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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 55, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491114

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE To analyze the association of television food advertisements with eating habits in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS The sample was composed of 1,011 adolescents, aged from 10-17 years. The influence of television food advertisements on eating habits, as well as food consumption and socioeconomic variables were assessed through questionnaires. A binary logistic regression was performed to assess the magnitude of the associations, adjusted for gender, age, socioeconomic status, and parental schooling. RESULTS Of the sample, 83.3% (n = 843) reported food consumption while watching TV. Adolescents who do not consume food while watching TV had a higher weekly consumption of fruits (3.98, SD = 2.0 versus 3.39, SD = 2.1) and vegetables (4.1, SD = 2.2 versus 3.4, SD = 2.3). Adolescents that consume food while watching TV had higher weekly consumption of fried foods (3.1, SD = 2.0 versus 2.3, SD = 1.7), sweets (4.1, SD = 2.1 versus 3.3, SD = 2.1), soft drinks (3.2, SD = 2.1 versus 2.2, SD = 1.9), and snacks (2.3, SD = 2.0 versus 1.6, SD = 1.7). For 73,8% of the sample, food advertisements induce product consumerism, most commonly sweets and fast foods. Buying or asking to buy food after seeing it on the television was associated with fried foods (OR = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.03- 1.79), sweets (OR = 1.69, 95%CI = 1.30-2.18), and snacks (OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.12-2.22). CONCLUSION Food advertisements were associated with greater consumption of fried foods, sweets, and snacks in adolescents, even after adjusting for confounding factors.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Alimentaria , Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Antropometría , Brasil , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235112, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574184

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in late 2019, communities have been required to rapidly adopt community mitigation strategies rarely used before, or only in limited settings. This study aimed to examine the attitudes and beliefs of Australian adults towards the COVID-19 pandemic, and willingness and capacity to engage with these mitigation measures. In addition, we aimed to explore the psychosocial and demographic factors that are associated with adoption of recommended hygiene-related and avoidance-related behaviors. METHODS: A national cross-sectional online survey of 1420 Australian adults (18 years and older) was undertaken between the 18 and 24 March 2020. The statistical analysis of the data included univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. FINDINGS: The survey of 1420 respondents found 50% (710) of respondents felt COVID-19 would 'somewhat' affect their health if infected and 19% perceived their level of risk as high or very high. 84·9% had performed ≥1 of the three recommended hygiene-related behaviors and 93·4% performed ≥1 of six avoidance-related behaviors over the last one month. Adopting avoidance behaviors was associated with trust in government/authorities (aOR: 6.0, 95% CI 2.6-11·0), higher perceived rating of effectiveness of behaviors (aOR: 4·0, 95% CI: 1·8-8·7), higher levels of perceived ability to adopt social distancing strategies (aOR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1·5-9.3), higher trust in government (aOR: 6.0, 95% CI: 2.6-11.0) and higher level of concern if self-isolated (aOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0). INTERPRETATION: In the last two months, members of the public have been inundated with messages about hygiene and social (physical) distancing. However, our results indicate that a continued focus on supporting community understanding of the rationale for these strategies, as well as instilling community confidence in their ability to adopt or sustain the recommendations is needed.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Comunicación en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Televisión
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231313, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294122

RESUMEN

In our experiment, we tested how exposure to a mock televised news segment, with a systematically manipulated emotional valence of voiceover, images and TV tickers (in the updating format) impacts viewers' perception. Subjects (N = 603) watched specially prepared professional video material which portrayed the story of a candidate for local mayor. Following exposure to the video, subjects assessed the politician in terms of competence, sociability, and morality. Results showed that positive images improved the assessment of the politician, whereas negative images lowered it. In addition, unexpectedly, positive tickers led to a negative assessment, and negative ones led to more beneficial assessments. However, in a situation of inconsistency between the voiceover and information provided on visual add-ons, additional elements are apparently ignored, especially when they are negative and the narrative is positive. We then discuss the implications of these findings.


