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1.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217246, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120978

RESUMEN

DIBR-3D technology has evolved over the past few years with the demands of consumers increasing in recent times for future free-view 3D videos on their home televisions. The main issue in 3D technology is the lack of 3D content available to watch using the traditional TV systems. Although, some sophisticated devices like stereoscopic cameras have been used to fill the gap between the 3D content demand and 3D content supply. But the content generated through these sophisticated devices can not be displayed on the traditional TV systems, so there needs to be some mechanism which is inline with the traditional TV. Furthermore, the huge collection of existing 2D content should be converted to 3D using depth image-based rendering techniques. This conversion technique can highly contribute in overcoming the shortage problem of the 3D content. This paper presents a novel approach for converting 2D degraded image for DIBR 3D-TV view. This degraded or noisy/blur image is enhanced through image dehazing and Directional Filter Bank (DFB). This enhancement is necessary because of the occlusion effect or hole filling problem that occurs due to imperfect depth map. The enhanced image is then segmented into the foreground image and the background image. After the segmentation, the depth map is generated using image profiles. Moreover, Stereoscopic images are finally produced using the DIBR procedure which is based on the 2D input image and the corresponding depth map. We have verified the results of the proposed approach by comparing the results with the existing state-of-the-art techniques.


Asunto(s)
Aumento de la Imagen/métodos , Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Televisión , Algoritmos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional/tendencias , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Televisión/tendencias
2.
Psychol Sci ; 30(5): 682-696, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939250

RESUMEN

The notion that digital-screen engagement decreases adolescent well-being has become a recurring feature in public, political, and scientific conversation. The current level of psychological evidence, however, is far removed from the certainty voiced by many commentators. There is little clear-cut evidence that screen time decreases adolescent well-being, and most psychological results are based on single-country, exploratory studies that rely on inaccurate but popular self-report measures of digital-screen engagement. In this study, which encompassed three nationally representative large-scale data sets from Ireland, the United States, and the United Kingdom ( N = 17,247 after data exclusions) and included time-use-diary measures of digital-screen engagement, we used both exploratory and confirmatory study designs to introduce methodological and analytical improvements to a growing psychological research area. We found little evidence for substantial negative associations between digital-screen engagement-measured throughout the day or particularly before bedtime-and adolescent well-being.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Niño/psicología , Autoinforme/normas , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Niño , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Diarios como Asunto , Femenino , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiología , Masculino , Tiempo de Pantalla , Autoinforme/estadística & datos numéricos , Televisión/tendencias , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
Med Humanit ; 45(3): 235-239, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804092

RESUMEN

Over the last decade, there has been an increase in the number of televisual protagonist and major secondary characters specifically identified within the text as having a diagnosed mental illness. This is a significant development in the context of characters with a mental illness on television, who were previously usually minor and heavily stigmatised. A key trend with these new protagonists and major characters is the attribution of special talents or powers associated with mental health conditions. This paper analyses the discursive construction of this trope in five recent television series: Sherlock (UK, BBC, 2010-), Homeland (USA, Showtime, 2011-), Perception (USA, TNT, 2012-2015), Hannibal (USA, NBC, 2013-2015) and Black Box (USA, ABC, 2014). Theoretically, this paper draws on Sami Schalk's formulation of the 'superpowered supercrip narrative', which refers to the 'representation of a character who has abilities or "powers" that operate in direct relationship with or contrast to their disability'. This paper is also indebted to Davi A Johnson's 'Managing Mr. Monk' (2008) for its discussion of mental illness as attaining 'social value' through becoming a resource with economic and ethical value, as do the conditions of the fictional characters explored in this article. Schalk's work on disability is here expanded to a more specific discussion of mental illness on television, while Johnson's work is updated to discuss whether the newer characterisations reflect the same rhetorical positioning as Monk (USA, USA Network, 2002-2009), one of the earliest texts celebrated for featuring a lead, sympathetic character clearly and explicitly identified with a mental health condition. Of the five lead characters examined here, three are figured as responsible for their symptoms because they have chosen not to take medication or withdraw from their medication. It is concurrently presented that if they do take medication, it dampens their abilities to perform valuable work in the community, thus removing their use value within the world of the series.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Estigma Social , Televisión/tendencias , Humanos
5.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 79(6): 881-892, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573019

