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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360631

RESUMEN

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as an impairment of glucose tolerance, manifested by hyperglycemia, which occurs at any stage of pregnancy. GDM is more common in the third trimester of pregnancy and usually disappears after birth. It was hypothesized that the glycemic status of the mother can modulate liver development and growth early during the pregnancy. The simplest modality to monitor the evolution of GDM employs noninvasive techniques. In this category, routinely obstetrical ultrasound (OUS) examinations (simple or 2D/3D) can be employed for specific fetal measurements, such as fetal liver length (FLL) or volume (FLV). FLL and FLV may emerge as possible predictors of GDM as they positively relate to the maternal glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and to the results of the oral glucose tolerance test. The aim of this review is to offer insight into the relationship between GDM and fetal nutritional status. Risk factors for GDM and the short- and long-term outcomes of GDM pregnancies are also discussed, as well as the significance of different dietary patterns. Moreover, the review aims to fill one gap in the literature, investigating whether fetal liver growth can be used as a predictor of GDM evolution. To conclude, although studies pointed out a connection between fetal indices and GDM as useful tools in the early detection of GDM (before 23 weeks of gestation), additional research is needed to properly manage GDM and offspring health.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Gestacional/etiología , Hígado/embriología , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico por imagen , Diabetes Gestacional/dietoterapia , Dieta/efectos adversos , Diagnóstico Precoz , Femenino , Humanos , Hígado/diagnóstico por imagen , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Terapia Nutricional , Tamaño de los Órganos , Embarazo , Ultrasonografía Prenatal
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443423

RESUMEN

Chronic liver inflammation has become a major global health concern. In the absence of clinical surrogate markers to diagnose inflammatory liver disease, the intervention with effective drugs in modern medicine tends to be late. In Sri Lanka, traditional medical practitioners prescribe herbal preparations from Osbeckia octandra for the prevention and treatment of liver disorders. To test the efficacy of such treatments, we have administered thioacetamide (TAA) to male Wistar rats to induce chronic liver damage (disease control; DC) and examined how various leaf extracts: crude leaf suspension (CLS), boiled leaf extract (BLE), sonicated leaf extract (SLE), methanol leaf extract (MLE) and hexane leaf extract (HLE) of O. octandra ameliorate TAA-induced liver disease. The CLS, BLE and SLE treatments in cirrhotic rats significantly attenuated disease-related changes, such as liver weight and hepato-enzymes. The mRNA levels of Tnf-α were significantly decreased by 3.6, 10 and 3.9 times in CLS, BLE and SLE compared to DC. The same treatments resulted in significantly lower (19.5, 4.2 and 2.4 times) α-Sma levels compared to DC. In addition, Tgf-ß1 and Vegf-R2 mRNA expressions were significantly lower with the treatments. Moreover, BLE expressed a strong anti-angiogenic effect. We conclude that CLS, BLE and SLE from O. octandra have potent hepatic anti-fibrotic effects in TAA-induced liver cirrhosis.


Asunto(s)
Cirrosis Hepática Experimental/tratamiento farmacológico , Melastomataceae/química , Neovascularización Patológica/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Hojas de la Planta/química , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/efectos de los fármacos , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Hígado/enzimología , Hígado/patología , Cirrosis Hepática Experimental/sangre , Neovascularización Patológica/sangre , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Tioacetamida , Regulación hacia Arriba/efectos de los fármacos , Agua , Pérdida de Peso/efectos de los fármacos
3.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21788, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425031

