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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(15): 6586-6594, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572839

RESUMEN

Cities represent a significant and growing portion of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Quantifying urban emissions and trends over time is needed to evaluate the efficacy of policy targeting emission reductions as well as to understand more fundamental questions about the urban biosphere. A number of approaches have been proposed to measure, report, and verify (MRV) changes in urban CO2 emissions. Here we show that a modest capital cost, spatially dense network of sensors, the Berkeley Environmental Air Quality and CO2 Network (BEACO2N), in combination with Bayesian inversions, result in a synthesis of measured CO2 concentrations and meteorology to yield an improved estimate of CO2 emissions and provide a cost-effective and accurate assessment of CO2 emissions trends over time. We describe nearly 5 years of continuous CO2 observations (2018-2022) in a midsized urban region (the San Francisco Bay Area). These observed concentrations constrain a Bayesian inversion that indicates the interannual trend in urban CO2 emissions in the region has been a modest decrease at a rate of 1.8 ± 0.3%/year. We interpret this decrease as primarily due to passenger vehicle electrification, reducing on-road emissions at a rate of 2.6 ± 0.7%/year.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Teorema de Bayes , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Ciudades , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(6): 1506-1516, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621934

RESUMEN

Rubus chingii and R. chingii var. suavissimus are unique dual-purpose plant resources, with significant nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and economic value, as well as promising prospects for further development. To investigate the genetic structure and evolutionary characteristics of these two varieties, this study conducted plastome sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq XTen sequencing platform. Subsequently, the study performed assembly, annotation, and characterization of the genomes, followed by a comparative plastome and phylogenetic analysis using bioinformatics techniques. The results revealed that the plastomes of R. chingii and R. chingii var. suavissimus exhibited a tetrad structure, comprising a large single-copy region(LSC), a small single-copy region(SSC), and two inverted repeat regions(IRs). The study identified a total of 56 simple sequence repeats(SSRs) after comparative analysis, predominantly consisting of A and T. Furthermore, the structure of the IR boundary genes in both varieties was found to be highly conserved, with only minor nucleotide variations. Additionally, the study identified three highly variable regions: rps16-trnQ-psbK, trnR-atpA, and trnT-trnL, which held promise as potential identification marks for further development and utilization. Phylogenetic analysis results obtained by the maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods demonstrated a close clustering of R. chingii and R. chingii var. suavissimus(100% support), with their closest relatives being R. trianthus. This study, focusing on plastome-level genetic distinctions between these two varieties, lays a foundation for future species protection, development, and utilization.


Asunto(s)
Rubus , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes , Evolución Biológica , Repeticiones de Microsatélite
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3238, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622117

RESUMEN

Great efforts are being made to develop advanced polygenic risk scores (PRS) to improve the prediction of complex traits and diseases. However, most existing PRS are primarily trained on European ancestry populations, limiting their transferability to non-European populations. In this article, we propose a novel method for generating multi-ancestry Polygenic Risk scOres based on enSemble of PEnalized Regression models (PROSPER). PROSPER integrates genome-wide association studies (GWAS) summary statistics from diverse populations to develop ancestry-specific PRS with improved predictive power for minority populations. The method uses a combination of L 1 (lasso) and L 2 (ridge) penalty functions, a parsimonious specification of the penalty parameters across populations, and an ensemble step to combine PRS generated across different penalty parameters. We evaluate the performance of PROSPER and other existing methods on large-scale simulated and real datasets, including those from 23andMe Inc., the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium, and All of Us. Results show that PROSPER can substantially improve multi-ancestry polygenic prediction compared to alternative methods across a wide variety of genetic architectures. In real data analyses, for example, PROSPER increased out-of-sample prediction R2 for continuous traits by an average of 70% compared to a state-of-the-art Bayesian method (PRS-CSx) in the African ancestry population. Further, PROSPER is computationally highly scalable for the analysis of large SNP contents and many diverse populations.


