Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.707
Filtrar
1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530526

RESUMEN

Thailand has been affected by COVID-19, like other countries in the Asian region at an early stage, and the first case was reported as early as mid-January 2020. Thailand's response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been guided by the "Integrated Plan for Multilateral Cooperation for Safety and Mitigation of COVID-19". This paper analyses the health resources in the country and focuses on the response through community-level public health system and legislative measures. The paper draws some lessons on future preparedness, especially with respect to the four priorities of Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. At the end, the paper puts some key learning for future preparedness. While Thailand's response to COVID-19 has been effective in limiting the spread of the disease, it falls short at being able to address the multiple dimensions of the crisis such as the economic and social impacts. The socioeconomic sectors have been hardest hit, with significant impact on tourism sectors. Sociopolitical system also plays an important role in governance and decision-making for pandemic responses. The analysis suggests that one opportunity for enhancing resilience in Thailand is to strive for more multilevel governance that engages with various stakeholders and to support grassroots and community-level networks. The COVID-19 pandemic recovery is a chance to recover better while leaving no one behind. An inclusive long-term recovery plan for the various impacted countries needs to take a holistic approach to address existing gaps and work towards a sustainable society. Furthering the Health Emergency Disaster Risk Management (HEDRM) Framework may support a coordinated response across various linked sectors rather than straining one particular sector.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres , Pandemias , /epidemiología , Predicción , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Tailandia/epidemiología
2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246274, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606734

RESUMEN

A novel infectious respiratory disease was recognized in Wuhan (Hubei Province, China) in December 2019. In February 2020, the disease was named "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19). COVID-19 became a pandemic in March 2020, and, since then, different countries have implemented a broad spectrum of policies. Thailand is considered to be among the top countries in handling its first wave of the outbreak-12 January to 31 July 2020. Here, we illustrate how Thailand tackled the COVID-19 outbreak, particularly the effects of public health interventions on the epidemiological spread. This study shows how the available data from the outbreak can be analyzed and visualized to quantify the severity of the outbreak, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the level of risk of allowed activities during an easing of a "lockdown." This study shows how a well-organized governmental apparatus can overcome the havoc caused by a pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Salud Pública , /epidemiología , /transmisión , Humanos , Pandemias , Tailandia/epidemiología
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25363, 2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523828

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on both the physical and mental health of individuals worldwide. Evidence regarding the association between mental health problems and information exposure among Thai citizens during the COVID-19 outbreak is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the relationship between information exposure and mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand. METHODS: Between April 21 and May 4, 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional, nationwide online survey of the general population in Thailand. We categorized the duration of exposure to COVID-19-related information as follows: <1 h/day (reference group), 1-2 h/day, and ≥3 h/day. Mental health outcomes were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, the Perceived Stress Scale-10, and the Insomnia Severity Index for symptoms of depression, anxiety, perceived stress, and insomnia, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between information exposure and the risk of developing the aforementioned symptoms. An ancillary analysis using multivariable multinomial logistic regression models was also conducted to assess the possible dose-response relationship across the severity strata of mental health problems. RESULTS: Of the 4322 eligible participants, 4004 (92.6%) completed the online survey. Of them, 1481 (37.0%), 1644 (41.1%), and 879 (22.0%) participants were exposed to COVID-19-related information for less than 1 hour per day, 1 to 2 hours per day, or 3 or more hours per day, respectively. The major source of information related to the COVID-19 pandemic was social media (95.3%), followed by traditional media (68.7%) and family members (34.9%). Those exposed to information for 3 or more hours per day had a higher risk of developing symptoms of depression (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.03-1.76; P=.03), anxiety (adjusted OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.43-2.46; P<.001), and insomnia (adjusted OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.17-1.97; P=.001) than people exposed to information for less than 1 hour per day. Meanwhile, people exposed to information for 1 to 2 hours per day were only at risk of developing symptoms of anxiety (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.69; P=.008). However, no association was found between information exposure and the risk of perceived stress. In the ancillary analysis, a dose-response relationship was observed between information exposure of 3 or more hours per day and the severity of mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that social media is the main source of COVID-19-related information. Moreover, people who are exposed to information for 3 or more hours per day are more likely to develop psychological problems, including depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Longitudinal studies investigating the long-term effects of COVID-19-related information exposure on mental health are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/provisión & distribución , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tailandia/epidemiología
4.
Med Sci Monit Basic Res ; 27: e929207, 2021 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397841