Asunto(s)
Propaganda , Percepción Social , Emociones , Humanos , Maquiavelismo , Determinación de la Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Política , Televisión
4.
Quintessence Int ; 51(6): 486-494, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253388

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Distraction is a highly acceptable technique for diverting a patient's attention from what may be perceived as an unpleasant procedure, reducing anxiety and helping the patient relax. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of watching television during dental treatment on pediatric patients' anxiety and cooperation compared to the commonly used conventional Tell-Show-Do (TSD) behavioral management method. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Sixty-nine children (mean age 6.8 years) scheduled to undergo restorative dental treatment were randomly divided into two intervention groups: a group that was managed by television distraction and a control group that was managed by TSD. During treatment, anxiety was assessed by the Facial Image Scale and cooperative behavior was assessed by the Frankl scale. Pulse rate and oxygen saturation were also measured during the treatment. RESULTS: Compared to TSD, television distraction significantly reduced anxiety by 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.798 to 1.744, adjusted P < .001), decreased pulse rate by 6.44 beats per minute (bpm) (95% CI 4.60 to 8.28, adjusted P < .001), and significantly increased cooperation by 1.17 (95% CI -1.318 to -1.020, adjusted P < .001). A greater effect of television distraction on reduced anxiety and increased cooperation was observed during administration of the anesthetic injection. No effect of television distraction on saturation levels was noted. CONCLUSIONS: Television distraction is an effective method for reducing anxiety and improving cooperative behavior in children during dental treatments.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad al Tratamiento Odontológico , Atención Odontológica , Niño , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Inyecciones , Televisión
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182641

RESUMEN

The limited research on bullying, mental health (MH), and help-seeking for Asian American (ASA) college students is concerning due to the public health importance. Korean drama (K-Drama) television shows may be an innovative approach to improve knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) on bullying. This study examined whether the KAB about school bullying improved after watching a K-Drama and asked participants about their perspectives of using a K-Drama as an intervention. A convenience sample of college students (n = 118) watched a K-Drama portraying school bullying and MH issues. Pre-/post-tests on KAB on bullying were conducted. Interviews (n = 16) were used to understand their experiences with K-Dramas. The mean age was 22.1 years (1.6 SD), 83.9% were female, and 77.1% were ASAs. Many reported experiences with anxiety (67.8%), depression (38.1%), and school bullying victim experience (40.8%). Post-test scores revealed significant differences in knowledge by most school bullying variables (e.g., victim; witness) and MH issues. There were varying significant findings in post-test scores in attitudes and behaviors by these variables. Participants reported that they "love" the drama, felt an emotional connection, and thought that K-Dramas can be an educational tool for ASAs. K-Dramas may be an effective population-level tool to improve health outcomes among ASAs.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Americanos Asiáticos/psicología , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Drama , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Televisión , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , California/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , República de Corea , Adulto Joven
6.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(2): 275-291, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122560

RESUMEN

For decades, pediatricians have been concerned about the impact of media on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Robust research has found an association between exposure to media violence and real-life aggression in children and teens. Other effects include desensitization, fear, and attitudes that violence is a means of resolving conflict. Ongoing research finds similar associations between exposure to video game violence and real-life attitude and behavior. Cyberbullying is an emerging threat to youth. Parents, pediatricians, schools, and government all have roles to play to mitigate the potential harmful effects of violent media on children and teens.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil/psicología , Ciberacoso , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Juegos de Video , Violencia , Agresión , Niño , Discriminación en Psicología , Humanos , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa , Películas Cinematográficas , Factores de Riesgo , Televisión
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 308, 2020 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164658