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to document exposure to alcohol advertising by sex, age, and the level and type of alcohol people consume. METHOD: We use unique marketing survey data that link the media individuals consume and advertising appearing in those media. Our sample of 306,451 men and women represents the population age 18 and older living in the 48 contiguous United States between 1996 and 2009. We measure advertising exposure not with the standard expenditure data but with counts of actual advertisements people likely saw. We relate advertising exposure across groups defined by age, gender, and the amount of beer, wine, and spirits consumed. RESULTS: We found that drinkers, particularly young male drinkers, see much more alcohol advertising. Men, especially younger men, see more advertisements for alcohol of all types than do women. Their higher exposure is largely explained by sex differences in the propensity to read sports and adult magazines and to watch sports and gambling television programs. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence highlights the need to recognize, and when possible, control for the fact that a selected group of individuals is more likely to see alcohol advertising. Firms successfully place advertising on programs and in magazines viewed by youth and drinkers. To estimate whether seeing advertising causes people to drink (more), researchers need to develop clever identification strategies.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/tendencias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/tendencias , Televisión/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Publicidad/economía , Factores de Edad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Bebidas Alcohólicas/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía/economía , Mercadotecnía/tendencias , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/economía , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Televisión/economía , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
6.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(11): 1474-1477, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514537

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The use of patient cases to demonstrate the applicability of new knowledge to pharmacy practice is common; however, cases can be a challenge in first-year pharmacy courses as students have often not yet acquired sufficient knowledge in pharmacology, therapeutics, and pharmacy practice. In these situations, the use of analogy to link the educational content to a lived experience may be more effective. DESCRIPTION: This article presents my experience with applying an analogy from popular culture, specifically a game on a network late-night talk show, to a first-year pharmacy course on drug information. INTERPRETATION: An informal assessment of students' familiarity with the talk show found that most had seen at least one episode of the show and the specific game being used as the comparator in this analogy. The widespread availability of video clips online can provide additional opportunities for students unfamiliar with the comparator to receive this exposure. The use of this analogy added interactivity, humor, and mixed-media teaching to the classroom. Future applications of this and similar analogies will try introducing the analogy in reverse order - by first presenting the video of the comparator and then describing its relevance to the course content to ensure the analogy is relevant to most students before it is linked to course material. CONCLUSIONS: Teaching strategies in the first year of pharmacy education must consider students' existing level of therapeutic knowledge. When this knowledge is insufficient to ensure accurate and comprehensive understanding of patient cases, analogy may provide an effective alternative strategy.


Asunto(s)
Bioestadística/métodos , Servicios de Información sobre Medicamentos/tendencias , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Televisión/tendencias , Comprensión , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Humanos
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 18(1): 294, 2018 11 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497416

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence of the harmful health effects of sedentary behavior is emerging; however, little is known about domain-specific sedentary behavior correlates. Thus, in this study, the personal and behavioral correlates of total and domain-specific sedentary behavior in older Taiwanese adults were identified. METHOD: The sample comprised 1046 older adults (aged ≥65 years). Cross-sectional data on self-administered personal behavioral variables and time spent engaging in domain-specific sedentary behavior were obtained using computer-assisted telephone-based interviews. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Those aged older than 75 years were less likely to have longer total sedentary, computer use, and transportation times. Compared to women, older men were more likely to have longer total sedentary and transportation times. Older adults with low educational levels were less likely to have longer total sedentary and computer use times but were more likely to have an excessive television (TV) viewing time (≥2 h/day). Older adults who lived alone and were overweight had a longer TV viewing time. Furthermore, unemployment was associated with an excessive TV viewing time and shorter transportation time. Older adults residing in nonmetropolitan areas had lower total sedentary, TV viewing, and computer use times. Older adults who engaged in insufficient leisure time physical activity were more likely to have longer total sedentary and transportation times. CONCLUSIONS: Both common and distinct personal and behavioral factors were associated with total and domain-specific sedentary behavior. Interventions for reducing total and domain-specific sedentary behavior should focus on both common and distinct subgroups of the Taiwanese older population.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/psicología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/psicología , Conducta Sedentaria , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Taiwán/epidemiología , Televisión/tendencias
8.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(10): 1619-1628, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269425