Asunto(s)
Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Salud Poblacional , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Herencia Multifactorial/genética , Población Negra/genética , 60488 , Factores de Riesgo
4.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 24(1): 88, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622506

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The analysis of dental caries has been a major focus of recent work on modeling dental defect data. While a dental caries focus is of major importance in dental research, the examination of developmental defects which could also contribute at an early stage of dental caries formation, is also of potential interest. This paper proposes a set of methods which address the appearance of different combinations of defects across different tooth regions. In our modeling we assess the linkages between tooth region development and both the type of defect and associations with etiological predictors of the defects which could be influential at different times during the tooth crown development. METHODS: We develop different hierarchical model formulations under the Bayesian paradigm to assess exposures during primary central incisor (PMCI) tooth development and PMCI defects. We evaluate the Bayesian hierarchical models under various simulation scenarios to compare their performance with both simulated dental defect data and real data from a motivating application. RESULTS: The proposed model provides inference on identifying a subset of etiological predictors of an individual defect accounting for the correlation between tooth regions and on identifying a subset of etiological predictors for the joint effect of defects. Furthermore, the model provides inference on the correlation between the regions of the teeth as well as between the joint effect of the developmental enamel defects and dental caries. Simulation results show that the proposed model consistently yields steady inferences in identifying etiological biomarkers associated with the outcome of localized developmental enamel defects and dental caries under varying simulation scenarios as deemed by small mean square error (MSE) when comparing the simulation results to real application results. CONCLUSION: We evaluate the proposed model under varying simulation scenarios to develop a model for multivariate dental defects and dental caries assuming a flexible covariance structure that can handle regional and joint effects. The proposed model shed new light on methods for capturing inclusive predictors in different multivariate joint models under the same covariance structure and provides a natural extension to a nested hierarchical model.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Incisivo , Niño , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Diente Primario , Prevalencia , Esmalte Dental
5.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 44, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622513

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Body size and echolocation call frequencies are related in bats. However, it is unclear if this allometry applies to the entire clade. Differences have been suggested between nasal and oral emitting bats, as well as between some taxonomic families. Additionally, the scaling of other echolocation parameters, such as bandwidth and call duration, needs further testing. Moreover, it would be also interesting to test whether changes in body size have been coupled with changes in these echolocation parameters throughout bat evolution. Here, we test the scaling of peak frequency, bandwidth, and call duration with body mass using phylogenetically informed analyses for 314 bat species. We specifically tested whether all these scaling patterns differ between nasal and oral emitting bats. Then, we applied recently developed Bayesian statistical techniques based on large-scale simulations to test for the existence of correlated evolution between body mass and echolocation. RESULTS: Our results showed that echolocation peak frequencies, bandwidth, and duration follow significant allometric patterns in both nasal and oral emitting bats. Changes in these traits seem to have been coupled across the laryngeal echolocation bats diversification. Scaling and correlated evolution analyses revealed that body mass is more related to peak frequency and call duration than to bandwidth. We exposed two non-exclusive kinds of mechanisms to explain the link between size and each of the echolocation parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The incorporation of Bayesian statistics based on large-scale simulations could be helpful for answering macroevolutionary patterns related to the coevolution of traits in bats and other taxonomic groups.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros , Ecolocación , Humanos , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Tamaño Corporal
6.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 109, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622701

