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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248176, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667280

RESUMEN

Testing and case identification are key strategies in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Contact tracing and isolation are only possible if cases have been identified. The effectiveness of testing should be assessed, but a single comprehensive metric is not available to assess testing effectiveness, and no timely estimates of case detection rate are available globally, making inter-country comparisons difficult. The purpose of this paper was to propose a single, comprehensive metric, called the COVID-19 Testing Index (CovTI) scaled from 0 to 100, derived from epidemiological indicators of testing, and to identify factors associated with this outcome. The index was based on case-fatality rate, test positivity rate, active cases, and an estimate of the detection rate. It used parsimonious modeling to estimate the true total number of COVID-19 cases based on deaths, testing, health system capacity, and government transparency. Publicly reported data from 165 countries and territories that had reported at least 100 confirmed cases by June 3, 2020 were included in the index. Estimates of detection rates aligned satisfactorily with previous estimates in literature (R2 = 0.44). As of June 3, 2020, the states with the highest CovTI included Hong Kong (93.7), Australia (93.5), Iceland (91.8), Cambodia (91.3), New Zealand (90.6), Vietnam (90.2), and Taiwan (89.9). Bivariate analyses showed the mean CovTI in countries with open public testing policies (66.9, 95% CI 61.0-72.8) was significantly higher than in countries with no testing policy (29.7, 95% CI 17.6-41.9) (p<0.0001). A multiple linear regression model assessed the association of independent grouping variables with CovTI. Open public testing and extensive contact tracing were shown to significantly increase CovTI, after adjusting for extrinsic factors, including geographic isolation and centralized forms of government. The correlation of testing and contact tracing policies with improved outcomes demonstrates the validity of this model to assess testing effectiveness and also suggests these policies were effective at improving health outcomes. This tool can be combined with other databases to identify other factors or may be useful as a standalone tool to help inform policymakers.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , /epidemiología , Australia/epidemiología , Cambodia/epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto , Política de Salud , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Islandia/epidemiología , Modelos Lineales , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Taiwán/epidemiología , Vietnam/epidemiología
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(8): e24766, 2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663092

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Non-apnea sleep disorder (NASD) increases the risk of motor vehicle accidents. However, systemic review of NASD and its risk for all causes of injury is lacking. The aim of the present study was to provide a detailed demographic data on NASD and all causes of injury in a 14-year follow up.Our study utilized outpatient and inpatient data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database between 2000 and 2013 in Taiwan. We enrolled 989,753 individuals aged ≥20 years who were diagnosed with NASD as outpatients ≥3 times or inpatients ≥1 time. We matched the study cohort with a comparison cohort by age, index date and comorbidities at a ratio of 1:4. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to analyze the association of NASD and the cause of injury.In this 14-year follow up study, patients with NASD had 12.96% increased risk of injury compared to that of the control cohort. Fall was the first place of the cause of injury with 670.26 per 105 PYs. In the stratified age group, patients aged ≧65 years had the highest risk of injury (adjusted HR= 1.381; P < .001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the incidence of injury between the with- and without-NASD cohorts started from the first year and persisted until the end of the follow-up.Our study demonstrates that NASD patients were associated with higher risk of all causes of injuries, with falling being the most prevalent diagnosis. The general public should be more aware of this neglected issue of NASD.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Heridas y Traumatismos/epidemiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Taiwán/epidemiología , Índices de Gravedad del Trauma
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(8): e24885, 2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663118

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The prevalence and factors that influence prehypertension and hypertension in workers at elderly welfare facilities remain unknown. This study investigated prehypertension and hypertension as well as the relevant factors affecting the development of these conditions in workers at elderly welfare facilities.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 242 workers at 3 elderly welfare facilities in northern Taiwan. A structured questionnaire survey comprising demographic characteristics, job characteristics, burnout inventory, and health information was employed for data collection. Chi-Squared tests and multinomial logistic regression were adopted to analyze the correlation between research variables and blood pressures as well as relevant factors influencing prehypertension and hypertension.The results indicated that sex, age, education level, type of work shift, work-related burnout, and body mass index of the research participants were significantly correlated with prehypertension and hypertension. The results of multinominal logistic regression demonstrated that being male, being older, being a nonnurse assistant, being obese, working in shifts, and having moderate or severe work-related burnout were associated with higher risks of prehypertension and hypertension. The interaction between age and being a nonnurse assistant was statistically significant. Compared with nonnurse assistants, nurse assistants aged ≥55 years had a relatively low risk of prehypertension and hypertension.Age, job characteristics, work-related burnout, and obesity of workers in elderly welfare facilities were the major risk factors for prehypertension and hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Prehipertensión/epidemiología , Adulto , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hogares para Ancianos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Taiwán/epidemiología
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669977