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the associations of TV parameters with adiposity in early life. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Born in Bradford (BiB) longitudinal birth cohort study. Child TV viewing duration was parent reported, and BMI, the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and waist circumference were measured at ~12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age in 1,338 children. Mixed effects models were used to quantify adjusted associations of TV viewing duration with adiposity markers, incorporating data from all time points. Linear regression was used to investigate differences in adiposity levels across frequencies of eating meals and snacks while watching TV at age ~24 months and between children who did and did not have a TV in their bedroom at age ~36 months. RESULTS: Every 1 h/d of TV viewing was associated with a 0.075-cm larger (95% CI: 0.0034-0.15) waist circumference, independent of covariates including sleep duration, dietary factors, and physical activity level. There was no evidence for any other associations. CONCLUSIONS: TV viewing duration is independently associated with abdominal adiposity in young children. Limiting TV viewing from an early age may be important for primary prevention of obesity.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad/fisiología , Comidas/psicología , Obesidad/etiología , Bocadillos/psicología , Televisión/tendencias , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos
9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 191: 174-180, 2018 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121476

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With limited social options, young Saudis are increasingly relying on media for entertainment. The media impact has been greatest among the younger generation, which constitutes half of the population of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Therefore, this study aims to examine the association between exposure to varied types of media and substance use among adolescents in the KSA and explores whether these associations differ by gender. METHODS: Data were obtained from a national cross-sectional survey of school students aged ten to 19 years (N = 12121). A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess exposure to three types of media: television, the Internet and video games with the use of legal substances such as cigarette/shisha smoking, solvents sniffing and misuse of medications, and illegal substances, such as alcohol, marijuana and other illicit drugs. RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds of using tobacco, legal and illegal substances were higher for students who were watching television, surfing the Internet, or playing video games for more than two hours compared with their peers who watched less than two hours (P < 0.05). For males, results showed the heavy and light use of the Internet were both significantly associated with smoking. Whereas for females, only excessive use of the Internet was associated with smoking. CONCLUSION: Despite the conservative nature of the Saudi society, findings showed a significant association between tobacco or substance use and media exposure among adolescents. This suggests increased attention to the growing role media might play in shaping adolescents health risk behaviors in the KSA.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Consumidores de Drogas , Internet/tendencias , Televisión/tendencias , Uso de Tabaco/tendencias , Juegos de Video/tendencias , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Consumidores de Drogas/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Actividades Recreativas/psicología , Masculino , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Fumar/tendencias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/psicología , Adulto Joven
10.
J Psychosom Res ; 112: 81-89, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097140

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Studies found that higher risk appraisal of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields is associated with reporting more non-specific symptoms such as headache and back pain. There is limited data available on the longitudinal nature of such associations and what aspects of risk appraisal and characteristics of subjects are relevant. OBJECTIVE: To examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between risk appraisal measures and non-specific symptoms, and assess the role of subject characteristics (sex, age, education, trait negative affect) in a general population cohort. METHODS: This study was nested in the Dutch general population AMIGO cohort that was established in 2011/2012, when participants were 31-65 years old. We studied a sample of participants (n = 1720) who filled in two follow-up questionnaires in 2013 and 2014, including questions about perceived exposure, perceived risk, and health concerns as indicators of risk appraisal of base stations, and non-specific symptoms. RESULTS: Perceived exposure, perceived risk, and health concerns, respectively, were associated with higher symptom scores in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Only health concerns (not perceived exposure and perceived risk) temporally preceded high symptom scores and vice versa. Female sex, younger age, higher education, and higher trait negative affect were associated with higher risk appraisal of mobile phone base stations. DISCUSSION: The findings in this study strengthen the evidence base for cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between higher risk appraisal and non-specific symptoms in the general population. However, the directionality of potential causal relations in non-sensitive general population samples should be examined further in future studies, providing information to the benefit of risk communication strategies.