RESUMEN

As of November 25, 2020, over 60 million people have been infected worldwide by COVID-19, causing almost 1.43 million deaths. Puzzling low incidence numbers and milder, non-fatal disease have been observed in Thailand and its Southeast (SE) Asian neighbors. Elusive genetic mechanisms might be operative, as a multitude of genetic factors are widely shared between the SE Asian populations, such as the more than 60 different thalassemia syndromes (principally dominated by the HbE trait). In this study, we have plotted COVID-19 infection and death rates in SE Asian (SEA) countries against heterozygote HbE and thalassemia carrier prevalence. COVID-19 infection and death incidence numbers appear inversely correlated with the prevalence of HbE and thalassemia heterozygote populations. We posit that the evolutionary protective effect of the HbE and other thalassemic variants against malaria and the dengue virus may extend its advantage to resistance to COVID-19 infection, as HbE heterozygote population prevalence appears to be positively correlated with immunity to COVID-19. Host immune system modulations induce antiviral interferon responses and alter structural protein integrity, thereby inhibiting cellular access and viral replication. These changes are possibly engendered by HbE carrier miRNAs. Proving this hypothesis is important, as it may shed light on the mechanism of viral resistance and lead to novel antiviral treatments. This development can thus guide decision-making and action to prevent COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
/genética , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/genética , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Hemoglobina E/genética , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , /inmunología , Dengue/genética , Heterocigoto , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico , Interferones , Malaria/genética , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Tailandia/epidemiología , Talasemia/epidemiología , Talasemia/genética
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 5, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446115

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir (DTG)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is highly effective and well-tolerated in adults and is rapidly being adopted globally. We describe the design of the ODYSSEY trial which evaluates the efficacy and safety of DTG-based ART compared with standard-of-care in children and adolescents. The ODYSSEY trial includes nested pharmacokinetic (PK) sub-studies which evaluated pragmatic World Health Organization (WHO) weight-band-based DTG dosing and opened recruitment to children < 14 kg while dosing was in development. METHODS: ODYSSEY (Once-daily DTG based ART in Young people vS. Standard thErapY) is an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority, basket trial comparing the efficacy and safety of DTG + 2 nucleos(t) ides (NRTIs) versus standard-of-care (SOC) in HIV-infected children < 18 years starting first-line ART (ODYSSEY A) or switching to second-line ART (ODYSSEY B). The primary endpoint is clinical or virological failure by 96 weeks. RESULTS: Between September 2016 and June 2018, 707 children weighing ≥14 kg were enrolled; including 311 ART-naïve children and 396 children starting second-line. 47% of children were enrolled in Uganda, 21% Zimbabwe, 20% South Africa, 9% Thailand, 4% Europe. 362 (51%) participants were male; median age [range] at enrolment was 12.2 years [2.9-18.0]. 82 (12%) children weighed 14 to < 20 kg, 135 (19%) 20 to < 25 kg, 206 (29%) 25 to < 35 kg, 284 (40%) ≥35 kg. 128 (18%) had WHO stage 3 and 60 (8%) WHO stage 4 disease. Challenges encountered include: (i) running the trial across high- to low-income countries with differing frequencies of standard-of-care viral load monitoring; (ii) evaluating pragmatic DTG dosing in PK sub-studies alongside FDA- and EMA-approved dosing and subsequently transitioning participants to new recommended doses; (iii) delays in dosing information for children weighing 3 to < 14 kg and rapid recruitment of ART-naïve older/heavier children, which led to capping recruitment of participants weighing ≥35 kg in ODYSSEY A and extending recruitment (above 700) to allow for ≥60 additional children weighing between 3 to < 14 kg with associated PK; (iv) a safety alert associated with DTG use during pregnancy, which required a review of the safety plan for adolescent girls. CONCLUSIONS: By employing a basket design, to include ART-naïve and -experienced children, and nested PK sub-studies, the ODYSSEY trial efficiently evaluates multiple scientific questions regarding dosing and effectiveness of DTG-based ART in children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT, NCT02259127 , registered 7th October 2014; EUDRACT, 2014-002632-14, registered 18th June 2014 ( https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2014-002632-14/ES ); ISRCTN, ISRCTN91737921 , registered 4th October 2014.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/efectos adversos , VIH-1/genética , Compuestos Heterocíclicos con 3 Anillos/administración & dosificación , Compuestos Heterocíclicos con 3 Anillos/efectos adversos , Oxazinas/administración & dosificación , Oxazinas/efectos adversos , Piperazinas/administración & dosificación , Piperazinas/efectos adversos , Piridonas/administración & dosificación , Piridonas/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Cálculo de Dosificación de Drogas , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Masculino , ARN Viral/genética , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Tailandia/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Uganda/epidemiología , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 948, 2020 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308178