RESUMEN

Hypoxia increases fetal hepatic insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) phosphorylation mediated by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition. Whether maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) causes fetal hypoxia remains unclear. We used fetal liver from a baboon (Papio sp.) model of intrauterine growth restriction due to MNR (70% global diet of Control) and liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells as a model for human fetal hepatocytes and tested the hypothesis that mTOR-mediated IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in response to hypoxia requires hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and regulated in development and DNA-damage responses-1 (REDD-1) signaling. Western blotting (n = 6) and immunohistochemistry (n = 3) using fetal liver indicated greater expression of HIF-1α, REDD-1 as well as erythropoietin and its receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor at GD120 (GD185 term) in MNR versus Control. Moreover, treatment of HepG2 cells with hypoxia (1% pO2 ) (n = 3) induced REDD-1, inhibited mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) activity and increased IGFBP-1 secretion/phosphorylation (Ser101/Ser119/Ser169). HIF-1α inhibition by echinomycin or small interfering RNA silencing prevented the hypoxia-mediated inhibition of mTORC1 and induction of IGFBP-1 secretion/phosphorylation. dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) induced HIF-1α and also REDD-1 expression, inhibited mTORC1 and increased IGFBP-1 secretion/phosphorylation. Induction of HIF-1α (DMOG) and REDD-1 by Compound 3 inhibited mTORC1, increased IGFBP-1 secretion/ phosphorylation and protein kinase PKCα expression. Together, our data demonstrate that HIF-1α induction, increased REDD-1 expression and mTORC1 inhibition represent the mechanistic link between hypoxia and increased IGFBP-1 secretion/phosphorylation. We propose that maternal undernutrition limits fetal oxygen delivery, as demonstrated by increased fetal liver expression of hypoxia-responsive proteins in baboon MNR. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of restricted fetal growth.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Cultivo de Célula , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Retardo del Crecimiento Fetal/metabolismo , Feto/metabolismo , Hipoxia/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Unión a Factor de Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Animales , Eritropoyetina/metabolismo , Peso Fetal , Feto/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Subunidad alfa del Factor 1 Inducible por Hipoxia/antagonistas & inhibidores , Subunidad alfa del Factor 1 Inducible por Hipoxia/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Proteína 1 de Unión a Factor de Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/química , Diana Mecanicista del Complejo 1 de la Rapamicina/antagonistas & inhibidores , Microscopía Fluorescente , Tamaño de los Órganos , Papio , Fosforilación , Proteína Quinasa C-alfa/metabolismo , Receptores de Eritropoyetina/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/metabolismo
4.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21862, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416035

RESUMEN

Loss of muscle mass and strength after disuse followed by impaired muscle recovery commonly occurs with aging. Metformin (MET) and leucine (LEU) individually have shown positive effects in skeletal muscle during atrophy conditions but have not been evaluated in combination nor tested as a remedy to enhance muscle recovery following disuse atrophy in aging. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dual treatment of metformin and leucine (MET + LEU) would prevent disuse-induced atrophy and/or promote muscle recovery in aged mice and if these muscle responses correspond to changes in satellite cells and collagen remodeling. Aged mice (22-24 months) underwent 14 days of hindlimb unloading (HU) followed by 7 or 14 days of reloading (7 or 14 days RL). MET, LEU, or MET + LEU was administered via drinking water and were compared to Vehicle (standard drinking water) and ambulatory baseline. We observed that during HU, MET + LEU resolved whole body grip strength and soleus muscle specific force decrements caused by HU. Gastrocnemius satellite cell abundance was increased with MET + LEU treatment but did not alter muscle size during disuse or recovery conditions. Moreover, MET + LEU treatment alleviated gastrocnemius collagen accumulation caused by HU and increased collagen turnover during 7 and 14 days RL driven by a decrease in collagen IV content. Transcriptional pathway analysis revealed that MET + LEU altered muscle hallmark pathways related to inflammation and myogenesis during HU. Together, the dual treatment of MET and LEU was able to increase muscle function, satellite cell content, and reduce collagen accumulation, thus improving muscle quality during disuse and recovery in aging.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Colágeno/metabolismo , Leucina/uso terapéutico , Metformina/uso terapéutico , Músculo Esquelético/efectos de los fármacos , Atrofia Muscular/prevención & control , Células Satélite del Músculo Esquelético/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animales , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Fibrosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Suspensión Trasera , Inmunoglobulina G/análisis , Leucina/farmacología , Masculino , Diana Mecanicista del Complejo 1 de la Rapamicina/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Desarrollo de Músculos/efectos de los fármacos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efectos de los fármacos , Fuerza Muscular/efectos de los fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/citología , Músculo Esquelético/patología , Atrofia Muscular/patología , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , RNA-Seq , Células Satélite del Músculo Esquelético/citología , Células Satélite del Músculo Esquelético/patología , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371956