Asunto(s)
Teléfono Celular/tendencias , Campos Electromagnéticos/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Ondas de Radio/efectos adversos , Televisión/tendencias , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
J Sleep Res ; 27(6): e12737, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039578

RESUMEN

Shuteye latency (SEL) refers to the time spent performing activities in bed before attempting sleep. This study investigates (a) the prevalence, duration and predictors of SEL, (b) its association with insomnia symptoms (sleep onset latency [SOL], sleep quality and fatigue), and (c) the activities engaged in during SEL. A representative sample of 584 adults (18-96 years old) participated in an online survey. Respondents reported their SEL on weekday nights (Sunday to Thursday) and weekend nights (Friday and Saturday), and activities during SEL. One in five adults tried to sleep immediately at bedtime. Around 16% of respondents were awake >30 min on both weekday and weekend nights. Younger people and those with an eveningness preference reported longer SEL. Longer SEL corresponded with a progressive decline in sleep quality, increased SOL and more fatigue. Those with an SEL >30 min reported using both passive (e.g. television) and interactive (e.g. smartphone) media more frequently than respondents with an SEL < 30 min, but there was no difference between the groups for non-screen-related activities. Implications of SEL for measurements commonly used in sleep research are discussed. Shuteye latency may be symptomatic of how a modern lifestyle puts increasing pressure on sleep, but may also reveal a previously undocumented behaviour associated with insomnia symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Latencia del Sueño/fisiología , Sueño/fisiología , Vigilia/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Fatiga/diagnóstico , Fatiga/epidemiología , Fatiga/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Prevalencia , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Televisión/tendencias , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
12.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 186: 193-200, 2018 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604527

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Television (TV) is a key socialization agent, especially amongst youth. According to cultivation theory, youth heavily exposed to TV content, where positive images of smoking and drinking abound, should hold more positive beliefs concerning drinking and smoking outcomes. This research investigates the role of the sensation-seeking personality trait in moderating this TV cultivation effect. METHODS: A French national research company contacted its panel members with children aged 13-17. Parents completed a short survey and were asked for consent for their child to participate in a study. The children were then contacted, informed, and asked for assent. Assenters completed a survey that included measures of TV exposure, personality traits, drinking and smoking behaviors, and beliefs about the outcomes associated with drinking and smoking (expectancies). Parental drinking, smoking, and strictness were included as controls. RESULTS: Survey data from 1040 adolescents (54.2% males) and their parents reveal that the relationship between cumulative TV exposure and drinking and smoking behavior, mediated through expectancies, is strongest amongst high sensation seeking adolescents. The moderated mediation analysis shows that sensation seeking trait moderates the relationship between TV exposure and the beliefs adolescents hold about the consequences of alcohol and tobacco use, which themselves are related to greater likelihood to engage in substance use. CONCLUSION: Key personality traits and TV exposure levels must be accounted for to identify youth at risk of using substances at a time when many lifelong maladaptive behaviors and beliefs form.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Cultura , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Fumar/psicología , Televisión , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Padres/psicología , Sensación , Fumar/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Televisión/tendencias
13.
East Mediterr Health J ; 24(1): 72-76, 2018 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658623

