/epidemiología
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 145, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308860

RESUMEN

Introduction: porcine cysticercosis is under-reported particularly in Nigeria, despite the reportedly high prevalence of epilepsy and associated life-threatening health implications. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and factors related to Taenia solium transmission to humans. Methods: slaughtered pigs at a major abattoir, south-western Nigeria were randomly inspected and questionnaire was administered to pig workers/consumers while the data were analysed using Stata 12.0. Results: a 4.4% (11/250) prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was obtained; the age, breed, sex and body conditions of pigs were not significant for infection (p < 0.05). Further, none (0.0%) of the respondents knew that T. solium could cause epilepsy in man and 39.5% often defaecated on neighbouring open fields and farmlands. Respondents purchasing pork from home slaughter were about four and ten times less likely to demonstrate good knowledge (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08-0.74) and practice (OR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.05-0.22) than those purchasing from abattoir. Moreover, those lacking toilet facility were about four and five times less likely to demonstrate good knowledge (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07-0.86) and practice (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.08-0.45) than those who had it. Other factors associated with practices related to T. solium transmission included age (p = 0.000), sex (p = 0.000) and duration (p = 0.003). Conclusion: the increased odds of poor knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission especially among respondents purchasing home slaughter pork and lacking toilet facility provides insights into the parasite epidemiology. Above findings are important in lowering the infection prevalence in pigs and humans in this endemic area.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Mataderos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Animales , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Epilepsia/parasitología , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/parasitología , Prevalencia , Carne Roja/parasitología , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Cuartos de Baño/normas , Adulto Joven
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 352, 2019 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311596

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium (cysticercosis) is a parasitic cestode that is endemic in rural populations where open defecation is common and free-roaming pigs have access to human feces. The purpose of this study was to examine the roaming patterns of free-range pigs, and identify areas where T. solium transmission could occur via contact with human feces. We did this by using GPS trackers to log the movement of 108 pigs in three villages of northern Peru. Pigs were tracked for approximately six days each and tracking was repeated in the rainy and dry seasons. Maps of pig ranges were analyzed for size, distance from home, land type and contact with human defecation sites, which were assessed in a community-wide defecation survey. RESULTS: Consistent with prior GPS studies and spatial analyses, we found that the majority of pigs remained close to home during the tracking period and had contact with human feces in their home areas: pigs spent a median of 79% (IQR: 61-90%) of their active roaming time within 50 m of their homes and a median of 60% of their contact with open defecation within 100 m of home. Extended away-from-home roaming was predominately observed during the rainy season; overall, home range areas were 61% larger during the rainy season compared to the dry season (95% CI: 41-73%). Both home range size and contact with open defecation sites showed substantial variation between villages, and contact with open defecation sites was more frequent among pigs with larger home ranges and pigs living in higher density areas of their village. CONCLUSIONS: Our study builds upon prior work showing that pigs predominately roam and have contact with human feces within 50-100 m of the home, and that T. solium transmission is most likely to occur in these concentrated areas of contact. This finding, therefore, supports control strategies that target treatment resources to these areas of increased transmission. Our finding of a seasonal trend in roaming ranges may be useful for control programs relying on pig interventions, and in the field of transmission modeling, which require precise estimates of pig behavior and risk.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Defecación , Heces/parasitología , Estaciones del Año , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Animales , Conducta Animal , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Movimiento , Perú/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Análisis Espacial , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 543, 2019 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221089

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cysticercosis is an emerging and neglected tropical disease (NTD) that poses a serious public health concern worldwide. Disseminated cysticercosis (DCC) is an uncommon manifestation of cysticercosis, also found in China. CASE PRESENTATION: We report three cases of DCC in patients living in China, with different clinical and radiological presentations. All three patients had DCC with active ocular cysticercosis, including one patient with widespread DCC caused by direct ingestion of Taenia solium eggs. The intravitreal cysticercus cyst in this patient was completely extracted entirely by 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, and the cyst was oval in shape on the flat mount preparation. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of DCC is highly sophisticated. The diagnosis depended on the typical radiological presentations, biopsy and flat mount preparations of the cyst.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Animales , Anticuerpos/sangre , Anticuerpos/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Antiprotozoarios/uso terapéutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Cisticercosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Larva/fisiología , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Taenia solium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Vitrectomía , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(6): e0007408, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237878