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to identify the distinct levels of risk perception and preventive behaviors during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak among people in Taiwan and to examine the roles of information sources in various levels of risk perception and preventive behavior. The online survey recruited 1984 participants through a Facebook advertisement. Their self-reported risk perception, adopted preventive behaviors and COVID-19-related information were collected. We analyzed individuals' risk perception and adopted preventive behaviors by using latent profile analysis and conducted multinomial logistic regression of latent class membership on COVID-19-related information sources. Four latent classes were identified, including the risk neutrals with high preventive behaviors, the risk exaggerators with high preventive behaviors, the risk deniers with moderate preventive behaviors, and the risk deniers with low preventive behaviors. Compared with the risk neutrals, the risk exaggerators with high preventive behaviors were more likely to obtain COVID-19 information from multiple sources, whereas the risk deniers with moderate preventive behaviors and risk deniers with low preventive behaviors were less likely to obtain COVID-19 information compared with the risk neutrals. Governments and health professions should take the variety of risk perception and adopted preventive behaviors into consideration when disseminating information on COVID-19 to the general public.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Medición de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Taiwán/epidemiología
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 587439, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659231

RESUMEN

People have felt afraid during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), because a virus is an invisible enemy. During the pandemic outbreak, society has become worried about the spread of infections and the shortage of protective equipment. This common fear among the public subsequently deepens each person's fear, increasing their belief in the content reported by the media and thus actively compelling these individuals to engage in the behavior of panic buying. In this study, we explored the effects of the public's risk perception, state anxiety, and trust in social media on the herding effect among individuals. The study was based on an online questionnaire survey and convenience sampling. The results showed that the public's risk perception increased their state anxiety and then deepened their willingness to wait in line for a purchase. In addition, the more people that trust the message delivered by the media, the more actively they will join the queue to buy goods. This study also found that anxiety had a greater impact on the public's willingness to wait for a purchase than trust in social media. Therefore, the top priority for the government should be to reduce the public's state anxiety and then reduce the herding effect.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Miedo , Estrés Psicológico , Estudiantes/psicología , Confianza , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Taiwán/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
Brain Nerve ; 73(3): 223-229, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678614

RESUMEN

Our studies in Brazil and Taiwan revealed that the prevalence of dementia was independent of environment, culture, and use of multilingualism. However, language deterioration in dementia was found to be related to its frequency of use and the environment, and both language, and deterioration were asymmetric. Although the cognitive reserve and protective effect of multilingualism on dementia were shown, the decline in language function was found to be related to psychiatric symptoms of dementia, delusions, and depression which were relieved by providing a reliable language environment. It was suggested that language function evaluation should be considered for dementia care.


Asunto(s)
Reserva Cognitiva , Demencia , Multilingüismo , Brasil/epidemiología , Demencia/epidemiología , Humanos , Taiwán/epidemiología
7.
J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) ; 29(1): 2309499021996072, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641538

RESUMEN

AIM: Taiwan's response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) differed in that it successfully prevented the spread without having to shutdown or overburden medical services. Patients' fear regarding the pandemic would be the only reason to reduce surgeries, so Taiwan could be the most suitable place for research on the influence of psychological factors. This study aimed to assess the impact of patients' fear on orthopedic surgeries in Taiwan amid the peak period of the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The investigation period included the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020 to April 2020) and the corresponding period in the previous year. The following data on patients with orthopedic diseases were collected: outpatient visits, hospital admission, and surgical modalities. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a 22%-29% and 20%-26% reduction in outpatients, 22%-27% and 25%-37% reduction in admissions, and 26%-35% and 18%-34% reduction in surgeries, respectively, at both hospitals. The weekly mean number of patients was significantly smaller during the COVID-19 pandemic for all types of surgery and elective surgeries at the university hospital, and for all types of surgery, elective surgeries, and total knee arthroplasties at the community hospital. Further, patients visiting the community hospital during the pandemic were significantly younger, for all types of surgery, elective surgeries, and total knee arthroplasties. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in orthopedic surgeries in Taiwan's hospitals during COVID-19 could be attributed to patients' fear. Even without restriction, the pandemic inevitably led to a reduction of about 20%-30% of the operation volume.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla/psicología , Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Pandemias , Comorbilidad , Hospitalización/tendencias , Humanos , Masculino , Taiwán/epidemiología
8.
J Med Syst ; 45(4): 47, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644834