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the association between specific lipidomes and the risk of breast cancer (BC) using the Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization (TSMR) approach and Bayesian Model Averaging Mendelian Randomization (BMA-MR) method. METHOD: The study analyzed data from large-scale GWAS datasets of 179 lipidomes to assess the relationship between lipidomes and BC risk across different molecular subtypes. TSMR was employed to explore causal relationships, while the BMA-MR method was carried out to validate the results. The study assessed heterogeneity and horizontal pleiotropy through Cochran's Q, MR-Egger intercept tests, and MR-PRESSO. Moreover, a leave-one-out sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms on the MR study. RESULTS: By examining 179 lipidome traits as exposures and BC as the outcome, the study revealed significant causal effects of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and glycerolipids on BC risk. Specifically, for estrogen receptor-positive BC (ER+ BC), phosphatidylcholine (P < 0.05) and phosphatidylinositol (OR: 0.916-0.966, P < 0.05) within glycerophospholipids play significant roles, along with the importance of glycerolipids (diacylglycerol (OR = 0.923, P < 0.001) and triacylglycerol, OR: 0.894-0.960, P < 0.05)). However, the study did not observe a noteworthy impact of sphingolipids on ER+BC. In the case of estrogen receptor-negative BC (ER- BC), not only glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids (OR = 1.085, P = 0.008), and glycerolipids (OR = 0.909, P = 0.002) exerted an influence, but the protective effect of sterols (OR: 1.034-1.056, P < 0.05) was also discovered. The prominence of glycerolipids was minimal in ER-BC. Phosphatidylethanolamine (OR: 1.091-1.119, P < 0.05) was an important causal effect in ER-BC. CONCLUSIONS: The findings reveal that phosphatidylinositol and triglycerides levels decreased the risk of BC, indicating a potential protective role of these lipid molecules. Moreover, the study elucidates BC's intricate lipid metabolic pathways, highlighting diverse lipidome structural variations that may have varying effects in different molecular subtypes.


Asunto(s)
Lipidómica , Neoplasias , Teorema de Bayes , Análisis de la Aleatorización Mendeliana , Glicerofosfolípidos , Fosfatidilinositoles , Esfingolípidos , Receptores de Estrógenos/genética , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610522

RESUMEN

Breast cancer results from a disruption of certain cells in breast tissue that undergo uncontrolled growth and cell division. These cells most often accumulate and form a lump called a tumor, which may be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant tumors can spread quickly throughout the body, forming tumors in other areas, which is called metastasis. Standard screening techniques are insufficient in the case of metastasis; therefore, new and advanced techniques based on artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, and regression models have been introduced, the primary aim of which is to automatically diagnose breast cancer through the use of advanced techniques, classifiers, and real images. Real fine-needle aspiration (FNA) images were collected from Wisconsin, and four classifiers were used, including three machine learning models and one regression model: the support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes (NB), k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), and decision tree (DT)-C4.5. According to the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity results, the SVM algorithm had the best performance; it was the most powerful computational classifier with a 97.13% accuracy and 97.5% specificity. It also had around a 96% sensitivity for the diagnosis of breast cancer, unlike the models used for comparison, thereby providing an exact diagnosis on the one hand and a clear classification between benign and malignant tumors on the other hand. As a future research prospect, more algorithms and combinations of features can be considered for the precise, rapid, and effective classification and diagnosis of breast cancer images for imperative decisions.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Neoplasias , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Aprendizaje Automático , Algoritmos
8.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e080289, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589257

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Up to 78% of patients who had a stroke develop post-stroke dysphagia (PSD), a significant consequence. Life-threatening aspiration pneumonia, starvation, and water and electrolyte abnormalities can result. Several meta-analyses have shown that repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves swallowing in patients who had a stroke; however, the optimum model is unknown. This study will be the first Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) to determine the best rTMS modalities for swallowing of patients who had a stroke. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Google Scholar, Cochrane, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chongqing VIP Database and WanFang Data will be searched from their creation to 2 September 2023. All randomised controlled trials associated with rTMS for PSD will be included. Only Chinese or English results will be studied. Two researchers will independently review the literature and extract data, then use the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias 2.0 tool to assess the included studies' methodological quality. The primary outcome is swallowing function improvement, whereas secondary outcomes include side effects (eg, paraesthesia, vertigo, seizures) and quality of life. A pairwise meta-analysis and NMA based on a Bayesian framework will be conducted using Stata and R statistical software. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system will assess outcome indicator evidence quality. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: As all data in this study will be taken from the literature, ethical approval is not needed. We will publish our work in peer-reviewed publications and present it at academic conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42023456386.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Deglución , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Estimulación Magnética Transcraneal/métodos , Trastornos de Deglución/terapia , Trastornos de Deglución/complicaciones , Metaanálisis en Red , Teorema de Bayes , Calidad de Vida , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Metaanálisis como Asunto
9.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 110, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627726