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dengue patients develop different disease severity ranging from mild (dengue fever [DF]) to severe forms (dengue hemorrhagic fever [DHF] and the fatal dengue shock syndrome [DSS]). Host genetics are considered to be one factor responsible for the severity of dengue outcomes. To identify genes associated with dengue severity that have not been studied yet, we performed genetic association analyses of interferon lambda 3 (IFNL3), CD27, and human leukocyte antigen-DPB1 (HLA-DPB1) genes in Thai dengue patients. METHODS: A case-control association study was performed in 877 children (age ≤ 15 years) with dengue infection (DF, n = 386; DHF, n = 416; DSS, n = 75). A candidate single nucleotide polymorphism of each of IFNL3, CD27, and HLA-DPB1 was selected to be analyzed. Genotyping was performed by TaqMan real-time PCR assay, and the association with dengue severity was examined. RESULTS: The rs9277534 variant of HLA-DPB1 was weakly associated with DHF. The genotype GG and G allele conferred protection against DHF (p = 0.04, odds ratio 0.74 for GG genotype, p = 0.03, odds ratio 0.79 for G allele). The association became borderline significant after adjusting for confounders (p = 0.05, odds ratio 0.82). No association was detected for IFNL3 or CD27. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated the weak association of the rs9277534 variant of HLA-DPB1 with protection against DHF. This variant is in the 3' untranslated region and affects HLA-DPB1 surface protein expression. Our finding suggests that HLA-DPB1 may be involved in DHF pathogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Dengue/genética , Virus del Dengue/inmunología , Cadenas beta de HLA-DP/genética , Interferones/genética , Dengue Grave/epidemiología , Dengue Grave/genética , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Miembro 7 de la Superfamilia de Receptores de Factores de Necrosis Tumoral/genética , Regiones no Traducidas 3'/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Virus del Dengue/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Dengue Grave/virología , Tailandia/epidemiología
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242438, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362211