RESUMEN

We examined the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of asiatic acid (AA) in atopic dermatitis (AD). AA treatment (5-20 µg/mL) dose-dependently suppressed the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level and interleukin (IL)-6 protein expression in interferon (IFN)-γ + TNF-α-treated HaCaT cells. The 2,4-dinitrocholrlbenzene (DNCB)-induced AD animal model was developed by administering two AA concentrations (30 and 75 mg/kg/d: AD + AA-L and AD + AA-H groups, respectively) for 18 days. Interestingly, AA treatment decreased AD skin lesions formation and affected other AD characteristics, such as increased ear thickness, lymph node and spleen size, dermal and epidermal thickness, collagen deposition, and mast cell infiltration in dorsal skin. In addition, in the DNCB-induced AD animal model, AA treatment downregulated the mRNA expression level of AD-related cytokines, such as Th1- (TNF-α and IL-1ß and -12) and Th2 (IL-4, -5, -6, -13, and -31)-related cytokines as well as that of cyclooxygenase-2 and CXCL9. Moreover, in the AA treatment group, the protein level of inflammatory cytokines, including COX-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8, as well as the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, were decreased. Overall, our study confirmed that AA administration inhibited AD skin lesion formation via enhancing immunomodulation and inhibiting inflammation. Thus, AA can be used as palliative medication for regulating AD symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/farmacología , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatitis Atópica/tratamiento farmacológico , Factores Inmunológicos/farmacología , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacología , Animales , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/administración & dosificación , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular , Colágeno/análisis , Citocinas/genética , Dermatitis Atópica/inmunología , Dermatitis Atópica/patología , Dermis/patología , Dinitroclorobenceno , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Epidermis/patología , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Factores Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Factores Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Inmunomodulación , Tejido Linfoide/patología , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/efectos de los fármacos , Mastocitos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/uso terapéutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos
6.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21847, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405464

RESUMEN

Mounting evidence demonstrates that paternal diet programs offspring metabolism. However, the contribution of a pre-conception paternal high protein (HP) diet to offspring metabolism, gut microbiota, and epigenetic changes remains unclear. Here we show that paternal HP intake in Sprague Dawley rats programs protective metabolic outcomes in offspring. Compared to paternal high fat/sucrose (HF/S), HP diet improved body composition and insulin sensitivity and improved circulating satiety hormones and cecal short-chain fatty acids compared to HF/S and control diet (P < .05). Further, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to assess gut microbial composition, we observed increased alpha diversity, distinct bacterial clustering, and increased abundance of Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, Bacteroides, and Marvinbryantia in HP fathers and/or male and female adult offspring. At the epigenetic level, DNMT1and 3b expression was altered intergenerationally. Our study identifies paternal HP diet as a modulator of gut microbial composition, epigenetic markers, and metabolic function intergenerationally.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal , Dieta Rica en Proteínas , Epigénesis Genética , Padre , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Insulina/metabolismo , Exposición Paterna , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidad , Envejecimiento , Animales , Peso Corporal , ADN (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferasas/metabolismo , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Sacarosa en la Dieta , Ingestión de Energía , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Femenino , Fertilidad , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa , Hormonas/metabolismo , Resistencia a la Insulina , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Embarazo , ARN Pequeño no Traducido/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Respuesta de Saciedad , Destete
7.
Adv Gerontol ; 34(3): 352-359, 2021.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409813

RESUMEN

The aim of the work was to clarify the gender, age and variable differences in the structure of brain structures in healthy volunteers in connection with the task of distinguishing between physiological aging and pathological processes of the brain. The study methods included performing structural MRI of the brain in 131 conditionally healthy volunteers aged 20 to 70 years (72 of them were women and 59 men). Using the method of MR voxel-based morphometry, the total volume of the brain as a whole, as well as its segmented parts, was measured, followed by a comparison of the data obtained in age subgroups and between the sexes. The data obtained in the course of the study indicate that the right and left thalamuses, the left caudate nucleus, the right shell, the left pale ball, and both hippocampus undergo the greatest reduction in size after 60 years. The greatest changes in the hippocampus are the volumes of CA3 Brodman fields. It is established that the process of «physiological aging¼ of the brain.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Encéfalo , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Caracteres Sexuales , Factores Sexuales
8.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 165, 2021 08 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384426