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is evidence for an association between the gut microbiome and endometriosis. However, their causal relationship and the mediating role of lipid metabolism remain unclear. METHODS: Using genome-wide association study (GWAS) data, we conducted a bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to investigate the causal relationships between gut microbiome and endometriosis. The inverse variance weighted (IVW) method was used as the primary model, with other MR models used for comparison. Sensitivity analysis based on different statistical assumptions was used to evaluate whether the results were robust. A two-step MR analysis was further conducted to explore the mediating effects of lipids, by integrating univariable MR and the multivariate MR method based on the Bayesian model averaging method (MR-BMA). RESULTS: We identified four possible intestinal bacteria genera associated with the risk of endometriosis through the IVW method, including Eubacterium ruminantium group (odds ratio [OR] = 0.881, 95% CI: 0.795-0.976, P = 0.015), Anaerotruncus (OR = 1.252, 95% CI: 1.028-1.525, P = 0.025), Olsenella (OR = 1.110, 95% CI: 1.007-1.223, P = 0.036), and Oscillospira (OR = 1.215, 95% CI: 1.014-1.456, P = 0.035). The further two-step MR analysis identified that the effect of Olsenella on endometriosis was mediated by triglycerides (proportion mediated: 3.3%; 95% CI = 1.5-5.1%). CONCLUSION: This MR study found evidence for specific gut microbiomes associated with the risk of endometriosis, which might partially be mediated by triglycerides.


Asunto(s)
Endometriosis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Femenino , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Endometriosis/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Análisis de la Aleatorización Mendeliana , Lípidos , Triglicéridos
10.
Genome Med ; 16(1): 56, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627848

RESUMEN

Despite the abundance of genotype-phenotype association studies, the resulting association outcomes often lack robustness and interpretations. To address these challenges, we introduce PheSeq, a Bayesian deep learning model that enhances and interprets association studies through the integration and perception of phenotype descriptions. By implementing the PheSeq model in three case studies on Alzheimer's disease, breast cancer, and lung cancer, we identify 1024 priority genes for Alzheimer's disease and 818 and 566 genes for breast cancer and lung cancer, respectively. Benefiting from data fusion, these findings represent moderate positive rates, high recall rates, and interpretation in gene-disease association studies.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Neoplasias de la Mama , Aprendizaje Profundo , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Femenino , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética
11.
Rev Saude Publica ; 57Suppl 3(Suppl 3): 5s, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629669

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Investigate evidence of validity of the Family Vulnerability Scale (EVFAM-BR) as an instrument to support population-based management in primary health care (PHC), in the scope of Health Care Planning (PAS). METHODS: This is a psychometric study to assess any additional evidence of the internal structure of EVFAM-BR using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and network analysis (NA). A preliminary version of the scale with 38 items was submitted to patients of PHC facilities that use the PAS methodology, distributed across the five regions of Brazil. For the primary CFA data, factor loadings and predictive power (R2) of the item were used. Seven model adjustment indices were adopted and reliability was measured by three indicators, using Bayesian estimation. RESULTS: The preliminary version of the scale was applied to 1,255 patients. Using the AFC, factor loadings ranged from 0.66 to 0.90 and R2 from 0.44 to 0.81. Both the primary indicators and the model adequacy indices presented satisfactory and consistent levels. According to the NA, the items were appropriately associated with their peers, respecting the established dimensions, thus demonstrating sustainability and stability of the proposed model. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence of validity presented by EVFAM-BR indicates, for the first time in Brazil, a concise instrument that is able to assertively measure family vulnerability, potentially supporting population-based management.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Psicometría , Análisis Factorial
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 57Suppl 3(Suppl 3): 7s, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629671