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a pivotal role in innate immunity; however, its impact on susceptibility to opportunistic infections (OIs) has not yet been examined in a natural history cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: We used archived samples to analyze the association between MBL expression types and risk of major OIs including Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), cryptococcosis, talaromycosis, toxoplasmosis, and tuberculosis in a prospective cohort in Northern Thailand conducted from 1 July 2000 to 15 October 2002 before the national antiretroviral treatment programme was launched. RESULTS: Of 632 patients, PCP was diagnosed in 96 (15.2%) patients, including 45 patients with new episodes during the follow-up period (1006.5 person-years). The total history of PCP was significantly associated with low MBL expression type: high/intermediate (81/587, 13.8%), low (10/33, 30.3%) and deficient (5/12, 41.7%) (p = 0.001), whereas the history of other OIs showed no relation with any MBL expression type. Kaplan-Meier analysis (n = 569; log-rank p = 0.011) and Cox's proportional hazards model revealed that deficient genotype dramatically increased the risk of PCP, which is independent upon sex, age, CD4 count, HIV-1 viral load and hepatitis B and C status (adjusted hazard ratio 7.93, 95% confidence interval 2.19-28.67, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Deficiency of MBL expression is a strong risk factor determining the incidence of PCP but not other major OIs.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/epidemiología , Lectina de Unión a Manosa/deficiencia , Pneumocystis carinii/aislamiento & purificación , Neumonía por Pneumocystis/epidemiología , Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/diagnóstico , Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/genética , Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Técnicas de Genotipaje , Humanos , Inmunidad Innata/genética , Incidencia , Masculino , Lectina de Unión a Manosa/genética , Lectina de Unión a Manosa/inmunología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pneumocystis carinii/inmunología , Neumonía por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Neumonía por Pneumocystis/genética , Neumonía por Pneumocystis/microbiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Tailandia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243934, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338033

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although the clinical benefits of medical genetic testing have been proven, there has been limited evidence on its economic impact in Thai setting. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the economic impact of genetic testing services provided by the Center for Medical Genomics (CMG) in Thailand. METHODS: Cost-benefit analysis was conducted from provider and societal perspectives. Cost and output data of genetic testing services provided by the CMG during 2014 to 2018 and published literature reviews were applied to estimate the costs and benefits. Monetary benefits related to genetic testing services were derived through human capital approach. RESULTS: The total operation cost was 126 million baht over five years with an average annual cost of 21 million baht per year. The net benefit, benefit-to-cost ratio, and return on investment were 5,477 million baht, 43 times, and 42 times, respectively. Productivity gain was the highest proportion (50.57%) of the total benefit. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of genetic testing services at the CMG gained much more benefits than the cost. This study highlighted a good value for money in the establishment of medical genomics settings in Thailand and other developing countries.


Asunto(s)
Costo de Enfermedad , Análisis Costo-Beneficio/economía , Pruebas Genéticas/economía , Infecciones por VIH/economía , Genómica/economía , VIH/genética , VIH/patogenicidad , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/genética , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Costos de la Atención en Salud/normas , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/economía , Humanos , Tailandia/epidemiología
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1926, 2020 Dec 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380321

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the perinatal period women lack screening and treatments for perinatal depressive symptoms, while public health professionals (PHPs) in primary care centres (PCCs) need training for identification and management of such symptoms. This quasi-experimental study was aimed at evaluating knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy among PHPs after participating in a Knowledge, Attitude, and Self-efficacy (KAS) program for identification and management of perinatal depressive symptoms. METHOD: The KAS-program, carried through in Sakonnakhon in north-eastern Thailand, comprised one day of theory and a four-week period of field practice. Thirty-three PHPs from PCCs participated in the program. Twenty-three of them participated in focus group discussions (FGDs). Chi-square for trend, paired-sample T-tests and content analysis were used. RESULTS: Knowledge, attitude and self-efficacy scores increased after the PHPs had fully participated in the KAS-program. Four categories emerged from the FGDs: increased understanding and knowledge, being aware and having a positive attitude, having confidence and ability to work, and need of regular training and feedback. CONCLUSION: The KAS-program may contribute to giving PHPs in PCCs the knowledge, positive attitude and self-efficacy they need to identify and manage perinatal depressive symptoms. Implementation of the KAS-program to other healthcare professionals such as nurses/midwives is great of interest.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud/educación , Complicaciones del Embarazo/prevención & control , Autoeficacia , Adulto , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Tailandia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008955, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326440