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 diabetic adults are at increased risk of severe forms irrespective of obesity. In patients with type-II diabetes, fat distribution is characterized by visceral and ectopic adipose tissues expansion, resulting in systemic inflammation, which may play a role in driving the COVID-19 cytokine storm. Our aim was to determine if cardiac adipose tissue, combined to interleukin-6 levels, could predict adverse short-term outcomes, death and ICU requirement, in COVID-19 diabetic patients during the 21 days after admission. METHODS: Eighty one consecutive patients with type-II diabetes admitted for COVID-19 were included. Interleukin-6 measurement and chest computed tomography with total cardiac adipose tissue index (CATi) measurement were performed at admission. The primary outcome was death during the 21 days following admission while intensive care requirement with or without early death (ICU-R) defined the secondary endpoint. Associations of CATi and IL-6 and threshold values to predict the primary and secondary endpoints were determined. RESULTS: Of the enrolled patients (median age 66 years [IQR: 59-74]), 73% male, median body mass index (BMI) 27 kg/m2 [IQR: 24-31]) 20 patients had died from COVID-19, 20 required intensive care and 41 were in conventional care at day 21 after admission. Increased CATi and IL-6 levels were both significantly related to increased early mortality (respectively OR = 6.15, p = 0.002; OR = 18.2, p < 0.0001) and ICU-R (respectively OR = 3.27, p = 0.01; OR = 4.86, p = 0.002). These associations remained significant independently of age, sex, BMI as well as troponin-T level and pulmonary lesion extension in CT. We combined CATi and IL-6 levels as a multiplicative interaction score (CATi*IL-6). The cut-point for this score was ≥ 6386 with a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.87 (AUC = 0.88) and an OR of 59.6 for early mortality (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac adipose tissue index and IL-6 determination at admission could help physicians to better identify diabetic patients with a potentially severe and lethal short term course irrespective of obesity. Diabetic patients with high CATi at admission, a fortiori associated with high IL-6 levels could be a relevant target population to promptly initiate anti-inflammatory therapies.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo/patología , COVID-19/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Interleucina-6/sangre , Miocardio/patología , Tejido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagen , Anciano , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagen , COVID-19/mortalidad , Femenino , Corazón/diagnóstico por imagen , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tamaño de los Órganos , Pronóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
9.
Sports Med Arthrosc Rev ; 29(3): e18-e23, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398117

RESUMEN

A basic understanding of meniscal anatomy and biomechanics is important for physicians evaluating knee injuries and surgeons treating meniscal injuries. This chapter provides a concise review of meniscal anatomy and biomechanics relevant for the evaluation and treatment of meniscus injuries. Anatomic landmarks relevant for meniscal root repair and transplant are discussed, along with the gross, microscopic, vascular, and neuroanatomy of the menisci.


Asunto(s)
Meniscos Tibiales/anatomía & histología , Meniscos Tibiales/fisiología , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/anatomía & histología , Fenómenos Biomecánicos/fisiología , Humanos , Ilustración Médica , Meniscos Tibiales/cirugía , Movimientos de los Órganos/fisiología , Tamaño de los Órganos , Lesiones de Menisco Tibial/diagnóstico
10.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 48(3): 239-245, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390628

RESUMEN

Breathing less than 50 kPa of oxygen over time can lead to pulmonary oxygen toxicity (POT). Vital capacity (VC) as the sole parameter for POT has its limitations. In this study we try to find out the changes of acid-base status in a POT rat model. Fifty male rats were randomly divided into five groups, exposed to 230 kPa oxygen for three, six, nine and 12 hours, respectively. Rats exposed to air were used as controls. After exposure the mortality and behavior of rats were observed. Arterial blood samples were collected for acid-base status detection and wet-dry (W/D) ratios of lung tissues were tested. Results showed that the acid-base status in rats exposed to 230 kPa oxygen presented a dynamic change. The primary status was in the compensatory period when primary respiratory acidosis was mixed with compensated metabolic alkalosis. Then the status changed to decompensated alkalosis and developed to decompensated acidosis in the end. pH, PCO2, HCO3-, TCO2, and BE values had two phases: an increase and a later decrease with increasing oxygen exposure time, while PaO2 and lung W/D ratio showed continuously increasing trends with the extension of oxygen exposure time. Lung W/D ratio was significantly associated with PaO2 (r = 0.6385, p = 0.002), while other parameters did not show a significant correlation. It is concluded that acid-base status in POT rats presents a dynamic change: in the compensatory period first, then turns to decompensated alkalosis and ends up with decompensated acidosis status. Blood gas analysis is a useful method to monitor the development of POT.