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate validity evidence of the Brazilian Scale for Evaluation of Mental Health Care Needs (CuidaSM). METHODS: This is a psychometric study, which seeks additional evidence of internal structure. Data collection was carried out in 11 Primary Health Care (PHC) services , which implement the Health Care Planning (HCP) methodology, distributed across the five Brazilian regions. The preliminary version of CuidaSM, containing a block self-referred by the user and another block evaluated by PHC professionals, was applied to users aged 18 or over who attended the PHC services for consultation with a higher education professional. The techniques of confirmatory factor analysis and network analysis were used to investigate validity evidence. For the primary data of the confirmatory factor analysis, the factorial loads and the item's predictive power (R2) were used. Six model adjustment indices were adopted and reliability was measured by three indicators using Bayesian estimation. RESULTS: A total of 879 users participated in the study. By confirmatory factor analysis, factorial loads ranged from 0.43 to 0.99 and R2 from 0.19 to 0.98. Both the primary indicators and the model adequacy indices were established at satisfactory and consistent levels. The network analysis showed that the items were appropriately associated with their peers, respecting the established dimensions, which again indicates the sustainability and stability of the proposed model. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings confirm a consistent and reliable model of the instrument, through a combination of techniques. Considering the importance of using solid instruments in clinical practice, CuidaSM is a promising tool for population-based management and network care organization, aligned with HCP proposals.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Humanos , Brasil , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Teorema de Bayes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Psicometría
13.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(4): e17258, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629937

RESUMEN

Forests, critical components of global ecosystems, face unprecedented challenges due to climate change. This study investigates the influence of functional diversity-as a component of biodiversity-to enhance long-term biomass of European forests in the context of changing climatic conditions. Using the next-generation flexible trait-based vegetation model, LPJmL-FIT, we explored the impact of functional diversity on long-term forest biomass under three different climate change scenarios (video abstract: https://www.pik-potsdam.de/~billing/video/2023/video_abstract_billing_et_al_LPJmLFIT.mp4). Four model set-ups were tested with varying degrees of functional diversity and best-suited functional traits. Our results show that functional diversity positively influences long-term forest biomass, particularly when climate warming is low (RCP2.6). Under these conditions, high-diversity simulations led to an approximately 18.2% increase in biomass compared to low-diversity experiments. However, as climate change intensity increased, the benefits of functional diversity diminished (RCP8.5). A Bayesian multilevel analysis revealed that both full leaf trait diversity and diversity of plant functional types contributed significantly to biomass enhancement under low warming scenarios in our model simulations. Under strong climate change, the presence of a mixture of different functional groups (e.g. summergreen and evergreen broad-leaved trees) was found more beneficial than the diversity of leaf traits within a functional group (e.g. broad-leaved summergreen trees). Ultimately, this research challenges the notion that planting only the most productive and climate-suited trees guarantees the highest future biomass and carbon sequestration. We underscore the importance of high functional diversity and the potential benefits of fostering a mixture of tree functional types to enhance long-term forest biomass in the face of climate change.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Bosques , Biomasa , Teorema de Bayes , Hojas de la Planta
14.
Arch Virol ; 169(5): 101, 2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630189

RESUMEN

Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals, resulting in considerable economic losses. Its causal agent is foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a picornavirus. Due to its error-prone replication and rapid evolution, the transmission and evolutionary dynamics of FMDV can be studied using genomic epidemiological approaches. To analyze FMDV evolution and identify possible transmission routes in an Argentinean region, field samples that tested positive for FMDV by PCR were obtained from 21 farms located in the Mar Chiquita district. Whole FMDV genome sequences were obtained by PCR amplification in seven fragments and sequencing using the Sanger technique. The genome sequences obtained from these samples were then analyzed using phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and evolutionary approaches. Three local transmission clusters were detected among the sampled viruses. The dataset was analyzed using Bayesian phylodynamic methods with appropriate coalescent and relaxed molecular clock models. The estimated mean viral evolutionary rate was 1.17 × 10- 2 substitutions/site/year. No significant differences in the rate of viral evolution were observed between farms with vaccinated animals and those with unvaccinated animals. The most recent common ancestor of the sampled sequences was dated to approximately one month before the first reported case in the outbreak. Virus transmission started in the south of the district and later dispersed to the west, and finally arrived in the east. Different transmission routes among the studied herds, such as non-replicating vectors and close contact contagion (i.e., aerosols), may be responsible for viral spread.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa , Picornaviridae , Animales , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/genética , Argentina/epidemiología , Teorema de Bayes , Filogenia
15.
J Robot Surg ; 18(1): 177, 2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630430