RESUMEN

Human head lice are blood-sucking insects causing an infestation in humans called pediculosis capitis. The infestation is more prevalent in the school-aged population. Scalp itching, a common presenting symptom, results in scratching and sleep disturbance. The condition can lead to social stigmatization which can lead to loss of self-esteem. Currently, the mainstay of treatment for pediculosis is chemical insecticides such as permethrin. The extended use of permethrin worldwide leads to growing pediculicide resistance. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the presence of the knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in head lice populations from six different localities of Thailand. A total of 260 head lice samples in this study were collected from 15 provinces in the 6 regions of Thailand. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the α subunit of voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) gene, kdr mutation (C→T substitution). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns and sequencing were used to identify the kdr T917I mutation and demonstrated three genotypic forms including homozygous susceptible (SS), heterozygous genotype (RS), and homozygous resistant (RR). Of 260 samples from this study, 156 (60.00%) were SS, 58 (22.31%) were RS, and 46 (17.69%) were RR. The overall frequency of the kdr T917I mutation was 0.31. Genotypes frequencies determination using the exact test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium found that northern, central, northeastern, southern, and western region of Thailand differed from expectation. The five aforementioned localities had positive inbreeding coefficient value (Fis > 0) which indicated an excess of homozygotes. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of RS and RR showed T917I and L920F point mutations. In conclusion, this is the first study detecting permethrin resistance among human head lice from Thailand. PCR-RFLP is an easy technique to demonstrate the kdr mutation in head louse. The data obtained from this study would increase awareness of increasing of the kdr mutation in head louse in Thailand.


Asunto(s)
Resistencia a los Insecticidas/genética , Insecticidas/farmacología , Infestaciones por Piojos/parasitología , Pediculus/genética , Permetrina/farmacología , Sustitución de Aminoácidos , Animales , Niño , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Infestaciones por Piojos/epidemiología , Masculino , Mutación Missense , Pediculus/efectos de los fármacos , Mutación Puntual , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes , Tailandia/epidemiología
12.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(5): 499-511, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202502

RESUMEN

Echinostome metacercariae were investigated in freshwater snails from 26 districts in 7 provinces of upper northern Thailand. The species identification was carried out based on the morphologies of the metacercariae and adult flukes harvested from experimental hamsters, and on nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Twenty-four out of 26 districts were found to be infected with echinostome metacercariae in freshwater snails with the prevalence of 40.4%. The metacercariae were found in all 6 species of snails, including Filopaludina martensi martensi (21.9%), Filopaludina doliaris (50.8%), F. sumatrensis polygramma (61.3%), Bithynia siamensis siamensis (14.5%), Bithynia pulchella (38.0%), and Anenthome helena (4.9%). The echinostome metacercariae found in these snails were identified as Echinostoma revolutum (37-collar-spined) and Echinostoma macrorchis (45-collar-spined) morphologically and molecularly. The 2-week-old adult flukes of E. revolutum revealed unique features of the cirrus sac extending to middle of the ventral sucker and smooth testes. E. macrorchis adults revealed the cirrus sac close to the right lateral margin of the ventral sucker and 2 large and elliptical testes with slight indentations and pointed posterior end of the posterior testis. The ITS2 and nad1 sequences confirmed the species identification of E. revolutum, and the sequences of E. macrorchis have been deposited for the first time in Gen-Bank. The presence of the life cycle of E. macrorchis is a new record in Thailand and the snail F. doliaris as their second intermediate host seems to be new among the literature.