Asunto(s)
Desequilibrio Ácido-Base/sangre , Acidosis Respiratoria/metabolismo , Alcalosis Respiratoria/metabolismo , Oxigenación Hiperbárica/efectos adversos , Oxígeno/toxicidad , Desequilibrio Ácido-Base/etiología , Animales , Presión Atmosférica , Bicarbonatos/sangre , Análisis Químico de la Sangre , Análisis de los Gases de la Sangre , Dióxido de Carbono/sangre , Oxigenación Hiperbárica/métodos , Pulmón/patología , Masculino , Modelos Animales , Tamaño de los Órganos , Presión Parcial , Distribución Aleatoria , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Factores de Tiempo , Capacidad Vital
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26954, 2021 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414961

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The impact of gastric remnant volumes (GRVs) after gastrectomy on patients' quality of life (QOL) has not yet been clarified. The aim of the present study was to compare QOL after gastrectomy between small and large gastric remnant volume patients.We prospectively collected clinical data from 78 consecutive patients who underwent distal gastrectomy with Billroth II gastrojejunostomy for gastric cancer. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Stomach questionnaire and gastric computed tomography scans were performed. The patients were subdivided into 2 groups by remnant stomach volume (the S group ≤110 mL vs L group >110 mL).The worst scores for most items were observed at postoperative month 1 and usually improved thereafter. There was no difference in the STO22 score except for dysphagia between the S and L groups after gastrectomy (P > .05). The QOL score of dysphagia was different at postoperative 6 months (S vs L, 12.4 vs 22.8, P < .03), but there was no difference at postoperative months 1, 3, 12, 24, or 36 (P > .05).The remnant gastric volume after partial gastrectomy affects neither functional differences nor QOL after 6 months following appropriate radical surgery.


Asunto(s)
Gastrectomía/efectos adversos , Muñón Gástrico/patología , Calidad de Vida , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirugía , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Muñón Gástrico/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tamaño de los Órganos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
12.
Chem Biol Interact ; 347: 109614, 2021 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364835

RESUMEN

Ochratoxin A (OTA), an important fungal metabolite in foods and feeds has been shown to induce oxidative stress and cellular injuries to human and animal subjects. This study was designed to investigate the mode of action of a biological modifier Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans (TM), against OTA-mediated oxidative stress and tissue toxicity on broiler chickens. The birds were offered diets supplemented with OTA (0.15 and 0.3 mg/kg feed) and/or TM (0.5, 1.0 g/kg) for 42 days of age, and blood and tissue samples were collected to examine the oxidative stress, biochemical and histopathological parameters. Dietary OTA at all the tested levels induced the hepatic and renal tissue injury as indicated by significant decreased total antioxidant capacity in these organs along with significant decreased (p ≤ 0.05) serum concentrations of total proteins and albumin. The serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and urea were significantly increased, and these observations were further supported by degenerative changes and increased relative weights of liver and kidneys. The dietary supplementation of TM at both tested levels relieved the detrimental impact of 0.15 and 0.3 mg OTA/kg on the studied parameters. The results of the study demonstrated that dietary TM significantly protects broiler chickens by reducing OTA-induced oxidative damage and tissue injury.


Asunto(s)
Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/dietoterapia , Suplementos Dietéticos/microbiología , Enfermedades Renales/dietoterapia , Micotoxinas/toxicidad , Ocratoxinas/toxicidad , Animales , Aspergillus ochraceus , Pollos , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Riñón/patología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/patología , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Ocratoxinas/metabolismo , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444729

