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1.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591655

RESUMEN

In Moscow (as of January 1, 2020), the number of population made up to 12,678,079, and out of them the elderly population made up to 2.8 million. Up to the end of 2020, the number of the elderly will reach 3.3 million requiring implementation of corresponding preventive measures due to mass prevalence of coronavirus infection. The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated that despite restructuring of functioning of industry, social security and health care, quarantine and self-isolation occurred to be exactly the effective measures. The self-isolation regimen also revealed aggravation of harmful effects of stress factors, hypodynamia, hypooxygenation and decreasing of immunological resistance. It is especially important to organize leisure activities and to create the most comfortable conditions for isolated living of the elderly as most susceptible to infection. The experience demonstrated that properly chosen set of activities during self-isolation regimen both disciplines and permits to apply surplus of free time to intensify health potential and to consolidate family relationships.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Anciano , Humanos , Moscú , Cuarentena , Aislamiento Social , Tecnología
2.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 48(2): 170-175, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597352

RESUMEN

Fluorescence imaging is a very useful method for visualizing molecules and cells, but when tissues are measured", decrease in resolution due to increased scattering and absorption of light in proportion to tissue thickness (problem 1)" and "decrease in signal to noise(S/N)ratio of positive signal due to tissue autofluorescence(problem 2)"are problems to be solved. In this paper, to develop a technology to improve the analysis accuracy of drug efficacy mechanisms in preclinical trial of drug discovery, we performed development of a supporting technology for drug discovery of antibody drug conjugates by imaging living tumor tissues, while solving problem 1. This technology is expected to lead to an improvement in the success rate of clinical trials. Next, to develop a diagnostic method to predict the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with antibody drugs for breast cancer, we performed development of fluorescence imaging of pathological tissues using fluorescent nanoparticles with ultra-high brightness, while solving problem 2. This diagnostic technology makes it possible to evaluate the expression level of the target protein of antibody drug with high quantitative and wide range sensitivity. This improved the accuracy of drug efficacy prediction. Therefore, patients who are expected to have a low drug efficacy will be able to select anticancer drugs with different mechanisms of action. These results of this study showed the reduction of drug discovery costs and improvement of individualized medicine. Thus, this study will greatly contribute to the development of precision medicine.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Anticuerpos , Humanos , Imagen Óptica , Tecnología
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528462

RESUMEN

Conical retention with antirotational features (Acuris abutment) has been recently proposed for restorations of healed single implants. The conometric abutments use the retentive force of the coping-abutment system to retain the prosthetic crown without the use of cement or screws. This retentive force must be overcome to obtain detachment of the relined provisional crown in immediate restorations. The present article describes the use of digital scanning technology to virtually plan computer-guided implant placement and restoration with conical indexed abutments in postextraction sites. Importing the scan data of both matrix and patrix abutments that are seated on the definitive cast into the computer-aided design software provides a workflow to preoperatively mill a crown that perfectly fits the abutment into the postextraction site. This technique simplifies the provisional crown relining onto the conometric indexed abutment and reduces the intraoperative time.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Coronas , Pilares Dentales , Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar , Humanos , Tecnología
4.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(3): 580-594, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600363

RESUMEN

In the current study, the effect of operating conditions including membrane characteristics and applied pressure on natural organic matter and sulphate removal of nanofiltration (NF) membranes for drinking water production was investigated. Water stress has been increasing all over the world due to population growth, climate change, and pollution; rainwater management stands out as one of the key solutions to this problem. Nanofiltration to treat rainwater stored in a cistern was studied. The objectives were sufficient treatment performance to overcome the taste problem and lower energy consumption. In this regard, three commercial nanofiltration membranes (NP010, NP030, and NF90) were used for the experiments carried out at 6-12 bar operating pressure regarding the response surface methodology. The correlation among the results of experiments and the model parameters were also calculated for all steps. According to the results, the effect of membrane characteristics was more abundant than the effect of the operating pressure. Finally, over 99% of natural organic matter and sulphate were eliminated in the optimum conditions. The results showed that it is possible to obtain treated rainwater with desired qualities, in a non-continuous NF plant operated at the pressure of 6 bar to reuse the rainwater and achieve water sustainability.