RESUMEN

Tobacco use and placement of tobacco products in television (TV) productions and movies is a way to promote tobacco use while avoiding tobacco advertising bans that exist in most countries. The fact that such productions are broadcast widely and viewed by millions, including children and young people, is of concern. This paper reviews the evidence on the use of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS) in TV and films in the Eastern Mediterranean Region and the ways to combat it. Evidence from Egypt shows considerable and increasing use of tobacco products by actors on screen, including female actors, in programmes aired during Ramadan in 2015-2017. A study of Iranian movies in 2015 showed that tobacco scenes in Iranian movies were increasing. In 2014, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean held a consultative meeting on TAPS in drama. The consultation recommended regulating the tobacco presence in movies and TV through complete implementation of Article 13 of the WHO FCTC, and raising the issue to the WHO FCTC Conference of the Parties. In 2016, the Conference of the Parties called on parties to consider scaling up the implementation of WHO FCTC Article 13 and monitoring the use of TAPS in entertainment media in accordance with national legislation. A comprehensive approach is essential to end the tobacco industry's use of TV productions and movies to promote their products.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/tendencias , Películas Cinematográficas/tendencias , Televisión/tendencias , Industria del Tabaco/tendencias , Publicidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , África del Norte , Política de Salud , Humanos , Medio Oriente , Películas Cinematográficas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Televisión/legislación & jurisprudencia , Industria del Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar Tabaco/tendencias , Fumar en Pipa de Agua/tendencias , Organización Mundial de la Salud
14.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 53(3): 337-343, 2018 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29365032

RESUMEN

Aim: To quantify the occurrence of alcohol content, including alcohol branding, in the popular primetime television UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. Methods: A 1-min interval coding content analysis of alcohol content in the entire DVD Series 11 of 'Geordie Shore' (10 episodes). Occurrence of alcohol use, implied use, other alcohol reference/paraphernalia or branding was recorded. Results: All categories of alcohol were present in all episodes. 'Any alcohol' content occurred in 78%, 'actual alcohol use' in 30%, 'inferred alcohol use' in 72%, and all 'other' alcohol references occurred in 59% of all coding intervals (ACIs), respectively. Brand appearances occurred in 23% of ACIs. The most frequently observed alcohol brand was Smirnoff which appeared in 43% of all brand appearances. Episodes categorized as suitable for viewing by adolescents below the legal drinking age of 18 years comprised of 61% of all brand appearances. Conclusions: Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. Two-thirds of all alcohol branding occurred in episodes age-rated by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) as suitable for viewers aged 15 years. The organizations OfCom, Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) and the Portman Group should implement more effective policies to reduce adolescent exposure to on-screen drinking. The drinks industry should consider demanding the withdrawal of their brands from the show. Short Summary: Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the MTV reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. Current alcohol regulation is failing to protect young viewers from exposure to such content.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/tendencias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Televisión/tendencias , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/psicología , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/tendencias , Reino Unido/epidemiología
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 254: 303-309, 2018 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29221862

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To examine the independent associations between physical activity (PA) intensities, sedentary time (ST), TV viewing, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular fitness (MF) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in youth. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 534 European adolescents (252 males, 282 females, 12.5-17.5years). Minutes per day of light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) PA and total ST were measured using accelerometers. TV viewing time was measured using a questionnaire. CRF and MF were measured using the 20m shuttle run test and a hand dynamometer respectively. CVD outcomes included markers of body composition (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), WC/height (Ht) and sum of skinfolds (SumSF)), blood pressure, blood lipids and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Clustered CVD risk was calculated using SumSF, HOMA-IR, blood lipids and blood pressure. RESULTS: LPA had a significant positive independent relationship with all body composition outcomes (P<0.001) and clustered CVD risk (P=0.046). VPA was negatively related to SumSF (P<0.001), BMI (P=0.018), WC/Ht (P=0.013) and clustered CVD risk (P=0.001), but was non-significant for all when other exposures were considered (P>0.10). MPA had a negative independent relationship with only WC (P=0.029) and ST was not significantly related to CVD risk (P>0.16). TV viewing had a significant positive independent relationship with HOMA-IR (P<0.001) and clustered CVD risk (P=0.019). CRF (all P<0.002) and MF (all P<0.009) had a negative independent relationship with body composition outcomes and clustered CVD risk. CONCLUSIONS: Public health guidelines should prioritize on increasing levels of CRF, MF and VPA, and reducing TV viewing time to lower CVD risk in youth.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/fisiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Televisión , Adolescente , Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Televisión/tendencias , Factores de Tiempo , Circunferencia de la Cintura/fisiología
16.
Sleep Med ; 39: 47-53, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157587

