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3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 480, 2020 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276624

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Screening for sexually transmitted infection (STI) especially HIV as early detection and treatment have been financially supported under the Thai Universal Coverage (UC) scheme since 2009 (THB140 for HIV). However, the implementation has not been evidence-based, strategic risk-based, nor economically evaluated whereas husbands who accompanied the pregnant women are likely to have a lower risk than those who did not come along. This study is aimed to determine the husband's willingness-to-pay (WTP) for his HIV and syphilis screening tests and potential factors affecting STI screenings at the antenatal care (ANC) clinic of a tertiary hospital in Thailand. METHODS: A pilot open-ended interview was conducted among 50 participants to estimate the mean and standard deviation of WTP prices for HIV and syphilis screening tests. A questionnaire was developed to obtain demographics, STI knowledge and screening history, as well as two contingent valuation methods (bidding and payment scale), using the mean WTP prices identified from the pilot study as a starting WTP with »SD step-up/down. The survey of 200 randomly selected husbands of pregnant women was conducted at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from April to June 2018. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used for data analysis. RESULTS: During the study period, 597 pregnant women received their first ANC. Of 368 accompanying husbands, 200 were enrolled in the study. Their median age was 31 (IQR 27-36) years old and 67% had a first child. Eighty-eight percent of the participants were willing to test for the STIs. Based on the bidding method, WTP prices for HIV and syphilis screening tests were US$14.5 (IQR 12.4-14.5) and US$9.7 (IQR 10-12), respectively. The payment scale method suggested approximately three-quarters of the WTP prices from the bidding method. CONCLUSIONS: The husbands who accompanied their pregnant wives to the ANC clinic showed positive behaviors according to the propitious selection theory. They tend to cooperate well with STI testing and are willing to pay at least two times the price of the STI screening tests. The financial support to promote STI screenings should be reconsidered to cover other groups with higher sexual behavior risks and less WTP.


Asunto(s)
Financiación Personal , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Tamizaje Masivo/economía , Esposos/psicología , Sífilis/prevención & control , Adulto , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal , Esposos/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tailandia , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud
5.
Zootaxa ; 4729(3): zootaxa.4729.3.7, 2020 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229853

RESUMEN

An updated list of the caddisfly species occurring in Krabi and Phang Nga Provinces, southern Thailand, comprises 76 species. Among them, 69 species are found in Krabi Province and 17 in Phang Nga Province, 4 are new for science and 2 new for Thailand. New species from the families Hydroptilidae (Hydroptila nevdomek sp. n.), Polycentropodidae (Nyctiophylax dosyhpor sp. n.), Psychomyiidae (Psychomyia dabudettak sp. n.), and Leptoceridae (Setodes pokamest sp. n.) are described. Hydroptila namcattien Malicky Chantaramongkol 2007 and Setodes kybele Malicky Chantaramongkol 2006 are new species for Thailand. Faunistic considerations and comparisons to other regions of Thailand are provided.


Asunto(s)
Holometabola , Insectos , Animales , Tailandia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4748(3): zootaxa.4748.3.10, 2020 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230069

RESUMEN

The tenebrionid genus Indenicmosoma Ardoin, 1964 (type species indochinensis Kaszab, 1940), subfamily Lagriinae, is distributed in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Newly collected specimens from different Palaearctic and Oriental Asian regions are presented, among them also one species new to science from Thailand (Indenicmosoma paicum sp. nov.). New synonym: Indenicmosoma nathani Ardoin, 1964 (Indenicmosoma ardoini Kaszab, 1970 syn. nov.). All treated eight Asian species are figured, and a species key is compiled.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Distribución Animal , Estructuras Animales , Animales , Tailandia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4758(3): zootaxa.4758.3.7, 2020 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230133

RESUMEN

Species descriptions are provided for five new species of Hemerodromia (H. aliaextriata sp. nov., H. deprimatura sp. nov., H. oretenebraea sp. nov., H. pairoti sp. nov. H. samoha sp. nov.). The new species have an apparently obligate association with calcareous streams, rivers and tufa formations in limestone karst landforms in Thailand. Hemerodromia menghaiensis Yang Yang is here reported for the first time in Thailand.


Asunto(s)
Dípteros , Distribución Animal , Estructuras Animales , Animales , Carbonato de Calcio , Tailandia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4755(2): zootaxa.4755.2.5, 2020 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230183

RESUMEN

Two new species, Dipogon (Stigmatodipogon) chiangmai Loktionov, sp. nov. and D. (S.) himalayensis Loktionov, sp. nov., are described and illustrated based on females from northern Thailand and north-eastern India. The subgenus Stigmatodipogon Ishikawa of the genus Dipogon Fox is newly recorded from India (Arunachal Pradesh). An updated key to the females is provided.