Asunto(s)
Purificación del Agua , Filtración , Membranas Artificiales , Sulfatos , Tecnología
5.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(1): 22-25, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522171

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the subject was designed to develop a new tracheal intubation device based on magnetic navigation technology to improve the success rate of tracheal intubation and reduce the risk of occupational exposure of medical staff. METHODS: The new tracheal intubation device was designed with the uniqueness of the magnetic field environment and magnetic steering of magnetic navigation technology. And preliminary magnetic navigation tracheal intubation experiments were performed on the tracheal intubation simulator. RESULTS: Magnetic navigation tracheal intubation can successfully implement tracheal intubation, and the time required is lower than that of traditional laryngoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: The tracheal intubation based on magnetic navigation technology is feasible, with high efficiency and easy operation. That is expected to be widely used for tracheal intubation during treatment of patients outside the hospital in the future. At the same time, magnetic navigation endotracheal intubation technology will be the key technology for the development of endotracheal intubation robots.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Diseño de Equipo , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , Intubación Intratraqueal , Fenómenos Magnéticos , Tecnología
6.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(1): 42-45, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522175

RESUMEN

Operation room is the most important link for carrying out medical activities in hospital whose demand for medical consumable material is also very large. With the increase of types of consumable material, the process of consumable material management in operating room becomes more complicated, and the traditional management mode can not meet the needs. In this paper, the technology of Internet of things and artificial intelligence is used to design an intelligent management system of high value consumable material in operating room which improves the efficiency of operation of high value consumable material in operating room, reduces the cost of manpower and improves the safety.


Asunto(s)
Quirófanos , Inteligencia Artificial , Hospitales , Tecnología
7.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(1): 105-108, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522188

RESUMEN

In recent years, the IVD industry has developed rapidly based on the increasing market demand, and plays an important role in disease prevention, clinical diagnosis, health monitoring and guiding treatment. Therefore, followed quality and safety issues are highly concerned. The unique advantages of blockchain technology, decentralization, distrust and non-tampering, can write into trusted node data in every link covering production, circulation and usage of IVD reagents, and establish a distributed ledger with full backup, which makes the anti-conterfeiting and traceability for IVD reagents possible. We discuss whole process intelligent tracing system for IVD reagents based on blockchain technology. Through the strong mechanism of pre-supervision and post-punishment, the source of reagents can be traced, quality and responsibility can be investigated, and the medical inspection quality and diagnostic safety can be guarded.


Asunto(s)
Cadena de Bloques , Tecnología , Indicadores y Reactivos , Juego de Reactivos para Diagnóstico
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540628

RESUMEN

Taiwan has been successful in controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, without a vaccine the threat of a second outbreak remains. Young adults who show few to no symptoms when infected have been identified in many countries as driving the virus' spread through unidentifiable community transmission. Mobile tracking technologies register nearby contacts of a user and notifies them if one later tests positive to the virus, potentially solving this issue; however, the effectiveness of these technologies depends on their acceptance by the public. The current study assessed attitudes towards three tracking technologies (telecommunication network tracking, a government app, and Apple and Google's Bluetooth exposure notification system) among four samples of young Taiwanese adults (aged 25 years or younger). Using Bayesian methods, we find high acceptance for all three tracking technologies (>75%), with acceptance for each technology surpassing 90% if additional privacy measures were included. We consider the policy implications of these results for Taiwan and similar cultures.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Aplicaciones Móviles , Teléfono Inteligente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Pandemias , Privacidad , Taiwán , Tecnología , Adulto Joven
9.
Rehabilitation (Stuttg) ; 60(1): 45-66, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556979
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 326: 124742, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508640