RESUMEN

Epidemiologic studies showed that higher vitamin K (VK) consumption correlates with a reduced risk of osteoporosis, yet the dispute remains about whether VK is effective in improving bone mineral density (BMD). We sought to discover the anti-osteoporotic effect of menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and evaluate the expression of critical genes related to bone formation and bone resorption pathways in the body. Fifty female C57BL/6 mice (aged 13 weeks) were randomly arranged to a sham-operated group (SHAM, treated with corn oil) and four ovariectomized groups that were administered corn oil (OVX group), estradiol valerate (EV, 2 mg/kg body weight as the positive control), low or high doses of VK (LVK and HVK; 20 and 40 mg MK-4/kg body weight, respectively) by gavage every other day for 12 weeks. Body and uterine weight, serum biochemical indicators, bone microarchitecture, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and the mRNA expression of critical genes related to bone formation and bone resorption pathways were assessed. Either dose of MK-4 supplementation increased the alkaline phosphatase (ALP), decreased the undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP, p < 0.05) levels, and presented higher BMD, percent bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and lower trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and structure model index (SMI, p < 0.05) compared with the OVX group. Additionally, both doses of MK4 increased the mRNA expression of Runx2 and Bmp2 (p < 0.05), whereas the doses down-regulated Pu.1 and Nfatc1 (p < 0.05) mRNA expression, the high dose decreased Osx and Tgfb (p < 0.05) mRNA expression, and the low dose decreased Mitd and Akt1 (p < 0.05) mRNA expression. These data show the dual regulatory effects of MK-4 on bone remodeling in ovariectomized mice: the promotion of bone anabolic activity and inhibition of osteoclast differentiation, which provides a novel idea for treating osteoporosis.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea/efectos de los fármacos , Remodelación Ósea/efectos de los fármacos , Osteoporosis Posmenopáusica/prevención & control , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Animales , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Remodelación Ósea/genética , Resorción Ósea/genética , Huesos/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Expresión Génica , Humanos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Osteogénesis/genética , Ovariectomía , Útero/efectos de los fármacos , Vitamina K 2/administración & dosificación , Vitamina K 2/farmacología
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27096, 2021 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449515

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: To determine the normal range of pancreatic volume (PV) in Chinese adults using computed tomography (CT) volumetry. To assess the relationships of PV with patient demographics and clinical parameters. To analyze the degree of correlation between PV values determined by manual segmentation and those calculated by formulas.A total of 240 adults (120 women, 120 men) between the ages of 18 and 79 years were reviewed. There were 6 groups of patients, with 40 patients in each decade regarding age. PV was segmented manually on computed tomography images slice by slice for each patient, and 2 formulas were used to calculate PV∗ and PV#.The mean PV was 77.44 ±â€Š19.11 cm3 (range from 28.55-138.15 cm3). PV was significantly correlated with height (r = 0.427, P < .001), weight (r = 0.525, P < .001), body mass index (r = 0.377, P < .001), the width of the first lumbar vertebral body (r = 0.166, P = .01), the transverse abdominal diameter (r = 0.455, P < .001), and the sagittal abdominal diameter (r = 0.456, P < .001). There was a negative correlation between PV and age (r = -0.209, P = .001). The correlation coefficients between PV and PV∗ and PV# were 0.676 and 0.376, respectively, with both P < .001.PV associated with patient demographics and clinical parameters. A more accurate and simpler formula should be used in the future to calculate and monitor changes in PV.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico/métodos , Tamaño de los Órganos , Páncreas/anatomía & histología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , China , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valores de Referencia , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
15.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(9): 662-676, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214482

RESUMEN

Unexplained or idiopathic pituitary stalk thickening or central diabetes insipidus not only harbours rare occult malignancies in 40% of cases but can also reflect benign congenital defects. Between 2014 and 2019, a multidisciplinary, expert national guideline development group in the UK systematically developed a management flowchart and clinical practice guideline to inform specialist care and improve outcomes in children and young people (aged <19 years) with idiopathic pituitary stalk thickening, central diabetes insipidus, or both. All such cases of idiopathic pituitary stalk thickening and central diabetes insipidus require dynamic pituitary function testing, specialist pituitary imaging, measurement of serum ß-human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein concentrations, chest x-ray, abdominal ultrasonography, optometry, and skeletal survey for occult disease. Stalk thickening of 4 mm or more at the optic chiasm, 3 mm or more at pituitary insertion, or both, is potentially pathological, particularly if an endocrinopathy or visual impairment coexists. In this guideline, we define the role of surveillance, cerebrospinal fluid tumour markers, whole-body imaging, indications, timing and risks of stalk biopsy, and criteria for discharge. We encourage a registry of outcomes to validate the systematic approach described in this guideline and research to establish typical paediatric stalk sizes and the possible role of novel biomarkers, imaging techniques, or both, in diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Insípida Neurogénica , Manejo de Atención al Paciente , Hipófisis , Adolescente , Niño , Consenso , Diabetes Insípida Neurogénica/etiología , Diabetes Insípida Neurogénica/fisiopatología , Diabetes Insípida Neurogénica/terapia , Humanos , Tamaño de los Órganos , Manejo de Atención al Paciente/métodos , Manejo de Atención al Paciente/tendencias , Hipófisis/diagnóstico por imagen , Hipófisis/metabolismo , Hipófisis/patología , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
16.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 426: 115639, 2021 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256052