Asunto(s)
Himenópteros , Avispas , Animales , Femenino , India , Tailandia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4731(3): zootaxa.4731.3.9, 2020 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230301

RESUMEN

Larvae of the Notacanthella Jacobus McCafferty, 2008 species N. commodema (Allen, 1971) and N. quadrata (Kluge Zhou, 2004) from Thailand are compared and redescribed. Both species have serrations on maxillary canines, as does N. perculta (Allen, 1971) from Vietnam, and this contributes to synonymizing the subgenus Samiocca Jacobus McCafferty, 2008 under Notacanthella s.s. (= Samiocca n. syn.). The Thailand species can be differentiated by the numbers of thoracic and abdominal tubercles. In addition, the chorionic structure of N. quadrata is investigated for the first time by scanning electron microscopic technique.


Asunto(s)
Ephemeroptera , Animales , Larva , Tailandia
10.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(2): 205-211, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238993

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To examine the relationships between (1) the levels of each temperament traits and the levels of milk-feeding frequency, oral hygiene care and dental caries, and (2) the difference in mean numbers of decayed surfaces among temperament types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and ninety-three (493) 12-month-old infants were assessed for temperaments and characteristics of child-rearing practices. The data were analysed with their dental caries status at 18 months of age. The chi-squared test, Student's t test, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess the association between temperament traits and the following variables; dental caries, oral cleaning habits and feeding frequency. Logistic regression models were used to identify the effect of temperament traits and other factors on dental caries status. RESULTS: The trait of adaptability was found to associate with feeding frequency at night, while those of activity and approach/withdrawal were significantly associated with regularity of oral cleaning habits by the children's caregiver. Three of the nine temperament traits - biological rhythmicity, approach/withdrawal and mood - were significantly associated with dental caries in bivariate analysis. Biological rhythmicity and approach/withdrawal traits were significantly associated with a higher chance of having caries after adjusting for regularity of oral cleaning habits and frequency of night feeding. CONCLUSION: Biological rhythmicity, approach/withdrawal and mood traits were related to caries in these young children.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Lactante , Temperamento , Tailandia
12.
Euro Surveill ; 25(8)2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127124

RESUMEN

We report two cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in travellers from Wuhan, China to Thailand. Both were independent introductions on separate flights, discovered with thermoscanners and confirmed with RT-PCR and genome sequencing. Both cases do not seem directly linked to the Huanan Seafood Market in Hubei but the viral genomes are identical to four other sequences from Wuhan, suggesting early spread within the city already in the first week of January.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Genoma Viral , Neumonía Viral , Anciano , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , China/epidemiología , Mapeo Cromosómico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Anamnesis , Persona de Mediana Edad , Filogenia , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Tailandia , Viaje
13.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 11(2): 72-84, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218555

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is an increasingly important industry worldwide. However, few studies have studied the health risks in this group of workers. OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between occupational exposures to metals and genetic instability and renal markers among e-waste recycling workers. METHODS: We recruited informal e-waste recycling workers from a community in northeastern Thailand. Participants completed a questionnaire, several health measurements, and provided urine and blood samples, which we then analyzed for a number of metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn). Samples were analyzed for a marker of RNA and DNA damage (ie, oxidative stress), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and fractional excretion of calcium (FECa%) were measured as markers of renal function. Correlations and regression models were used to assess associations between these various factors. RESULTS: We found significantly higher levels of Cd and Pb in blood of men compared with those in women. Men who worked >48 hours/week had significantly higher levels of 8-OHdG compared with men who worked ≤48 hours/week. Smoking was significantly associated with higher blood Pb and Cd concentrations among men. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest gender differences in both blood concentrations of metals associated with e-waste recycling and smoking and highlight potentially elevated oxidative stress associated with longer work hours. Health promotion efforts are needed among informal e-waste recyclers to reduce possible risks of renal damage and cancer.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/orina , Daño del ADN , Residuos Electrónicos/efectos adversos , Metales Pesados/química , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Insuficiencia Renal/inducido químicamente , Adulto , Cadmio/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Industrias , Masculino , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Estrés Oxidativo , Reciclaje , Tailandia
14.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110195, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148269