Asunto(s)
Cricetinae/parasitología , Echinostoma/anatomía & histología , Echinostoma/aislamiento & purificación , Agua Dulce/parasitología , Metacercarias/anatomía & histología , Metacercarias/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/parasitología , Caracoles/parasitología , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Echinostoma/genética , Genes de Helminto/genética , Metacercarias/genética , Prevalencia , Tailandia/epidemiología
13.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(5): 527-535, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202504

RESUMEN

To clarify the reinfection profile associated with risk factors of opisthorchiasis, we conducted an epidemiological study on the chemotherapeutic effects on reinfection with O. viverrini in the endemic areas of Northeastern Thailand for 3 years. A total of 3,674 fecal samples were collected from participants in villages of 5 provinces. They were examined microscopically using a modified technique of formalin ethyl-acetate concentration. Egg-positive residents were reexamined year (2018) by year (2019) after treatment with a single dose (40 mg/kg) of praziquantel. Health education was provided to the participants yearly. The egg-positive rate of O. viverrini was 14.3%, and was highest (22.2%) in the 20-30 year-old group in 2017. The egg positive rate was 15.3% in dogs and 11.4% cats. Human reinfection rate was 15.5% and 6.3% in next 2 years, and was highest (23.2%) among the fishermen. Relative risk factors of reinfection were significantly higher for males, over 40-year-old age, or working as fishermen or farmers, and eating uncooked fish within the preceding year. A significant difference resulting from a health education program was observed in the third year. Therefore, health education and sustainable surveillance for opisthorchiasis should be maintained to decrease the risk of reinfection.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Endémicas , Opistorquiasis/epidemiología , Opistorquiasis/prevención & control , Opisthorchis , Praziquantel/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Animales , Femenino , Peces , Parasitología de Alimentos , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Opistorquiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Opistorquiasis/parasitología , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Factores de Riesgo , Prevención Secundaria , Tailandia/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
14.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(3): 385-390, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128864

RESUMEN

Ehrlichia canis is the common blood pathogen infected dogs in Thailand that significantly affect dog health and caused canine monocytic ehrlichiosis which leads to anaemia, high morbidity also mortality rates. This study was performed to analyse associated risk factors and evaluate the significance of haematological responses of dogs infected with E. canis in Phitsanulok province, the northern part of Thailand. Blood samples were collected from 94 dogs, 27 (28.7%) dogs have been confirmed E. canis infection by nested PCR method. Mostly of infected dogs had hypohemoglobinemia (<12.1 g/dl), leucocytosis (>15.5×103/µl), neutrophilia (>10.6×103/µl) and thrombocytopenia (<170×103/µl). However, only thrombocytopenia was statistically different between E. canis infected and non-infected groups. Additionally, no significant statistical relationship between E. canis infection rate and sex, age or breed apparent. These data supported that infection with E. canis is endemic in dogs and thrombocytopenia may highlight during infection which reliability to use in the clinical diagnosis of E. canis infection.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Ehrlichia canis , Ehrlichiosis , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Ehrlichia canis/genética , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiología , Ehrlichiosis/veterinaria , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo , Tailandia/epidemiología
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008719, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119609

RESUMEN

An estimated 105 million dengue infections occur per year across 120 countries, where traditional vector control is the primary control strategy to reduce contact between mosquito vectors and people. The ongoing sars-cov-2 pandemic has resulted in dramatic reductions in human mobility due to social distancing measures; the effects on vector-borne illnesses are not known. Here we examine the pre and post differences of dengue case counts in Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, and estimate the effects of social distancing as a treatment effect whilst adjusting for temporal confounders. We found that social distancing is expected to lead to 4.32 additional cases per 100,000 individuals in Thailand per month, which equates to 170 more cases per month in the Bangkok province (95% CI: 100-242) and 2008 cases in the country as a whole (95% CI: 1170-2846). Social distancing policy estimates for Thailand were also found to be robust to model misspecification, and variable addition and omission. Conversely, no significant impact on dengue transmission was found in Singapore or Malaysia. Across country disparities in social distancing policy effects on reported dengue cases are reasoned to be driven by differences in workplace-residence structure, with an increase in transmission risk of arboviruses from social distancing primarily through heightened exposure to vectors in elevated time spent at residences, demonstrating the need to understand the effects of location on dengue transmission risk under novel population mixing conditions such as those under social distancing policies.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Dengue/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Animales , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Dengue/epidemiología , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Mosquitos Vectores , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Singapur/epidemiología , Aislamiento Social , Tailandia/epidemiología
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22889, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120835