RESUMEN

The aims were to develop an integrated electronic medication reconciliation (ieMR) platform, evaluate its effects on preventing potential duplicated medications, analyze the distribution of the potential duplicated medications by the Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical (ATC) code for all inpatients, and determine the rate of 30-day medication-related hospital revisits for a geriatric unit. The study was conducted in a tertiary medical center in Taiwan and involved a retrospective quasi pre-intervention (July 1-November 30, 2015) and post-intervention (October 1-December 31, 2016) study design. A multidisciplinary team developed the ieMR platform covering the process from admission to discharge. The ieMR platform included six modules of an enhanced computer physician order entry system (eCPOE), Pharmaceutical-care, Holistic Care, Bedside Display, Personalized Best Possible Medication Discharge Plan, and Pharmaceutical Care Registration System. The ieMR platform prevented the number of potential duplicated medications from pre (25,196 medications, 2.3%) to post (23,413 medications, 3.8%) phases (OR 1.71, 95% CI, 1.68-1.74; p < .001). The most common potential duplicated medications classified by the ATC codes were cardiovascular system (28.4%), alimentary tract and metabolism (26.4%), and nervous system (14.9%), and by chemical substances were sennoside (12.5%), amlodipine (7.5%), and alprazolam (7.4%). The rate of medication-related 30-day hospital revisits for the geriatric unit was significantly decreased in post-intervention compared with that in pre-intervention (OR = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03-0.53; p < .01). This study indicated that the ieMR platform significantly prevented the number of potential duplicated medications for inpatients and reduced the rate of 30-day medication-related hospital revisits for the patients on the geriatric unit.


Asunto(s)
Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Errores de Medicación/prevención & control , Conciliación de Medicamentos/organización & administración , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/normas , Sistemas de Entrada de Órdenes Médicas/organización & administración , Sistemas de Registros Médicos Computarizados/organización & administración , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/organización & administración , Garantía de la Calidad de Atención de Salud , Estudios Retrospectivos , Taiwán
9.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(2): 7502205070p1-7502205070p10, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657349

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 appears to be a promising outcome measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for clients with stroke. However, because the factorial validity of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 remains unclear, its validity is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the underlying structure of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 by comparing the currently available eight- and four-domain structures simultaneously. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of responses to the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 from a previous psychometric validation study. SETTING: Five general hospitals in northern and southern Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred sixty-three patients with stroke from rehabilitation wards (inpatients) and neurology and rehabilitation clinics (outpatients). OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the eight- and four-domain structures of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0. Four fit indices were considered simultaneously to examine the model fits of both structures. RESULTS: The eight- and four-domain structures of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 were not supported by all four indices (χ²/df = 2.7 and 5.0, comparative fit index = .79 and .86, root mean square error of approximation = .08 and .12, standardized root mean square residual = .08 and .08, respectively). The unidimensionality of each domain in the two structures was not supported. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Neither the eight- nor the four-domain structure of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 was supported, suggesting that scores may not provide valid assessments of HRQOL in clients with stroke. Further modification and validation of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 are warranted. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: Our findings suggest that the eight- and four-domain scores of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 may not be valid. Therefore, until more supporting evidence is developed, these scores should be interpreted cautiously in regard to clients' HRQOL; alternatively, other measures could be used.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Análisis Factorial , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Taiwán
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(2): 538-548, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650363