RESUMEN

Aluminum (Al) treatment is one of the most commonly used approaches to reduce internal phosphorus (P) loading in lakes. However, the adequate amount of Al that should be added to permanently inactivate mobile (releasable) sediment P can be determined using many different methods. These methods differ substantially in their specified design sediment depth, targeted P pool(s), and expected binding ratio. In this study, Al doses for inactivating sediment P in Beung Gii Lake of Thailand were determined using the most commonly used methods reported in literature and then compared. Experimental procedures included sediment P fractionation, Al assay experiments, and a geochemical model. Mobile P was detected in the lake's sediment at 2.52, 5.42, and 7.65 g/m2 in the upper 4, 10, and 15 cm, respectively, with additional P contained in labile organic form. Comparing the resulting Al doses for the lake, it was found they varied by nearly an order of magnitude (45-306 g Al/m2). This result highlights the importance of choosing a dosing method, because such a range of Al doses would likely result in highly variable levels of effectiveness and longevity, including both under- and overdosing. Based on the results of this study and a review of literature, a conservative, fixed ratio between Al and mobile plus labile organic sediment P (11:1) is recommended. All potentially releasable P (both mobile organic and inorganic forms) within the active sediment layer should be used to determine the total Al dose. Finally, the calculated Al dose in most cases will need to be split into sub-doses, based on lake morphology and total Al dose, to ensure maximum binding efficiency. Al dosing strategy should seek to minimize the risk for overdosing, maximize binding efficiency, and ensure all potentially releasable P forms are targeted during treatment.


Asunto(s)
Lagos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Aluminio , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Eutrofización , Sedimentos Geológicos , Fósforo , Tailandia
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19355, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150075

RESUMEN

A remarkable increase in the prevalence of cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection has occurred worldwide. However, updated data regarding cutaneous NTM infection in Thailand is limited.This study aim to describe the clinical manifestations, pathogenic organism, and prognostic factors of cutaneous NTM infections among patients living in Thailand.The electronic medical records of all patients with confirmatory diagnosis of cutaneous NTM infection from either positive cultures or polymerase chain reaction were retrospectively reviewed at a university-based hospital.From 2011 to 2017, a total of 88 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of cutaneous NTM infection were included. Mycobacterium abscessus was the most common pathogens followed by M haemophilum and M marinum (61.4%, 10.2%, and 8.1%, respectively). Nodule and plaque were 2 most common lesions (26.4% and 25.5%, respectively) and lower leg is the most common site of involvement (50.9%). The majority of patients presented with single lesion (67%). Seven patients (7.9%) had history of surgical procedure and/or cosmetic injection before the development of lesion and all pathogenic organisms in this group were rapidly growing mycobacteria. Sweet's syndrome and erythema nodosum were the 2 most common reactive dermatoses, presented in 3.4% and 2.3%, respectively. The majority of patients infected with cutaneous M haemophilum infections were immunocompromised and lacked history of preceding trauma (77.8%). Patients with cutaneous NTM that receiving less than 3 medications was associated with higher disease relapse (odds ratio 65.86; P = .02).M abscessus is the most common pathogen of cutaneous NTM infection in Thailand. The prevalence of M haemophilum is increasing and should be particularly cautious in immunocompromised patients. Rapidly growing mycobacteria should be suspected in all cases of procedure-related cutaneous NTM. We recommend at least 3 antibiotics should be considered for cutaneous NTM infection to reduce the rate of relapse.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Mycobacterium no Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Mycobacterium no Tuberculosas/epidemiología , Micobacterias no Tuberculosas/efectos de los fármacos , Micobacterias no Tuberculosas/patogenicidad , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tailandia/epidemiología
16.
Lancet ; 395(10234): 1423-1433, 2020 05 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197105