RESUMEN

To determine the surgical outcomes and prognostic factors of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis-related retinal detachment (RD) in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients following vitrectomy.A retrospective charts review was carried out on AIDS patients who were diagnosed with CMV retinitis-related RD and treated with vitrectomy between 2002 and 2016. The main outcome measures were the rates of primary anatomical success and final visual acuity (VA) success defined as postoperative VA ≥20/200. Kaplan-Meier curves on the time to retinal redetachment were performed. Multivariate logistic regression models based on a directed acyclic graph were used to identify independent factors associated with achieving VA success.Forty five AIDS patients (52 eyes) were included. Over a mean follow-up period of 41.7 months, primary anatomical success was achieved in 44 eyes (84.6%) and VA success was achieved in 34 eyes (65.4%). Receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prior to RD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.9, P = .043), better preoperative VA (aOR = 4.3, P = .006), undergoing vitrectomy within 3 months (aOR=6.7, P = .008), absence of optic atrophy (aOR=58.1, P < .001), and absence of retinal redetachment (aOR=38.1, P = .007) increased the odds of achieving final VA success.Vitrectomy provided favorable anatomical reattachment in AIDS patients with CMV retinitis-related RD. Majority of patients was able to retain functional vision postoperatively. The use of HAART and early vitrectomy increased the probability of achieving both anatomical and VA success.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/complicaciones , Retinitis por Citomegalovirus/complicaciones , Desprendimiento de Retina/etiología , Desprendimiento de Retina/cirugía , Vitrectomía/efectos adversos , Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/complicaciones , Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/virología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/virología , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa/métodos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Citomegalovirus/genética , Retinitis por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Retinitis por Citomegalovirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tailandia/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Agudeza Visual/fisiología , Vitrectomía/estadística & datos numéricos , Vitrectomía/tendencias
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081403

RESUMEN

This study examines how experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) influences the impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on international tourism demand for four Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Thailand, and New Zealand, over the 1 January-30 April 2020 period. To proceed, panel regression models are first applied with a time-lag effect to estimate the general effects of COVID-19 on daily tourist arrivals. In turn, the data set is decomposed into two nation groups and fixed effects models are employed for addressing the comparison of the pandemic-tourism relationship between economies with and without experiences of the SARS epidemic. Specifically, Taiwan and Hong Kong are grouped as economies with SARS experiences, while Thailand and New Zealand are grouped as countries without experiences of SARS. The estimation result indicates that the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has a significant negative impact on tourism demand, in which a 1% COVID-19 case increase causes a 0.075% decline in tourist arrivals, which is a decline of approximately 110 arrivals for every additional person infected by the coronavirus. The negative impact of COVID-19 on tourist arrivals for Thailand and New Zealand is found much stronger than for Taiwan and Hong Kong. In particular, the number of tourist arrivals to Taiwan and Hong Kong decreased by 0.034% in response to a 1% increase in COVID-19 confirmed cases, while in Thailand and New Zealand, a 1% national confirmed cases increase caused a 0.103% reduction in tourism demand. Moreover, the effect of the number of domestic cases on international tourism is found lower than the effect caused by global COVID-19 mortality for the economies with SARS experiences. In contrast, tourist arrivals are majorly affected by the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Thailand and New Zealand. Finally, travel restriction in all cases is found to be the most influencing factor for the number of tourist arrivals. Besides contributing to the existing literature focusing on the knowledge regarding the nexus between tourism and COVID-19, the paper's findings also highlight the importance of risk perception and the need of transmission prevention and control of the epidemic for the tourism sector.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Viaje/estadística & datos numéricos , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Pandemias , Taiwán/epidemiología , Tailandia/epidemiología
18.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720966167, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084483