RESUMEN

Lymphocele is one of the most common complications after radical prostatectomy. Multiple authors have proposed the use of vessel sealants or peritoneal interposition techniques as preventive interventions. This study aimed to aggregate and analyze the available literature on different interventions which seek to prevent lymphocele through a Bayesian Network. A systematic review was performed to identify prospective studies evaluating strategies for lymphocele prevention after robot assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy + pelvic lymph node dissection. Data was inputted into Review Manager 5.4 for pairwise meta-analysis. Data was then used to build a network in R Studio. These networks were used to model 200,000 Markov Chains via MonteCarlo sampling. The results are expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% credible intervals (CrI). Meta-regression was used to determine coefficient of change and adjust for pelvic lymph node dissection extent. Ten studies providing data from 2211 patients were included. 1097 patients received an intervention and 1114 patients served as controls. Interposition with fenestration had the lowest risk of developing a lymphocele (OR 0.14 [0.04, 0.50], p = 0.003). All interventions, except sealants or patches, had significant decreased odds of lymphocele rates. Meta-analysis of all the included studies showed a decreased risk of developing a lymphocele (OR 0.42 [0.33, 0.53], p < 0.00001) for the intervention group. Perivesical fixation and interposition with fenestration appear to be effective interventions for reducing the overall incidence of lymphocele.


Asunto(s)
Linfocele , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados , Robótica , Masculino , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Linfocele/etiología , Linfocele/prevención & control , Metaanálisis en Red , Estudios Prospectivos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados/métodos , Prostatectomía/efectos adversos , Escisión del Ganglio Linfático/efectos adversos
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e246813, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625701

RESUMEN

Importance: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is marked by the contrasting symptoms of hyperemotional reactivity and emotional numbing (ie, reduced emotional reactivity). Comprehending the mechanism that governs the transition between neutral and negative emotional states is crucial for developing targeted therapeutic strategies. Objectives: To explore whether individuals with PTSD experience a more pronounced shift between neutral and negative emotional states and how the intensity of emotional numbing symptoms impacts this shift. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used hierarchical bayesian modeling to fit a 5-parameter logistic regression to analyze the valence ratings of images. The aim was to compare the curve's slope between groups and explore its association with the severity of emotional numbing symptoms. The study was conducted online, using 35 images with a valence range from highly negative to neutral. The rating of these images was used to assess the emotional responses of the participants. The study recruited trauma-exposed individuals (witnessed or experienced life-threatening incident, violent assault, or someone being killed) between January 17 and March 8, 2023. Participants completed the PTSD Checklist for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) (DSM-5) (PCL-5). Exposure: On the basis of DSM-5 criteria (endorsing at least 1 symptom from clusters B and C and 2 from D and E), participants were categorized as having probable PTSD (pPTSD) or as trauma-exposed controls (TECs). Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the slope parameter (b) of the logistic curve fitted to the valence rating. The slope parameter indicates the rate at which emotional response intensity changes with stimulus valence, reflecting how quickly the transition occurs between neutral and negatively valenced states. The secondary outcome was the association between emotional numbing (PCL-5 items 12-14) and the slope parameter. Results: A total of 1440 trauma-exposed individuals were included. The pPTSD group (n = 445) was younger (mean [SD] age, 36.1 [10.9] years) compared with the TEC group (mean [SD] age, 41.5 [13.3] years; P < .001). Sex distribution (427 women in the TEC group vs 230 in the pPTSD group) did not significantly differ between groups (P = .67). The pPTSD group exhibited a steeper slope (mean slope difference, -0.255; 89% highest posterior density [HPD], -0.340 to -0.171) compared with the controls. Across all individuals (n = 1440), a robust association was found between the slope and emotional numbing severity (mean [SD] additive value, 0.100 [0.031]; 89% HPD, 0.051-0.15). Additional analysis controlling for age confirmed the association between emotional numbing and transition sharpness (mean [SD] additive value, 0.108 [0.032]; 89% HPD, 0.056-0.159), without evidence of an age-related association (mean [SD] additive value, 0.031 [0.033]; 89% HPD, -0.022 to 0.083). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings support that individuals with PTSD undergo rapid transitions between neutral and negative emotional states, a phenomenon intensified by the severity of emotional numbing symptoms. Therapeutic interventions aimed at moderating these swift emotional transitions could potentially alleviate PTSD symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Estudios Transversales , Emociones , Lista de Verificación , Convulsiones
17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(4): 47008, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625811