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A substantial unmet need remains for safe and effective vaccines against dengue virus disease, particularly for individuals who are dengue-naive and those younger than 9 years. We aimed to assess the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (TAK-003) in healthy children aged 4-16 years. METHODS: We present data up to 18 months post-vaccination from an ongoing phase 3, randomised, double-blind trial of TAK-003 in endemic regions of Asia and Latin America (26 medical and research centres across Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Panama, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand). Healthy children aged 4-16 years were randomly assigned 2:1 (stratified by age and region) to receive two doses of TAK-003 or two doses of placebo, 3 months apart. Investigators, participants and their parents or guardians, and sponsor representatives advising on trial conduct were masked to trial group assignments. Participants presenting with febrile illness were tested for virologically confirmed dengue (VCD) by serotype-specific RT-PCR. In timeframes beginning 30 days post-second dose, the primary endpoint (overall vaccine efficacy) was assessed in the first 11 months, and the secondary endpoints (efficacy by baseline serostatus, serotype, hospitalised dengue, and severe dengue) in the first 17 months. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02747927. FINDINGS: 20 099 participants were randomly assigned and vaccinated between Sept 7, 2016, and Aug 18, 2017; 19 021 (94·6%) were included in the per protocol analysis, and 20 071 (99·9%) in the safety set. The primary endpoint was achieved with an overall vaccine efficacy of 80·2% (95% CI 73·3 to 85·3; 61 cases of VCD in the TAK-003 group vs 149 cases of VCD in the placebo group). In the secondary endpoint assessment timeframe, an overall vaccine efficacy of 73·3% (95% CI 66·5 to 78·8) was observed. Analysis of secondary endpoints showed efficacies of 76·1% (95% CI 68·5 to 81·9) in individuals who were seropositive at baseline, 66·2% (49·1 to 77·5) in individuals who were seronegative at baseline, 90·4% (82·6 to 94·7) against hospitalised dengue, and 85·9% (31·9 to 97·1) against dengue haemorrhagic fever. Efficacy varied by individual serotypes (DENV 1, 69·8% [95% CI 54·8 to 79·9]; DENV 2, 95·1% [89·9 to 97·6]; DENV 3, 48·9% [27·2 to 64·1]; DENV 4, 51·0% [-69·4 to 85·8]). Cumulative rates of serious adverse events were similar in TAK-003 (4·0%) and placebo (4·8%) recipients, and were consistent with expected medical disorders in the study population. Infection was the most frequent reason leading to serious adverse events. 20 participants (<0·1% of the safety set) were withdrawn from the trial due to 21 adverse events by the end of part two; 14 of these participants received TAK-003 and six received placebo. INTERPRETATION: TAK-003 was well tolerated and efficacious against symptomatic dengue in children regardless of serostatus before immunisation. Vaccine efficacy varied by serotype, warranting continued follow-up to assess longer-term vaccine performance. FUNDING: Takeda Vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra el Dengue/efectos adversos , Virus del Dengue/inmunología , Dengue/prevención & control , Vacunación/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Colombia/epidemiología , Vacunas contra el Dengue/uso terapéutico , Virus del Dengue/genética , República Dominicana/epidemiología , Método Doble Ciego , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Nicaragua/epidemiología , Panamá/epidemiología , Filipinas/epidemiología , Placebos/administración & dosificación , Serogrupo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Sri Lanka/epidemiología , Tailandia/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vacunación/métodos
17.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(3): 212-218, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132756

RESUMEN

Problem: Despite implementation of universal health coverage in Thailand, gaps remain in the system for screening contacts of tuberculosis patients. Approach: We designed broader criteria for contact investigation and new screening practices and assessed the approach in a programme-based operational research study in 2017-2018. Clinic staff interviewed 100 index patients and asked them to give household and non-household contacts an invitation for a free screening and chest X-ray. Contact persons who attended received 250 Thai baht (about 8 United States dollars) allowance for transport. Local setting: Chiang Rai province, Thailand, has high rates of tuberculosis notification and a high number of people living in poverty. The coverage of contact investigation in under 5-year-olds was only 33.2% (222 screened out of 668 contacts) over 2011-2015. Relevant changes: Index patients identified 440 contacts in total and gave invitation cards to 227 of them. The contact investigation coverage was 81.1% (184/227) and tuberculosis detection among contacts screened was 6.0% (11/184). Of the 11 contacts with active tuberculosis, three did not have tuberculosis symptoms, three were non-household contacts and three were contacts of non-smear-positive tuberculosis patients. The contact investigation coverage of the contacts younger than 5 years was 100% (14/14) and the yield of tuberculosis detection in this age group was 21.4% (3/14). Lessons learnt: High coverage of contact investigation with a high yield of tuberculosis detection among contacts can be achieved by applying broader criteria for contact investigation and providing financial support for transportation.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Tailandia , Tuberculosis/diagnóstico
20.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 21(3): 577-582, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212781

RESUMEN

Since 2000 cancer has been the leading cause of death in Thailand. In response to this challenge, the National Cancer Institute of Thailand (NCI), in collaboration with other bodies, has developed and promoted the National Cancer Control Program (NCCP) to provide appropriate policies and practice for the prevention, early detection and treatment of cancer, with optimal supportive care. With plans strongly supported by the Ministry of Public Health, the NCCP envisages integration into the health care system in 6 strategic areas: (1) cancer informatics; (2) primary prevention; (3) early detection; (4) treatment; (5) palliative care; and (6) cancer control research. For this purpose 7 regional cancer hospitals have been established to aid the NCI in conducting the NCCP. Cancer registration is a high priority, with 31.2% of the population now covered by quality registries. In primary prevention, there is a focus on awareness, lifestyle improvement, anti-smoking and alcohol control programs, vaccination, and Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) control. Screening programs for cervical, breast and colorectal cancer are underway to increase early detection. Priority is being given to facilities for chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as palliative care. Cancer control research encompasses international cooperation and participation in training programs, especially for development of cancer registration and other aspects of cancer control programs in South-East Asia, not least as an IARC Collaborating Center.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos , Prevención Primaria , Tailandia
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