RESUMEN

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are endocrine disrupting chemicals with documented, though mechanistically ill-defined, reproductive toxicity. The toxicity of dioxin-like PCBs, such as PCB126, is mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in non-ovarian tissues. The goal of this study was to examine the uterine and ovarian effects of PCB126 and test the hypothesis that the AHR is required for PCB126-induced reproductive toxicity. Female Holzman-Sprague Dawley wild type (n = 14; WT) and Ahr knock out (n = 11; AHR-/-) rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of either corn oil vehicle (5 ml/kg: WT_O and AHR-/-_O) or PCB126 (1.63 mg/kg in corn oil: WT_PCB and AHR-/-_PCB) at four weeks of age. The estrous cycle was synchronized and ovary and uterus were collected 28 days after exposure. In WT rats, PCB126 exposure reduced (P < 0.05) body and ovary weight, uterine gland number, uterine area, progesterone, 17ß-estradiol and anti-Müllerian hormone level, secondary and antral follicle and corpora lutea number but follicle stimulating hormone level increased (P < 0.05). In AHR-/- rats, PCB126 exposure increased (P ≤ 0.05) circulating luteinizing hormone level. Ovarian or uterine mRNA abundance of biotransformation, and inflammation genes were altered (P < 0.05) in WT rats due to PCB126 exposure. In AHR-/- rats, the transcriptional effects of PCB126 were restricted to reductions (P < 0.05) in three inflammatory genes. These findings support a functional role for AHR in the female reproductive tract, illustrate AHR's requirement in PCB126-induced reprotoxicity, and highlight the potential risk of dioxin-like compounds on female reproduction.


Asunto(s)
Factores de Transcripción con Motivo Hélice-Asa-Hélice Básico/deficiencia , Disruptores Endocrinos/toxicidad , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidad , Receptores de Hidrocarburo de Aril/deficiencia , Animales , Factores de Transcripción con Motivo Hélice-Asa-Hélice Básico/genética , Biotransformación/genética , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Hormonas/sangre , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Ovario/efectos de los fármacos , Ovario/metabolismo , Ovario/patología , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Ratas Transgénicas , Receptores de Hidrocarburo de Aril/genética , Reproducción/efectos de los fármacos , Útero/efectos de los fármacos , Útero/metabolismo , Útero/patología
17.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200533

RESUMEN

Aging and osteoarthritis are associated with high risk of muscle mass loss, which leads to physical disability; this loss can be effectively alleviated by diet (DI) and exercise (ET) interventions. This study investigated the relative effects of different types of diet, exercise, and combined treatment (DI+ET) on muscle mass and functional outcomes in individuals with obesity and lower-limb osteoarthritis. A comprehensive search of online databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the efficacy of DI, ET, and DI+ET in patients with obesity and lower-extremity osteoarthritis. The included RCTs were analyzed through network meta-analysis and risk-of-bias assessment. We finally included 34 RCTs with a median (range/total) Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6.5 (4-8/10). DI plus resistance ET, resistance ET alone, and aerobic ET alone were ranked as the most effective treatments for increasing muscle mass (standard mean difference (SMD) = 1.40), muscle strength (SMD = 1.93), and walking speed (SMD = 0.46). Our findings suggest that DI+ET is beneficial overall for muscle mass in overweight or obese adults with lower-limb osteoarthritis, especially those who are undergoing weight management.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Músculo Esquelético/patología , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatología , Osteoartritis/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Sarcopenia/complicaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Dieta , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Tamaño de los Órganos , Osteoartritis/fisiopatología , Sobrepeso/fisiopatología , Sesgo de Publicación , Análisis de Regresión , Riesgo , Sarcopenia/fisiopatología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Caminata/fisiología
18.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200615