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are widely detected in pregnant women and associated with adverse outcomes related to impaired placental function. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone that can indicate placental toxicity. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to quantify the association of serum PFAS with placental hCG, measured as an intact molecule (hCG), as free alpha-(hCGα) and beta-subunits (hCGß), and as a hyperglycosylated form (h-hCG), and evaluate effect measure modification by social determinants and by fetal sex. METHODS: Data were collected from 326 pregnant women enrolled from 2015 to 2019 in the UPSIDE study in Rochester, New York. hCG forms were normalized for gestational age at the time of blood draw in the first trimester [multiple of the median (MoM)]. Seven PFAS were measured in second-trimester maternal serum. Multivariate imputation by chained equations and inverse probability weighting were used to evaluate robustness of linear associations. PFAS mixture effects were estimated by Bayesian kernel machine regression. RESULTS: Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) [hCGß: 0.29 log MoM units per log PFHxS; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08, 0.51] and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (hCG: -0.09; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.02) were associated with hCG in the single chemical and mixture analyses. The PFAS mixture was negatively associated with hCGα and positively with hCGß. Subgroup analyses revealed that PFAS associations with hCG differed by maternal race/ethnicity and education. Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) was associated with hCGß only in Black participants (-0.23; 95% CI: -0.37, -0.09) and in participants with high school education or less (-0.14; 95% CI: -0.26, -0.02); conversely, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was negatively associated with hCGα only in White participants (-0.15; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.03) and with hCGß only in participants with a college education or greater (-0.19; 95% CI: -0.36, -0.01). These findings were robust to testing for selection bias, confounding bias, and left truncation bias where PFAS detection frequency was <100%. Two associations were negative in male (and null in female) pregnancies: Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) with hCGα, and PFNA with h-hCG. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence was strongest for the association between PFHxS and PFDA with hCG in all participants and for PFPeA and PFNA within subgroups defined by social determinants and fetal sex. PFAS mixture associations with hCGα and hCGß differed, suggesting subunit-specific types of toxicity and/or regulation. Future studies will evaluate the biological, clinical and public health significance of these findings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP12950.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Alcanesulfónicos , Ácidos Decanoicos , Contaminantes Ambientales , Ácidos Grasos , Fluorocarburos , Ácidos Pentanoicos , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Embarazo , Placenta , New York/epidemiología , Teorema de Bayes , Gonadotropina Coriónica
18.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0296355, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625858