RESUMEN

This study reports the vermicomposting of banana crop waste biomass by Eisenia fetida. Cow dung has been used as bulking agent in this study. The experiment was conducted in six vermireactors containing different ratios of banana leaf waste biomass (BL) and cow dung (CD) for 105 days. Earthworm activity significantly reduced pH, TOC, C:N and C:P ratio of the wastes. Whereas macronutrients and micronutrients content increased after vermicomposting. TOC content of wastes reduced by 40-64% and C:N ratio of the vermicomposts was in the range of 8.9-24.3. The benefit ratio for heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn and Cr) was in the range of 0.23-3.44. The results indicated that the growth and fecundity of the earthworms was best in the vermireactors having 20-40% BL. Finally, it was concluded that vermicomposting can be included in the overall scheme of banana crop waste management.


Asunto(s)
Musa , Oligoquetos , Animales , Biomasa , Bovinos , Femenino , Estiércol , Suelo , Tecnología
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23467, 2021 02 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493125

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many countries across the globe have released their own COVID-19 contact tracing apps. This has resulted in the proliferation of several apps that used a variety of technologies. With the absence of a standardized approach used by the authorities, policy makers, and developers, many of these apps were unique. Therefore, they varied by function and the underlying technology used for contact tracing and infection reporting. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze most of the COVID-19 contact tracing apps in use today. Beyond investigating the privacy features, design, and implications of these apps, this research examined the underlying technologies used in contact tracing apps. It also attempted to provide some insights into their level of penetration and to gauge their public reception. This research also investigated the data collection, reporting, retention, and destruction procedures used by each of the apps under review. METHODS: This research study evaluated 13 apps corresponding to 10 countries based on the underlying technology used. The inclusion criteria ensured that most COVID-19-declared epicenters (ie, countries) were included in the sample, such as Italy. The evaluated apps also included countries that did relatively well in controlling the outbreak of COVID-19, such as Singapore. Informational and unofficial contact tracing apps were excluded from this study. A total of 30,000 reviews corresponding to the 13 apps were scraped from app store webpages and analyzed. RESULTS: This study identified seven distinct technologies used by COVID-19 tracing apps and 13 distinct apps. The United States was reported to have released the most contact tracing apps, followed by Italy. Bluetooth was the most frequently used underlying technology, employed by seven apps, whereas three apps used GPS. The Norwegian, Singaporean, Georgian, and New Zealand apps were among those that collected the most personal information from users, whereas some apps, such as the Swiss app and the Italian (Immuni) app, did not collect any user information. The observed minimum amount of time implemented for most of the apps with regard to data destruction was 14 days, while the Georgian app retained records for 3 years. No significant battery drainage issue was reported for most of the apps. Interestingly, only about 2% of the reviewers expressed concerns about their privacy across all apps. The number and frequency of technical issues reported on the Apple App Store were significantly more than those reported on Google Play; the highest was with the New Zealand app, with 27% of the reviewers reporting technical difficulties (ie, 10% out of 27% scraped reviews reported that the app did not work). The Norwegian, Swiss, and US (PathCheck) apps had the least reported technical issues, sitting at just below 10%. In terms of usability, many apps, such as those from Singapore, Australia, and Switzerland, did not provide the users with an option to sign out from their apps. CONCLUSIONS: This article highlighted the fact that COVID-19 contact tracing apps are still facing many obstacles toward their widespread and public acceptance. The main challenges are related to the technical, usability, and privacy issues or to the requirements reported by some users.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Aplicaciones Móviles , Privacidad , Australia , Recolección de Datos , Brotes de Enfermedades , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Georgia (República) , Humanos , Italia , Nueva Zelanda , Noruega , Singapur , Suiza , Tecnología , Estados Unidos , Tecnología Inalámbrica
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(8): 10262-10282, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442801