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study explored both the evolution of the information needs and the perceived relevance of different health information sources in patients with essential hypertension. It also investigated the relationships between information needs and the perceived relevance of information sources with socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHODS: Two hundred and two patients with essential arterial hypertension were enrolled in the study and evaluated at baseline and during three follow-ups at 6, 12 and 24 months after baseline. Patients had a mean age of 54.3 years [range 21-78; SD = 10.4], and 43% were women. Repeated measures ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc tests, and Cochran's Q Test were performed to test differences in variables of interest over time. RESULTS: It was observed a significant reduction in all the domains of information needs related to disease management except for pharmacological treatment and risks and complications. At baseline, patients reported receiving health information primarily from specialists, general practitioners, relatives, and television, but the use of these sources decreased over time, even if the decrease was significant only for relatives. Multiple patterns of relationships were found between information needs and the perceived relevance of sources of information and socio-demographics and clinical variables, both at baseline and over time. CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed a general decrease in both the desire for information and the perceived relevance of different information sources. Hypertensive patients appeared to show little interest in health communication topics as their disease progressed. Understanding patients' information needs and the perceived relevance of different information sources is the first step in implementing tailored communication strategies that can promote patients' self-management skills and optimal clinical outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Información de Salud al Consumidor , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Hipertensión/terapia , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Evaluación de Necesidades , Adulto , Anciano , Familia , Femenino , Médicos Generales , Comunicación en Salud , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Especialización , Televisión , Adulto Joven
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 385, 2020 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209067

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that foods marketed on television are often low-nutrient-dense foods associated with poor nutritional diet quality, obesity and non-communicable diseases. However, little research has been undertaken in Brazil around this issue. This study assessed the nutritional profile of foods and non-alcoholic beverages advertised on Brazilian television by applying the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO/Europe) nutrient profiling models. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) protocol. A total of 432 h on the three major Brazilian free-to-air TV channels was recorded from April 1st to 30th 2018. Recordings were done for eight non-consecutive and randomly selected days from 6 am to 12 am (midnight). All food-related ads were coded using a systematic approach and classified according to the PAHO and the WHO/Europe nutrient profile models as "eligible"/"not eligible" for marketing restrictions. Absolute and relative frequencies were used to describe absolute numbers and proportions of food and beverage advertisements. The nutritional profile of foods was compared by day, time of the day and types of TV program. For each advertisement, the parent company of promoted food products, supermarkets and restaurants was identified. RESULTS: A total of 1610 food and beverage ads were broadcast, representing 18.1% of the total ads shown on selected channels. Over 80.0% of all foods and beverages advertised on Brazilian TV channels did not meet the PAHO and the WHO/Europe nutritional quality standards and were considered eligible for marketing restrictions. The proportion of unhealthy food ads was significantly higher on weekends, in the afternoon, and during soap operas programming. Altogether, 10 transnational and local food and beverage companies, two large international fast food chains and two of Brazil's largest supermarket retailers accounted for almost 90% of all unhealthy food ads shown. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study indicate a high exposure of the Brazilian population to unhealthy food marketing and an inefficient enforcement of existing regulations. Further research to monitor population exposure to unhealthy food marketing and understand the policy inertia that is preventing policy progress, is highly recommended.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Bebidas , Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Televisión , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Humanos
10.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200008, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130397

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Sedentary behavior has been associated with several health indicators. This study aims to describe this outcome in elderly people living in rural areas. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was carried out with elderly people from the rural area in the city of Rio Grande/RS, in 2017. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. Sedentary behavior was evaluated by eight aspects: watching television/videos/DVDs, using computer/internet, reading, socializing with friends and/or family, driving or riding a car/bike/taking public transport, practicing a hobby, working, and other activities. The analysis was composed by the description of aspects and multivariable (linear regression) analysis to test associations between the outcome and socioeconomic, demographic and physical activity characteristics. Association of the excess of sedentary behavior and time watching television within the independent variables was also verified. RESULTS: The mean of sedentary behavior was 274.9 minutes/day (n = 1,030), but watching television represented almost half (130.5 minutes/ day). Age was inversely associated with sedentary behavior, while income and schooling presented a direct relation. Income had a positive association with excessive sedentary behavior and time watching television. CONCLUSION: The mean sedentary behavior was lower when compared with the literature for the elderly. We suggest that actions to encourage healthy habits aim especially at reducing the time spent watching television.