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Insufficient sleep among adolescents carries significant health risks, making it important to determine social factors that change sleep duration. We sought to determine whether the self-reported sleep duration of U.S. adolescents changed between 2009 and 2015 and examine whether new media screen time (relative to other factors) might be responsible for changes in sleep. METHODS: We drew from yearly, nationally representative surveys of sleep duration and time use among adolescents conducted since 1991 (Monitoring the Future) and 2007 (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control; total N = 369,595). RESULTS: Compared to 2009, adolescents in 2015 were 16%-17% more likely to report sleeping less than 7 h a night on most nights, with an increase in short sleep duration after 2011-2013. New media screen time (electronic device use, social media, and reading news online) increased over this time period and was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration, with a clear exposure-response relationship for electronic devices after 2 or more hours of use per day. Other activities associated with short sleep duration, such as homework time, working for pay, and TV watching, were relatively stable or reduced over this time period, making it unlikely that these activities caused the sudden increase in short sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS: Increased new media screen time may be involved in the recent increases (from 35% to 41% and from 37% to 43%) in short sleep among adolescents. Public health interventions should consider electronic device use as a target of intervention to improve adolescent health.


Asunto(s)
Autoinforme , Sueño/fisiología , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Televisión/tendencias , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos , Juegos de Video/estadística & datos numéricos , Juegos de Video/tendencias
17.
Pediatrics ; 140(Suppl 2): S57-S61, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29093033

RESUMEN

In this article, we examine the impact of digital screen devices, including television, on cognitive development. Although we know that young infants and toddlers are using touch screen devices, we know little about their comprehension of the content that they encounter on them. In contrast, research suggests that children begin to comprehend child-directed television starting at ∼2 years of age. The cognitive impact of these media depends on the age of the child, the kind of programming (educational programming versus programming produced for adults), the social context of viewing, as well the particular kind of interactive media (eg, computer games). For children <2 years old, television viewing has mostly negative associations, especially for language and executive function. For preschool-aged children, television viewing has been found to have both positive and negative outcomes, and a large body of research suggests that educational television has a positive impact on cognitive development. Beyond the preschool years, children mostly consume entertainment programming, and cognitive outcomes are not well explored in research. The use of computer games as well as educational computer programs can lead to gains in academically relevant content and other cognitive skills. This article concludes by identifying topics and goals for future research and provides recommendations based on current research-based knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Computadoras de Mano/estadística & datos numéricos , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Preescolar , Computadoras de Mano/tendencias , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Televisión/tendencias , Juegos de Video/efectos adversos , Juegos de Video/tendencias
18.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 41(11): 1946-1952, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977818

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study examined whether alcohol brands more popular among youth are more likely to have aired television advertisements that violated the alcohol industry's voluntary code by including youth-appealing content. METHODS: We obtained a complete list of 288 brand-specific beer advertisements broadcast during the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) men's and women's basketball tournaments from 1999 to 2008. All ads were rated by a panel of health professionals using a modified Delphi method to assess the presence of youth-appealing content in violation of the alcohol industry's voluntary code. The ads represented 23 alcohol brands. The popularity of these brands was operationalized as the brand-specific popularity of youth alcohol consumption in the past 30 days, as determined by a 2011 to 2012 national survey of underage drinkers. Brand-level popularity was used as the exposure variable to predict the odds of having advertisements with youth-appealing content violations. RESULTS: Accounting for other covariates and the clustering of advertisements within brands, increased brand popularity among underage youth was associated with significantly increased odds of having youth-appeal content violations in ads televised during the NCAA basketball tournament games (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.09). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol brands popular among underage drinkers are more likely to air television advertising that violates the industry's voluntary code which proscribes youth-appealing content.