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The study aimed to explore the prevalence and possible risk factors to prevent the face mask related adverse skin reactions during the ongoing COVID-19 after a recommendation of face mask wearing for public use in Thailand. RESULTS: The prevalence of face mask related adverse skin reactions was 454 cases (54.5%), of which acne was the most frequent (399; 39.9%), followed by rashes on the face (154; 18.4%), and itch symptoms (130; 15.6%). Wearing a surgical mask showed a higher risk of adverse skin reaction compared to a cloth mask, OR (95% CI) = 1.54 (1.16-2.06). A duration of face mask wearing of more than 4 hours/day and the reuse of face masks increased the risk of adverse skin reactions compared to changing the mask every day, adjusted OR(95% CI) = 1.96 (1.29-2.98), and 1.5 (1.11-2.02). CONCLUSION: Suggestions were made for wearing a cloth mask in non-health care workers (HCW) to decrease the risk of face mask related adverse skin reactions. This suggestion could potentially help in decreasing the demand of surgical masks which should be reserved for the HCW population during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Máscaras/efectos adversos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Enfermedades de la Piel/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tailandia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008806, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064734

RESUMEN

Clinical spectrum of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear, especially with regard to the presence of pneumonia. We aimed to describe the clinical course and final outcomes of adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in the full spectrum of disease severity. We also aimed to identify potential predictive factors for COVID-19 pneumonia. We conducted a retrospective study among adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized at Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Thailand, between January 8 and April 16, 2020. One-hundred-and-ninety-three patients were included. The median (IQR) age was 37.0 (29.0-53.0) years, and 58.5% were male. The median (IQR) incubation period was 5.5 (3.0-8.0) days. More than half (56%) of the patients were mild disease severity, 22% were moderate, 14% were severe, and 3% were critical. Asymptomatic infection was found in 5%. The final clinical outcomes in 189 (97.9%) were recovered and 4 (2.1%) were deceased. The incidence of pneumonia was 39%. The median (IQR) time from onset of illness to pneumonia detection was 7.0 (5.0-9.0) days. Bilateral pneumonia was more prevalent than unilateral pneumonia. In multivariable logistic regression, increasing age (OR 2.55 per 10-year increase from 30 years old; 95% CI, 1.67-3.90; p<0.001), obesity (OR 8.74; 95%CI, 2.06-37.18; p = 0.003), and higher temperature at presentation (OR 4.59 per 1°C increase from 37.2°C; 95% CI, 2.30-9.17; p<0.001) were potential predictive factors for COVID-19 pneumonia. Across the spectrum of disease severities, most patients with COVID-19 in our cohort had good final clinical outcomes. COVID-19 pneumonia was found in one-third of them. Older age, obesity, and higher fever at presentation were independent predictors of COVID-19 pneumonia.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , Femenino , Fiebre/etiología , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Pandemias , Pronóstico , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Factores de Riesgo , Evaluación de Síntomas , Tailandia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16602, 2020 10 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024144

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major global concern. Several SARS-CoV-2 gene mutations have been reported. In the current study associations between SARS-CoV-2 gene variation and exposure history during the first wave of the outbreak in Thailand between January and May 2020 were investigated. Forty samples were collected at different time points during the outbreak, and parts of the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence were used to assess genomic variation patterns. The phylogenetics of the 40 samples were clustered into L, GH, GR, O and T types. T types were predominant in Bangkok during the first local outbreak centered at a boxing stadium and entertainment venues in March 2020. Imported cases were infected with various types, including L, GH, GR and O. In southern Thailand introductions of different genotypes were identified at different times. No clinical parameters were significantly associated with differences in genotype. The results indicated local transmission (type T, Spike protein (A829T)) and imported cases (types L, GH, GR and O) during the first wave in Thailand. Genetic and epidemiological data may contribute to national policy formulation, transmission tracking and the implementation of measures to control viral spread.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Genoma Viral/genética , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Secuencia de Bases , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Genotipo , Humanos , Epidemiología Molecular , Mutación , Pandemias , Filogenia , Neumonía Viral/virología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Tailandia/epidemiología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...