Asunto(s)
Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sedentaria , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Televisión , Factores de Tiempo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228437, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027670

RESUMEN

Although watching TV often involves multiple viewing distances and viewers, less attention has been paid to the effects of display curvature radius, viewing distance, and lateral viewing position on TV watching experience. This study examined the effects of four display curvature radii (2300R, 4000R, 6000R, and flat), two viewing distances (2.3 m and 4 m), and five lateral viewing positions (P1-P5; 0, 35, 70, 105, and 140 cm off-center) on seven TV watching experience elements (spatial presence, engagement, ecological validity, negative effects, visual comfort, image quality, and user satisfaction). Fifty-six individuals (14 per display curvature radius) were seated in pairs to watch videos, each time at a different viewing position (2 viewing distances × 5 paired lateral viewing positions). The spatial presence and engagement increased when display curvature radius approached a viewing distance and lateral viewing position approached P1, with 4000R-4m-P1 (display curvature radius-viewing distance-lateral viewing position) providing the best results. Lateral viewing position alone significantly affected five TV watching experience elements; the spatial presence and engagement decreased at P3-P5, and ecological validity, image quality, and user satisfaction decreased at P4-P5. However, display curvature radius alone did not appreciably affect TV watching experience, and viewing distance alone significantly affected visual comfort only, with a 4-m viewing distance increasing visual comfort. This study demonstrated that effective display curvature radii for watching TV are viewing distance-dependent, and less off-center lateral viewing positions (P1-P2) are recommended for TV watching experience. Finally, among the TV watching experience elements, engagement explained user satisfaction to the greatest degree.


Asunto(s)
Diseño de Equipo , Aumento de la Imagen/instrumentación , Televisión , Visión Ocular/fisiología , Acomodación Ocular/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Presentación de Datos , Ergonomía/instrumentación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción Espacial/fisiología , Agudeza Visual , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto Joven
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 185, 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024491

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Accurately measuring parents' attitudes and beliefs regarding limiting their children's TV viewing is important to inform the design and evaluation of effective interventions. This manuscript assesses the internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity of the Model of Goal Directed Behavior (MGDB) scales among parents of Latino preschoolers to characterize Latino parents' attitudes and beliefs toward limiting their preschoolers' TV viewing. METHOD: Participants included parents of Latino preschoolers in the United States, 3-5 years old (n = 186). Parents completed a socio-demographic survey and the 105-item MGDB questionnaire (Attitudes, Perceived Positive/Negative Behavioral Control, Subjective Norms, Positive and Negative Anticipated Emotions, Habits, Self-Efficacy, Desires, and Intentions surrounding their child's TV viewing) which was used to measure internal consistency reliability and construct validity. A subsample of participants completed the questionnaire twice to measure test-retest reliability. Further, parents completed a 7-day TV viewing diary for their preschooler, and a TV parenting practices questionnaire as measures of convergent validity. RESULTS: Internal consistency reliability was generally acceptable for the MGDB scales (Cronbach's alphas> 0.7), except for the Desires scale, which was revealed to have two factors and the Attitudes and Perceived Behavioral Control scales. Test-retest reliability over 2 months had negligible to moderate correlations (r's = 0.28 to 0.61). Two structural equation models were conducted. One yielded acceptable model fit (x2 (97) = 113.65, p = .119) and the other had questionable model fit (x2 (97) = 125.39; p = .028). Testing convergent validity, only two MGDB scales (Habits and Self-Efficacy) were positively correlated with the TV parenting practices questionnaire (r's = 0.33 to 0.51), and none were meaningfully correlated with preschoolers' mean daily TV viewing. CONCLUSIONS: Initial reliability and validity for some of the MGDB scales appear acceptable among parents of Latino preschoolers. Refinement of the instrument and testing among larger samples is necessary to fully evaluate psychometric properties. This instrument may be useful for characterizing Latino parents' attitudes and beliefs toward limiting their preschoolers' TV viewing and informing future TV reduction interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT01216306 Registered October 6, 2010.