RESUMEN

The definitive method for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis is the detection of cysticerci at necropsy. Cysts are typically located in the striated muscle and brain. Until recently Taenia solium cysticerci have not been definitively identified in other tissue locations, despite several comprehensive investigations having been undertaken which included investigation of body organs other than muscle and brain. Recently a study conducted in Zambia reported 27% infection with T. solium in the liver of pigs with naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis, as well as some T. solium infection in the lungs and spleen of some animals. We investigated the cause of lesions in sites other than the muscle or brain in a total of 157 pigs from T. solium endemic regions of Uganda and Nepal which were subjected to extensive investigations at necropsy. Lesions which had the potential to be caused by T. solium were characterised by macroscopic and microscopic examination, histology as well as DNA characterisation by PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Lesions were confirmed as being caused by Taenia hydatigena (both viable and non-viable), by T. asiatica and Echinococcus granulosus (in Nepal) and nematode infections. No T. solium-related lesions or cysticerci were identified in any tissue other than muscle and brain. It is recommended that future evaluations of porcine cysticercosis in aberrant tissue locations include DNA analyses that take appropriate care to avoid the possibility of contamination of tissue specimens with DNA from a different tissue location or a different animal. The use of appropriate control samples to confirm the absence of cross-sample contamination is also recommended.


Asunto(s)
Estructuras Animales/patología , Estructuras Animales/parasitología , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/patología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Autopsia , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/patología , Histocitoquímica , Nepal , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Uganda
18.
Parasitol Res ; 118(5): 1657-1660, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877437

RESUMEN

Herein, we evaluate a mimotope-based synthetic peptidenamed NC41 to diagnose neurocysticercosis (NC), a neglected parasitic disease and a major cause of epilepsy worldwide. NC41 synthetic peptide was evaluated to diagnose NC, and total saline extract from Taenia solium metacestodes (SE) was used as control. Serum samples from patients with NC (n = 40), other parasitic diseases (n = 43), and healthy individuals (n = 40) were tested. Diagnostic parameters such as sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), likelihood ratio (LR), and area under curve (AUC) were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The sequence from T. solium phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was used for epitope prediction, resulting in one high-scoring patch centered at residue L247. NC41 synthetic peptide reached high diagnostic performance (Se 97.5% and Sp 97.5%, LR+ 39 and AUC 0.997). Data from diagnostic parameters and in silico analyses proved the usefulness of NC41 synthetic peptide as a diagnostic marker for human NC.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Antígenos Helmínticos/sangre , Neurocisticercosis/diagnóstico , Péptidos/inmunología , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinasa (ATP)/inmunología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Área Bajo la Curva , Biomarcadores , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Humanos , Neurocisticercosis/sangre , Neurocisticercosis/parasitología , Péptidos/genética , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinasa (ATP)/genética , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Taenia solium/inmunología
20.
Ann Afr Med ; 18(1): 51-53, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729934

RESUMEN

Cysticercosis is a major public health problem, particularly in developing countries. It is caused by the larvae of the cestode Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). It usually presents as a solitary lesion in the muscle or brain (neurocysticercosis). Disseminated cysticercosis is an uncommon manifestation, especially in an immunocompetent individual. We hereby report the case of a 31-year-old male who presented with new-onset generalized tonic-clonic seizures and who also had multiple soft-tissue swellings all over his body. Imaging studies revealed multiple cysticerci in the brain parenchyma, extraocular muscles, and muscles of all the four limbs, which was subsequently established by histopathology also. The patient was started on anticonvulsants, steroids, and albendazole following which he made a complete recovery.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Extremidad Inferior/diagnóstico por imagen , Convulsiones/etiología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Pared Torácica/diagnóstico por imagen , Incontinencia Urinaria/diagnóstico , Incontinencia Urinaria/etiología , Adulto , Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Animales , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Biopsia , Cisticercosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Cisticercosis/patología , Humanos , Inmunocompetencia , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Neurocisticercosis/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Neurocisticercosis/patología , Prednisolona/uso terapéutico , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Resultado del Tratamiento , Incontinencia Urinaria/diagnóstico por imagen , Incontinencia Urinaria/patología
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