RESUMEN

Alsophila spinulosa is a rare and endangered relict fern species. With the Maxent model, we predicted the global potential suitable habitat and its future changes for A. spinulosa. We evaluated the accuracy of our prediction based on the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), in order to provide reference for the protection, detection and cultivation of its resources. The results showed that most potential suitable habitat for A. spinulosa would be in Asia and few in North Ame-rica, Central America, Madagascar, La Réunion, Mauritius, Seychelles, New Zealand, New Caledonia and Fiji. The global potential suitable habitat for A. spinulosa under current climate conditions encompassed 357.1×104 km2, with Asia accounting for 88.4% and China for 49.5% of the total. The highly suitable habitat for A. spinulosa in China would be mainly in Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, Sichuan Basin, south of the Nanling Mountains and Taiwan Island. The critical factors driving the distribution of A. spinulosa would be the precipitation of warmest quarter, July average precipita-tion, temperature seasonality and mean diurnal range. Under the SSP1_2.6 climate scenario, the global potential suitable habitat for A. spinulosa would decrease by 7.8% from 2041 to 2060, and increase by 3.2% from 2081 to 2100. Under the SSP2_4.5 climate scenario, it would increase by 2.9% from 2041 to 2060 and by 7.2% from 2081 to 2100. Under the SSP5_8.5 climate scenario, it would increase by 3.3% from 2041 to 2060 and by 5.3% from 2081 to 2100.


Asunto(s)
Clima , Ecosistema , Animales , Asia , China , Cambio Climático , Taiwán
11.
Zootaxa ; 4920(2): zootaxa.4920.2.8, 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756670

RESUMEN

The millipede assassin bug genus Abelocephala Maldonado, 1996 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae: Abelocephalini) is currently comprised of seven Oriental species. Two macropterous males, representing two new species, were recently collected from Taiwan in Malaise trap samples: A. baliensis sp. nov. and A. yilanensis sp. nov. Habitus and structural images are provided for each new species. A revised diagnosis of Abelocephala and an updated identification key to all species of the genus are given.


Asunto(s)
Heterópteros , Reduviidae , Triatoma , Distribución Animal , Animales , Masculino , Taiwán
12.
Zootaxa ; 4927(3): zootaxa.4927.3.1, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756698

RESUMEN

Global trade has increased the invasion risk of exotic organisms and damaged agricultural and natural ecosystems. The Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (BAPHIQ) handles quarantine services of animal- and plant-associated pests and diseases in Taiwan. The predatory mite family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) is a well-known group due to the potential use of certain species as biocontrol agents for small phytophagous pests. Some species are available in commercial markets and frequently used in biological control in many agricultural systems, especially in greenhouse crops. However, exotic biological control agents may interfere with natural or naturalised populations of predatory mites and they may threaten indigenous populations via intraguild predation. The present study aims to provide a checklist of phytoseiid mite species found in plant quarantine from 2006-2013. Twenty-five species belonging to two subfamilies and eight genera were found in samples imported to Taiwan from twelve countries, including one new species Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) ueckermanni sp. nov. from South Africa. The checklist provides distribution, remarks, and also an identification key for all species.


Asunto(s)
Ácaros y Garrapatas , Ácaros , Animales , Ecosistema , Control Biológico de Vectores , Conducta Predatoria , Taiwán
13.
Zootaxa ; 4927(2): zootaxa.4927.2.2, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756707

RESUMEN

Representatives of some poorly known spider species collected in the rainforest litter of the Orchid Island (Taiwan) are illustrated and discussed here. A new species, Brignoliella tao sp. nov. (Fam. Tetrablemmidae), endemic to Orchid Island, is described based on both sexes. The previously unknown female of Theridiosoma triumphale Zhao Li, 2012 (Fam. Theridiosomatidae), is described for the first time. Zoma taiwanica (Zhang, Zhu Tso 2006) comb. nov., from the same family, is illustrated and its transfer from the genus Theridiosoma O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1879 to Zoma Saaristo, 1996 is proposed on the basis of morphological characters. Habitus and genitalia of the endemic species Gongylidioides angustus Tu Li, 2006 (Fam. Linyphiidae) are also illustrated.