Asunto(s)
Objetivos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud/etnología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Modelos Psicológicos , Padres/psicología , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Preescolar , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228862, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040537

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity, particularly among women, is increasing in Nepal. Previous studies in the South Asia have found television watching to be a risk factor for overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age. However, this association had not been studied in the context of Nepal. This study aims to identify the association between frequency of television watching and overweight and obesity among Nepalese women of reproductive age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016 (NDHS 2016) data. A total weighted sample of 6,031 women were included in the final analyses. The women were 15-49 years of age and were either not pregnant or had not delivered a child within the two months prior to the survey. Body mass index (BMI) was the primary outcome of this study, which was categorized using an Asia-specific cutoff value. Normal and/or underweight was defined as a BMI <23.0 kg/m2, overweight was defined as a BMI between 23.0 kg/m2 and <27.5 kg/m2, and obesity was defined as a BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2. Frequency of watching television was the main independent variable of this study, which was divided into the following three categories: not watching television at all, watching television less than once a week, and watching television at least once a week. Multilevel ordered logistic regression was conducted to find the factors associated with overweight and obesity. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant in the final model. RESULTS: Around 35% of the participants were overweight or obese (overweight: 23.7% and obese: 11.6%). A majority of the study participants was aged between 15 and 24 years (36.5%), and resided in an urban area (63.2%), Province No. 3 (22.3%), and the Terai ecological region (49.5%). Around one-third (34.0%) of the participants received no formal education while an almost similar proportion (35.5%) completed secondary education. Approximately half of the study participants (50.6%) reported watching television at least once a week, whereas more than a quarter (28.7%) of them did not watch television at all. Women who watched television at least once a day had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than the other groups (p-value <0.0001). Women who watched television at least once a week were 1.3 times more likely to be overweight or obese in comparison to women who never watched television (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.7; p-value <0.05). In the urban areas, women who watched television at least once a week were 40% more likely to be overweight or obese than those who did not watch television at all (AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7; p-value <0.01). No significant association between overweight and obesity and the frequency of viewing television was observed in the rural area. CONCLUSIONS: Watching television at least once a week is associated with overweight and obesity in women of reproductive age living in the urban areas of Nepal. Public health promotion programs should raise awareness among women regarding harmful health consequences of sedentary lifestyle due to television watching.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Televisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sedentaria , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 493-502, 2020 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940031

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Food advertising is a major contributor to obesity, and fast food (FF) restaurants are top advertisers. Research on the impact of food advertising in adolescents is lacking and no prior research has investigated neural predictors of food intake in adolescents. Neural systems implicated in reward could be key to understanding how food advertising drives food intake. OBJECTIVES: To investigate how neural responses to both unhealthy and healthier FF commercials predict food intake in adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 171 adolescents (aged 13-16 y) who ranged from normal weight to obese completed an fMRI paradigm where they viewed unhealthy and healthier FF and nonfood commercials. Adolescents then consumed a meal in a simulated FF restaurant where foods of varying nutritional profiles (unhealthy compared with healthier) were available. RESULTS: Greater neural activation in reward-related regions (nucleus accumbens, r = 0.29; caudate nucleus, r = 0.27) to unhealthy FF commercials predicted greater total food intake. Greater responses to healthier FF relative to nonfood commercials in regions associated with reward (i.e., nucleus accumbens, r = 0.24), memory (i.e., hippocampus, r = 0.32), and sensorimotor processes (i.e., anterior cerebellum, r = 0.33) predicted greater total food and unhealthier food intake, but not healthier food intake. Lower activation in neural regions associated with visual attention and salience (e.g., precuneus, r = -0.35) to unhealthy relative to healthier FF commercials predicted healthier food intake. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that FF commercials contribute to overeating in adolescents through reward mechanisms. The addition of healthier commercials from FF restaurants is unlikely to encourage healthier food intake, but interventions that reduce the ability of unhealthy FF commercials to capture attention could be beneficial. However, an overall reduction in the amount of FF commercials exposure for adolescents is likely to be the most effective approach.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Ingestión de Alimentos , Comida Rápida/economía , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Publicidad , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Obesidad/diagnóstico por imagen , Recompensa , Televisión
18.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228321, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999775