RESUMEN

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently estimated as the most prevalent chronic liver disease in all age groups. An increasing body of evidence obtained in experimental and clinical data indicates that oxidative stress is the most important pathogenic factor in the development of NAFLD. The study aimed to investigate the impact of α-lipoic acid (LA), widely used as an antioxidant, on the effects of a hypercaloric choline-deficient diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control diet (C); hypercaloric choline-deficient diet (HCCD), and hypercaloric choline-deficient diet with α-lipoic acid (HCCD+LA). Supplementation of HCCD with LA for eight weeks led to a decrease in visceral adipose tissue/body weight ratio, the activity of liver glutathione peroxidase and paraoxonase-1, plasma, and liver total antioxidant activity, as well as an increase in liver/body weight ratio, liver total lipid and triglyceride content, and liver transaminase activities compared to the HCCD group without LA. In conclusion, our study shows that α-lipoic acid detains obesity development but exacerbates the severity of diet-induced oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in the liver of male Wistar rats fed a hypercaloric choline-deficient diet.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Hígado/patología , Estrés Oxidativo , Ácido Tióctico/efectos adversos , Animales , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Colina , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas Wistar
19.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201185

RESUMEN

High-protein diets (HPDs) are widely accepted as a way to stimulate muscle protein synthesis when combined with resistance training (RT). However, the effects of HPDs on adipose tissue plasticity and local inflammation are yet to be determined. This study investigated the impact of HPDs on glucose control, adipocyte size, and epididymal adipose inflammatory biomarkers in resistance-trained rats. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: normal-protein (NPD; 17% protein total dietary intake) and HPD (26.1% protein) without RT and NPD and HPD with RT. Trained groups received RT for 12 weeks with weights secured to their tails. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests, adipocyte size, and an array of cytokines were determined. While HPD without RT induced glucose intolerance, enlarged adipocytes, and increased TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL1-ß levels in epididymal adipose tissue (p < 0.05), RT diminished these deleterious effects, with the HPD + RT group displaying improved blood glucose control without inflammatory cytokine increases in epididymal adipose tissue (p < 0.05). Furthermore, RT increased glutathione expression independent of diet (p < 0.05). RT may offer protection against adipocyte hypertrophy, pro-inflammatory states, and glucose intolerance during HPDs. The results highlight the potential protective effects of RT to mitigate the maladaptive effects of HPDs.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/metabolismo , Dieta Rica en Proteínas , Inflamación/sangre , Grasa Intraabdominal/patología , Entrenamiento de Fuerza , Adipocitos/patología , Animales , Tamaño de la Célula , Dieta , Epidídimo/patología , Glutatión/metabolismo , Resistencia a la Insulina , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Ratas Wistar , Aumento de Peso
20.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198754

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need for botanicals to be used as an alternative and complementary medicine in the management of male infertility. Male infertility has been a major health/social challenge to people all over the world. This study, therefore, investigated the ameliorative potential of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Parquetina nigrescens (HELEPN) against d-galactose-induced testicular injury. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into six groups (n = 5). Group I (Normal control), Group II (300 mg/kg b.w. d-galactose), Group III and IV (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. HELEPN, respectively), Group V and VI (both received 300 mg/kg b.w. of d-galactose with 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of HELEPN, respectively). d-galactose administration started two weeks prior to HELEPN treatment which lasted for six weeks. All assays were carried out using established protocols. RESULTS: Administration of HELEPN at 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg concomitantly with d-galactose improved paired and relative testicular weights, levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) and testosterone, and poor sperm quality. HELEPN treatment reduced the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, 8-OHDG, and AGEs) and inflammatory response (TNF-alpha and NO) to normal, as well as restoring the reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase). In addition, HELEPN treatment mitigated testicular DNA fragmentation and down-regulated caspase 3-activities. HELEPN at 500 mg/kg was observed to have the greatest ameliorative effect. CONCLUSION: HELEPN protects against d-galactose-induced testicular injury through antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Apocynaceae/química , Galactosa/efectos adversos , Infertilidad Masculina/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Testículo/lesiones , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Etanol/química , Gonadotropinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Infertilidad Masculina/inducido químicamente , Infertilidad Masculina/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/química , Distribución Aleatoria , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Análisis de Semen , Testículo/efectos de los fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
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