Asunto(s)
Arañas , Distribución Animal , Animales , Femenino , Genitales , Islas , Masculino , Bosque Lluvioso , Taiwán
14.
Zootaxa ; 4927(1): zootaxa.4927.1.4, 2021 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756720

RESUMEN

This study revised the spider genus Oxyopes Latreille, 1804 in Taiwan and delineated the species boundaries based on morphological and molecular characters. A total of seven Oxyopes spiders were recognized, including two newly described species, O. hasta sp. nov. and O. taiwanensis sp. nov. Oxyopes fujianicus Song Zhu 1993 from Yilan County, Nantou County, and Kaohsuing City, and O. striagatus Song 1999 from New Taipei City, Taichung City, Nantou County, and Kaohsiung City were recorded for the first time in Taiwan. An identification key and a distributional map of Taiwanese Oxyopes species were provided. Partial COI sequences were obtained for molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies, and DNA barcoding gap analysis supported morphologically defined species. However, molecular species delimitation based on Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), PID (Liberal), and generalized mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) were incongruent in species assignment. The results showed that the interspecific genetic divergence between O. sertatus and O. taiwanensis was relatively low (1.28 ± 0.43%), and the intraspecific genetic divergence of O. striagatus was relatively high (1.69 ± 0.35%). Ecological data, additional samples and genetic loci are required to further examine the level of reproductive isolation and patterns of population genetic structure in Taiwanese Oxyopes.


Asunto(s)
Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico , Arañas , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Filogenia , Arañas/genética , Taiwán
15.
Zootaxa ; 4933(4): zootaxa.4933.4.5, 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756778

RESUMEN

There are 29 species or subspecies in genus Hexacentrus occurring in Asia, Africa and Australia. Because of its similar appearance, it is not easy to distinguish them by traditional methods. In this study, we collected samples and sequenced COI genes from wide range. By reconstructing the gene tree, we found one new species, H. formosanus Chen et He sp. nov., from Taiwan. The new species is similar to H. expansus or H. inflatissimus, but differs from the former in male Cu2 vein of left tegmina curved and slender, and spectrum of male left tegmina slender and subsquare; differs from the later by body size smaller and female tegmina narrow and short. The type specimens are deposited in National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung, Taiwan (NMNS). H. japonicus hareyamai is treated as species level, H. hareyamai stat. nov.


Asunto(s)
Ortópteros , Distribución Animal , Estructuras Animales , Animales , Tamaño Corporal , Femenino , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Ortópteros/genética , Taiwán
16.
Zootaxa ; 4949(1): zootaxa.4949.1.7, 2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756998

RESUMEN

The present study reports one new species of the Family Leptocheliidae Lang, 1973 and one new species of Pseudotanaidae Sieg, 1976 from Taiwan. The leptocheliid Paraleptochelia setosa sp. nov. can be differentiated from its congeners by both sexes having a two-articled exopod and five-articled endopod on the uropod, the female having coupling hooks on the inner margin of the maxilliped endite, the male having a five-articled antennule flagellum, and cheliped fixed finger with one large subtriangular denticle on the incisive margin in some individuals. The pseudotanaid Akanthinotanais pedecerritulus sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners by pereopods 2 and 3 having a sigmoid (S-shaped) dactylus, a unique feature in Akanthinotanais. The family Pseudotanaidae and the two genera are reported from Taiwan for the first time, as are the two genera for the West Pacific. Key morphological characters of all known Paraleptochelia and Akanthinotanais species are tabulated.


Asunto(s)
Crustáceos , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Taiwán
17.
Zootaxa ; 4903(2): zootaxa.4903.2.4, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757097

RESUMEN

Dasycerus poseidon Hu Liang, sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on fresh specimens from central and southern Taiwan, which filled in the disjunct distribution between the Japanese archipelago and south-eastern Asia. The new species represents the first record of the subfamily Dasycerinae in Taiwan. The barcoding sequence of the holotype of D. poseidon Hu Liang, sp. nov.is provided, and revealed a surprisingly large genetic distance within the genus. Detailed illustrations of D. poseidon Hu Liang, sp. nov. by scanning electron micrograph and micro-computed tomography are also provided. Living individuals of D. poseidon Hu Liang, sp. nov. were observed eating the mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus in lab conditions, which represents the first direct evidence of mycophagous habits of Dasycerinae.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Distribución Animal , Animales , Escarabajos/genética , Taiwán , Microtomografía por Rayos X
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e25123, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761678