RESUMEN

Economic growth and the rapid increase in the world population has led to a greater need for natural resources, which in turn, has put pressure on said resources along with the environment. Water, food, and energy, among other resources, pose a huge challenge. Numerous essential resources, including organic substances and valuable nutrients, can be found in wastewater, and these could be recovered with efficient technologies. Protein recovery from waste streams can provide an alternative resource that could be utilized as animal feed. Membrane separation, adsorption, and microbe-assisted protein recovery have been proposed as technologies that could be used for the aforementioned protein recovery. This present study focuses on the applicability of different technologies for protein recovery from different wastewaters. Membrane technology has been proven to be efficient for the effective concentration of proteins from waste sources. The main emphasis of the present short communication is to explore the possible strategies that could be utilized to recover or restore proteins from different wastewater sources. The presented study emphasizes the applicability of the recovery of proteins from various waste sources using membranes and the combination of the membrane process. Future research should focus on novel technologies that can help in the efficient extraction of these high-value compounds from wastes. Lastly, this short communication will evaluate the possibility of integrating membrane technology. This study will discuss the important proteins present in different industrial waste streams, such as those of potatoes, poultry, dairy, seafood and alfalfa, and the possible state of the art technologies for the recovery of these valuable proteins from the wastewater.


Asunto(s)
Aguas Residuales , Purificación del Agua , Animales , Residuos Industriales , Tecnología , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Agua
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(8): 9002-9019, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464530

RESUMEN

Plant diseases significantly impact the global economy, and plant pathogenic microorganisms such as nematodes, viruses, bacteria, fungi, and viroids may be the etiology for most infectious diseases. In agriculture, the development of disease-free plants is an important strategy for the determination of the survival and productivity of plants in the field. This article reviews biosensor methods of disease detection that have been used effectively in other fields, and these methods could possibly transform the production methods of the agricultural industry. The precise identification of plant pathogens assists in the assessment of effective management steps for minimization of production loss. The new plant pathogen detection methods include evaluation of signs of disease, detection of cultured organisms, or direct examination of contaminated tissues through molecular and serological techniques. Laboratory-based approaches are costly and time-consuming and require specialized skills. The conclusions of this review also indicate that there is an urgent need for the establishment of a reliable, fast, accurate, responsive, and cost-effective testing method for the detection of field plants at early stages of growth. We also summarized new emerging biosensor technologies, including isothermal amplification, detection of nanomaterials, paper-based techniques, robotics, and lab-on-a-chip analytical devices. However, these constitute novelty in the research and development of approaches for the early diagnosis of pathogens in sustainable agriculture.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , Plantas , Agricultura , Animales , Hongos , Dispositivos Laboratorio en un Chip , Tecnología
14.
Waste Manag ; 121: 296-330, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406477

RESUMEN

Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world, and its popularity is continuously growing, which can be expressed by almost doubling production over the last three decades. Cultivation, processing, roasting, and brewing coffee are known for many years. These processes generate significant amounts of by-products since coffee bean stands for around 50% of the coffee cherry. Therefore, considering the current pro-ecological trends, it is essential to develop the utilization methods for the other 50% of the coffee cherry. Among the possibilities, much attention is drawn to polymer chemistry and technology. This industry branch may efficiently consume different types of lignocellulosic materials to use them as fillers for polymer composites or as intermediate sources of particular chemical compounds. Moreover, due to their chemical composition, coffee industry by-products may be used as additives modifying the oxidation resistance, antimicrobial, or antifungal properties of polymeric materials. These issues should be considered especially important in the case of biodegradable polymers, whose popularity is growing over the last years. This paper summarizes the literature reports related to the generation and composition of the coffee industry by-products, as well as the attempts of their incorporation into polymer technology. Moreover, potential directions of research based on the possibilities offered by the coffee industry by-products are presented.