Asunto(s)
Cerveza , Publicidad Directa al Consumidor/tendencias , Televisión/tendencias , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/prevención & control , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Publicidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Publicidad/tendencias , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Publicidad Directa al Consumidor/legislación & jurisprudencia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Televisión/legislación & jurisprudencia , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto Joven
19.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 177: 145-152, 2017 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28599213

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate potential effects of alcohol ads in six major marketing channels on drinking behaviors among young adolescents in Taiwan. METHODS: The data were derived from the Alcohol-Related Experiences among Children study. The baseline sample was comprised of 1926 seventh-eighth graders from 11 public middle schools in Taipei in 2010; follow-up was conducted one year later (follow-up rate=97%). Information concerning individual sociodemographics, family characteristics, exposure to media portrayals of drinking and alcohol ads on major marketing channels, and drinking experience was collected through web-based self-administered questionnaires. Complex survey analyses were used to evaluate the association estimates, with stratification by prior drinking experiences in childhood. RESULTS: Television, in-store displays, and websites are the three most common marketing channels for young adolescents to report past-month alcohol advertising exposure. With statistical adjustment for potential confounders and six market channels, exposure to alcohol ads on television was associated with subsequent increased drinking initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.62; 95% CI=1.14-6.02). For those who have initiated alcohol use in childhood, the exposure to ads on the web (aOR=1.50; 95% CI=1.04-2.15) and radio (aOR=2.58; 95% CI=1.60-4.15) may elevate subsequent risk of occasional drinking. Exposure to media drinking portrayals was not related to subsequent drinking behaviors in this sample. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the effects of alcohol advertising on drinking behaviors in early adolescence may differ by marketing channels. Preventive strategies targeting underage drinking should consider restraining marketing channels (e.g., websites and radio) from certain advertising content and placement.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Publicidad/métodos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/psicología , Adolescente , Publicidad/tendencias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Mercadotecnía/tendencias , Estudios Prospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Taiwán/epidemiología , Televisión/tendencias , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/tendencias
20.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 18(1): 194, 2017 05 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28511650

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies exploring the association between physical activity, screen time and sleep and pain usually focus on a limited number of painful body sites. Nevertheless, pain at different body sites is likely to be of different nature. Therefore, this study aims to explore and compare the association between time spent in self-reported physical activity, in screen based activities and sleeping and i) pain presence in the last 7-days for 9 different body sites; ii) pain intensity at 9 different body sites and iii) global disability. METHODS: Nine hundred sixty nine students completed a questionnaire on pain, time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen based time watching TV/DVD, playing, using mobile phones and computers and sleeping hours. Univariate and multivariate associations between pain presence, pain intensity and disability and physical activity, screen based time and sleeping hours were investigated. RESULTS: Pain presence: sleeping remained in the multivariable model for the neck, mid back, wrists, knees and ankles/feet (OR 1.17 to 2.11); moderate physical activity remained in the multivariate model for the neck, shoulders, wrists, hips and ankles/feet (OR 1.06 to 1.08); vigorous physical activity remained in the multivariate model for mid back, knees and ankles/feet (OR 1.05 to 1.09) and screen time remained in the multivariate model for the low back (OR = 2.34. Pain intensity: screen time and moderate physical activity remained in the multivariable model for pain intensity at the neck, mid back, low back, shoulder, knees and ankles/feet (Rp2 0.02 to 0.04) and at the wrists (Rp2 = 0.04), respectively. Disability showed no association with sleeping, screen time or physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests both similarities and differences in the patterns of association between time spent in physical activity, sleeping and in screen based activities and pain presence at 8 different body sites. In addition, they also suggest that the factors associated with the presence of pain, pain intensity and pain associated disability are different.


Asunto(s)
Uso del Teléfono Celular/efectos adversos , Personas con Discapacidad , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Dolor/diagnóstico , Instituciones Académicas , Sueño/fisiología , Estudiantes , Adolescente , Uso del Teléfono Celular/tendencias , Computadores/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Dolor/epidemiología , Dimensión del Dolor/métodos , Dimensión del Dolor/tendencias , Instituciones Académicas/tendencias , Conducta Sedentaria , Televisión/tendencias , Juegos de Video/efectos adversos , Juegos de Video/tendencias , Adulto Joven
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