RESUMEN

The elderly population is growing rapidly in the world and falls are becoming a big problem for society. Currently, clinical assessments of gait and posture include functional evaluations, objective, and subjective scales. They are considered the gold standard to indicate optimal mobility and performance individually, but their sensitivity and specificity are not good enough to predict who is at higher risk of falling. An innovative approach for fall prediction is the machine learning. Machine learning is a computer-science area that uses statistics and optimization methods in a large amount of data to make outcome predictions. Thus, to assess the performance of machine learning algorithms in classify participants by age, number of falls and falls frequency based on features extracted from a public database of stabilometric assessments. 163 participants (116 women and 47 men) between 18 and 85 years old, 44.0 to 75.9 kg mass, 140.0 to 189.8 cm tall, and 17.2 to 31.9 kg/m2 body mass index. Six different machine learning algorithms were tested for this classification, which included Logistic Regression, Linear Discriminant Analysis, K Nearest-neighbours, Decision Tree Classifier, Gaussian Naive Bayes and C-Support Vector Classification. The machine learning algorithms were applied in this database which has sociocultural, demographic, and health status information about participants. All algorithm models were able to classify the participants into young or old, but our main goal was not achieved, no model identified participants at high risk of falling. Our conclusion corroborates other works in the biomechanics field, arguing the static posturography, probably due to the low daily living activities specificity, does not have the desired effects in predicting the risk of falling. Further studies should focus on dynamic posturography to assess the risk of falls.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , Aprendizaje Automático , Anciano , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Teorema de Bayes , Algoritmos , Marcha
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8164, 2024 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589377

RESUMEN

Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in the Philippines. The Kato-Katz (KK) method was used to diagnose S. japonicum. This is impractical, particularly when the sample size is limited. Knowledge on point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) test performance for S. japonicum is limited. Determining the sensitivity and specificity of new diagnostics is difficult when the gold standard test is less effective or absent. Latent class analysis (LCA) can address some limitations. A total of 484 children and 572 adults from the Philippines were screened for S. japonicum. We performed Bayesian LCA to estimate the infection prevalence, sensitivity and specificity of each test by stratifying them into two age groups. Observed prevalence assessed by KK was 50.2% and 31.8%, and by CCA was 89.9% and 66.8%, respectively. Using Bayesian LCA, among children, the sensitivity and specificity of CCA were 94.8% (88.7-99.4) and 21.5% (10.5-36.1) while those of KK were 66.0% (54.2-83.3) and 78.1% (61.1-91.3). Among adults, the sensitivity and specificity of CCA were 86.4% (76.6-96.9) and 62.8% (49.1-81.1) while those of KK were 43.6% (35.1-53.9) and 85.5% (75.8-94.6). Overall, CCA was more sensitive than KK, regardless of the age group at diagnosis, as KK was more specific. KK and CCA have different diagnostic performance, which should inform their use in the planning and implementation of S. japonicum control programs.


Asunto(s)
Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistosomiasis mansoni , Niño , Adulto , Animales , Humanos , Schistosoma mansoni , Antígenos Helmínticos , Teorema de Bayes , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Heces/química , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Prevalencia
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8256, 2024 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589552

RESUMEN

Yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, represents an important component of commercial and recreational fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). We investigated the influence of environmental conditions on the spatiotemporal distribution of yellowfin tuna using fisheries' catch data spanning 2012-2019 within Mexican waters. We implemented hierarchical Bayesian regression models with spatial and temporal random effects and fixed effects of several environmental covariates to predict habitat suitability (HS) for the species. The best model included spatial and interannual anomalies of the absolute dynamic topography of the ocean surface (ADTSA and ADTIA, respectively), bottom depth, and a seasonal cyclical random effect. High catches occurred mainly towards anticyclonic features at bottom depths > 1000 m. The spatial extent of HS was higher in years with positive ADTIA, which implies more anticyclonic activity. The highest values of HS (> 0.7) generally occurred at positive ADTSA in oceanic waters of the central and northern GoM. However, high HS values (> 0.6) were observed in the southern GoM, in waters with cyclonic activity during summer. Our results highlight the importance of mesoscale features for the spatiotemporal distribution of yellowfin tunas and could help to develop dynamic fisheries management strategies in Mexico and the U.S. for this valuable resource.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Atún , Animales , Golfo de México , Teorema de Bayes , Océanos y Mares
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