Asunto(s)
Café , Polímeros , Bebidas , Tecnología
15.
Water Res ; 191: 116826, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454648

RESUMEN

The overall cost, expressed as the present value (PV), of the construction and operation of low-pressure membrane filtration of inland water for potable water supply has been determined for membrane installations across the UK. The analysis was based on 15 full-scale installations installed with hollow fibre and capillary tube polymeric membranes, for which cost and related data were available. The analysis encompassed labour, in addition to energy, chemicals and critical component replacement. PV data were presented as functions of flow capacity (i.e. as cost curves), delineated as capital (CAPEX), operating (OPEX) and total PV normalised against flow rate (PV') the CAPEX excluding the site-specific civil engineering costs. Captured CAPEX data revealed these to be lower than those previously reported, and with a reduced economy of scale. The OPEX PV exceeded the CAPEX by a factor of 3-6 based on a 20-year life cycle, the difference increasing with decreasing flow capacities. Costs associated with unplanned (or "reactive") maintenance, partly associated with the repair of breached membranes and/or permeability recovery following membrane clogging, were found to make up around half the labour costs. Labour costs as a proportion of the flow increased with decreasing flow, exceeding the CAPEX at flows below 30,000 m3/d. Outcomes indicate labour costs associated with process upsets to contribute significantly to the overall cost of the installation over its life cycle, particularly at flows below ~30,000 m3/d. A clear trade-off exists between supplementary capital investment to allay process upsets and the operational costs associated with such events.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Purificación del Agua , Reactores Biológicos , Filtración , Membranas Artificiales , Tecnología
16.
Water Res ; 191: 116815, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482587

RESUMEN

This work proposes a tube-in-tube membrane photoreactor, operated in a continuous-mode, to boost the efficiency of peroxydisulfate (PDS), through the photolytic (UV-C radiation) and photocatalytic (TiO2-P25) processes. This new technology can efficiently facilitate the transportation of PDS to the catalyst surface and water to be treated. The ultrafiltration tubular ceramic membrane was used as support for the TiO2-P25 and oxidant-catalyst/water contactor. Tests were performed using a synthetic solution and a municipal secondary effluent, both spiked with a pharmaceutical mix solution (paracetamol (PCT), furosemide (FRS), nimesulide (NMD), and diazepam (DZP); 200 µg L-1 of each). At steady-state regime, the UVC/S2O82-/TiO2 system, with radial PDS addition, showed the highest removal of pharmaceuticals in both matrices. Furthermore, twenty-two transformation products (TPs) were identified by applying LC-QTOF MS technique. Hence, the transformation pathways including hydroxylation in aromatic moiety by an electrophilic attack, electron transfer reactions, cleavage of C-O, C-N bond, H-abstraction and ring opening were proposed. TPs chemical structures were evaluated by in silico (Q)SAR approach using TOXTREE and EPI Suite™ software.


Asunto(s)
Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Oxidación-Reducción , Sulfatos , Tecnología , Rayos Ultravioleta , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
17.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(1): 20-30, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509749

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential targets, signal pathways and biological functions that mediate the effect of Lianhua Qingwen capsule in improving clinical cure rate of COVID-19 in light of network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. METHODS: TCMSP, Target, Prediction, CooLGeN, GeneCards, DAVID and other databases were searched for the active components and their target proteins from 13 herbs including Forsythia, Honeysuckle and roasted Ephedra used in Lianhua Qingwen capsule. The common target proteins, signal pathways and biological functions shared by these components and the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 (fever, cough, and fatigue) were identified to construct the network consisting of the component drugs in Lianhua Qingwen capsule, the active ingredients of, their targets of action, and the biological functions involved using Gephi software. RESULTS: A total 160 active components including MOL000522, and MOL003283, MOL003365, MOL003006, MOL003014 in 13 component drugs in Lianhua Qingwen capsule produced therapeutic effects against COVID-19 through 57 target proteins including MAPK1, IL6, HSP90AA1, TNF, and CCL2, involving 35 signaling pathways including NOD-like receptor signaling pathway and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. The results of molecular docking showed that 83 chemical components had total scores no less than 5.0 for docking with 12 target proteins (including MAPK1, IL6, and HSP90AA1) with high binding activities to form stable conformations. The binding of MOL000522, MOL004989, and MOL003330 with MAPK1; MOL001495 and MOL001494 with NLRP3; MOL004908, MOL004863 and MOL004806 with HSP90AA1; MOL001749 with TLR9; and MOL001495 with AKT1 all had total scores exceeding 9.0. CONCLUSIONS: Lianhua Qingwen capsule contains multiple effective ingredients to improve clinical cure rate of COVID-19, and its therapeutic effect is mediated by multiple protein targets, signal pathways and biological functions.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Tecnología
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478140