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity and their health implications is a major public health concern worldwide. This study set out to understand the relationship between the number of hours spent watching television and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. METHODS: The study employed both ordinary least squares and quantile regressions to estimate the mean and distributional association of prolonged television watching and BMI. RESULTS: The findings showed that prolonged television viewing is associated with larger BMI values. Additionally, the relationship was found to be greater towards the lower and upper tails of the BMI range and insignificant in the middle of the BMI distribution. Furthermore, the findings also showed that there is a gender gap in BMI levels, where females are likely to have higher BMI values than males. CONCLUSIONS: The creation of more proactive recreational programs that can act as substitutes to television watching is recommended in order to reduce the amount of time that individuals spend watching television. It is also recommended that such interventions are tailored towards improving females' levels of physical activity. The inclusion of television programs aimed at encouraging physical exercise and healthy diets is also imperative.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Econométricos , Prevalencia , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Caracteres Sexuales , Televisión , Adulto Joven
19.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 107, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967201

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To document the evidence about marketing of ultra-processed foods and "non-alcoholic" beverages in Latin America. METHODS: We performed a structured search of quantitative and qualitative studies in PubMed, SciELO and LILACS, published between January 2000 and May 2017 and conducted in Latin America. We conducted a quality assessment following a standardized tool and a thematic analysis to identify key typologies of marketing across studies. RESULTS: Out of 521 studies screened by title and abstract, we included 36 in this review; 27 of them analyzed television advertisement. Other marketing channels studied were food packaging, point of sale and outdoor advertisement. Studies found television advertises foods and beverages that are mostly ultraprocessed foods and have low nutritional value, particularly those promoted during children's programming. We also observed children have a literal interpretation of images printed on food packaging, so this can be deceiving. Several studies also found proximity to unhealthy foods may increase their consumption. Finally, the thematic analysis identified the following typologies of food marketing: a) television advertisement, b) food packaging marketing, c) marketing strategies at points of sale and d) other marketing strategies. We found almost no advertisements for unprocessed or minimally processed foods such as fruits and vegetables. We did not find any studies on digital marketing conducted in the region. CONCLUSIONS: This review found that the main channel of food marketing was television advertising. This synthesis provides insights to the challenges unhealthy eating represents to the public health of Latin America and identifies knowledge gaps to guide future research.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas , Comida Rápida , Industria de Alimentos , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Humanos , América Latina , Mercadotecnía/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación Cualitativa , Televisión
20.
Public Health ; 179: 51-58, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733506

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between lifestyle behavior variables such as physical activity, television watching, computer use, and school night sleep duration with body mass index percentile (BMI%) using quantile regression within a representative sample of adolescents who completed the 2017 US National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. STUDY DESIGN: The study design was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: A multistage cluster sampling procedure obtained a representative sample of US adolescents. The number of sampled adolescents submitting questionnaires with BMI% data was 13,146. To examine the associations between lifestyle behaviors and BMI%, simultaneous quantile regression was used. RESULTS: When relationships were modeled at every 10th percentile, more precise parameter estimates were observed at higher percentiles. Across the interquartile range, physical activity associated with lower BMI% at the 50th and 75th percentiles (brange = -2.27% to -5.24%, P < 0.05), television watching associated with higher BMI% at the 25th to 75th percentiles (brange = 2.29%-4.16%, P < 0.05), sleep durations less than 8 h per school night associated with higher BMI% at the 25th and 50th percentile (brange = 2.81%-8.26%, P < 0.05), and 10 or more hours of school night sleep associated with higher BMI% at the 50th and 75th percentile (brange = 3.43%-7.53%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of physical activity associated with lower BMI% and longer time watching television, school night sleep durations less than 8 h, and school night sleep durations of 10 h or more at higher quantiles associated with higher BMI% in adolescents. Estimates of association were more precise within higher quantiles.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Ejercicio Físico , Estilo de Vida , Conducta Sedentaria , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Asunción de Riesgos , Instituciones Académicas , Sueño , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Televisión , Estados Unidos , Juegos de Video
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