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and the rapid transmission of NoV renders infection control problematic. Our study aimed to investigate viral shedding in gastroenteritis in children caused by variants of emerging norovirus strains infections.We used RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequencing to measure NoV genome copies in stool to understand the relationship between the clinical manifestations and viral shedding in hospitalized patients. The near full-length NoV genome sequence was amplified via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and NoV recombination was analyzed using the Recombination Analysis Tool (RAT).From January 2015 to March 2018, 77 fecal specimens were collected from hospitalized pediatric patients with confirmed NoV gastroenteritis. The NoV genotypes were GII.4 (n = 22), non-GII.4 (n = 14), GII.4 Sydney (n = 21), and GII.P16-GII.2 (n = 20). Viral load increased from days 2 to 9 from the illness onset, resulting in an irregular plateau without peaks. After day 9, the viral load declined gradually and most viral shedding in feces ceased by day 15. The average viral load was highest in GII.4 Sydney followed by GII.P16-GII.2 infections and lowest in non-GII.4 infections. GII.4 unclassified infections showed the longest viral shedding time, followed by GII.4 Sydney infections, GII.P16-GII.2 recombinant infection resulted in the shortest duration. NoVs evolved to form a group of GII.P16-GII.2 variants during the 2017 to 2018 period.The viral load and shedding period and was different in variants of NoV infections in children. High mutation rate of emerging and re-emerging variants was observed to an enhanced epidemic risk rendering continuous surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Caliciviridae/virología , Gastroenteritis/virología , Variación Genética , Norovirus/genética , Esparcimiento de Virus/genética , Preescolar , Heces/virología , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Pacientes Internos/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Recombinación Genética , Taiwán , Carga Viral
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(9): e24830, 2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655945

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common symptoms of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in pharmacists. This can impede the physical functions of the body and lead to incapacitation, resulting in significant social and economic burden. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors that correlate with LBP in Taiwanese pharmacists.A retrospective cohort study was conducted among all registered pharmacists aged 20 to 40 years using the National Health Insurance Research Database (2000-2013) in Taiwan. The LBP diagnosis was confirmed with one episode of hospitalization or at least three claimed outpatient visits for LBP. Data on workplace characteristics as well as comorbidities were also collected for the analyses. A Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the risk factors for LBP.The incidence rate of LBP among pharmacists was 16.60% in this study. Older pharmacists (28.49%; P < .01) and those who worked at district hospitals (23.51%; P < .01) showed a higher proportion of LBP. Furthermore, after adjustment for selected potential confounding factors, female pharmacists [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.12, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.01-1.24, P = .0354] and pharmacists with diabetes (aHR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.20-2.01; P = .0008) and gout (aHR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.37-2.09; P < .0001) had significantly higher risks of LBP.In conclusion, age was positively correlated with LBP, and the workplace was an important factor in the development of LBP in pharmacists. We suggest that pharmacists who work in district hospitals should pay more attention to the development of LBP.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de la Región Lumbar/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Salud Laboral , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Lugar de Trabajo/normas , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/diagnóstico , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/etiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Dimensión del Dolor , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Taiwán/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(9): e24934, 2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655959

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Oral cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death, which are mostly preceded by oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). Taiwanese government launched a free oral cancer screening program. The aim of this study was to analyze the malignant transformation rate of OPMDs.This study was based on national-wide oral screening databases. 3,362,232 people were enrolled. Patients clinically diagnosed with leukoplakia, erythroplakia, oral submucosal fibrosis (OSF), oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH), and oral lichen planus (OLP), from 2010 to 2013, were identified. We followed up OPMD patients in cancer registry databases to analyze the malignant transformation rate.The malignant transformation rates from the highest to the lowest were: OVH > OSF > erythroplakia > OLP > leukoplakia. The malignant transformation rate was 24.55, 12.76, 9.75, 4.23, and 0.60 per 1000 person-years in the OVH, OSF, erythroplakia, leukoplakia, and comparison cohort. The hazard ratio was 8.19 times higher in the OPMD group compared with comparison cohort group, after age and habit adjustment. Female patients with OPMDs had a high risk of malignant transformation.Nationwide screening is very important for early diagnosis. OVH had the highest malignant transformation possibility. Female OPMD patients are a rare but have a relatively high malignant transformation rate.


Asunto(s)
Transformación Celular Neoplásica/patología , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Mucosa Bucal/patología , Neoplasias de la Boca/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Lesiones Precancerosas , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Morbilidad/tendencias , Neoplasias de la Boca/patología , Taiwán/epidemiología
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