RESUMEN

This paper explores the intersection of the World Health Organization's (WHO) concepts of age-friendly communities and The Blue Zones® checklists and how the potential of integrating the two frameworks for the development of a contemporary framework can address the current gaps in the literature as well as consider the inclusion of technology and environmental press. The commentary presented here sets out initial thoughts and explorations that have the potential to impact societies on a global scale and provides recommendations for a roadmap to consider new ways to think about the impact of health and wellbeing of older adults and their families. Additionally, this paper highlights both the strengths and the weaknesses of the aforementioned checklists and frameworks by examining the literature including the WHO age-friendly framework, the smart age-friendly ecosystem (SAfE) framework and the Blue Zones® checklists. We argue that gaps exist in the current literature and take a critical approach as a way to be inclusive of technology and the environments in which older adults live. This commentary contributes to the fields of gerontology, gerontechnology, anthropology, and geography, because we are proposing a roadmap which sets out the need for future work which requires multi- and interdisciplinary research to be conducted for the respective checklists to evolve.


Asunto(s)
Entorno Construido , Planificación Ambiental , Tecnología , Anciano , Predicción , Humanos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 765: 144429, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385808

RESUMEN

Biohydrogen is a clean and renewable source of energy. It can be produced by using technologies such as thermochemical, electrolysis, photoelectrochemical and biological, etc. Among these technologies, the biological method (dark fermentation) is considered more sustainable and ecofriendly. Dark fermentation involves anaerobic microbes which degrade carbohydrate rich substrate and produce hydrogen. Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundantly available raw material and can be utilized as an economic and renewable substrate for biohydrogen production. Although there are many hurdles, continuous advancements in lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment technology, microbial fermentation (mixed substrate and co-culture fermentation), the involvement of molecular biology techniques, and understanding of various factors (pH, T, addition of nanomaterials) effect on biohydrogen productivity and yield render this technology efficient and capable to meet future energy demands. Further integration of biohydrogen production technology with other products such as bio-alcohol, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and methane have the potential to improve the efficiency and economics of the overall process. In this article, various methods used for lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment, technologies in trends to produce and improve biohydrogen production, a coproduction of other energy resources, and techno-economic analysis of biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass are reviewed.


Asunto(s)
Hidrógeno , Tecnología , Biocombustibles , Biomasa , Composición Familiar , Fermentación , Hidrógeno/análisis , Lignina
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401479

RESUMEN

In the digital era, technology innovation and adoption trigger economic growth and enhance CO2 emissions through productivity, which places it in the mainstream policy debate. For BRICS economies, this paper uses the first method proposed in the literature to quantify their information and communication technology (ICT) and innovatively links each country to their information technology adoption rate, as a surrogate indicator for measuring information and communication technology. Environmental Kuznets curve evidence is also examined, using technology innovation, technology adoption, and trade openness as the control variables for sustainable development. The results show that two out of three technology innovation instruments, fixed telephone, and broadband subscriptions increase CO2 emissions. Simultaneously, mobile cellular subscriptions have a lowering effect on CO2 emission in BRICS. The technology adoption indicators, high-technology exports, and electric power consumption also cause an upsurge in CO2 emission. Moreover, trade openness also enriches the level of CO2 emission in the BRICS regions. There is a need to devise technology innovation and adoption policies to better use technology and to ensure a green environment.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Invenciones , Desarrollo Sostenible , Tecnología , Brasil , China , Desarrollo Económico , Humanos , India , Políticas , Federación de Rusia , Sudáfrica , Tecnología/organización & administración
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