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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19358, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150076

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Intravenous thrombolysis is not suitable for patients undergoing oral anticoagulants therapy, with INR > 1.7 or PT > 15 s. We described a case of intravenous thrombolysis in a patient with INR 1.9. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 66-year-old female patient was diagnosed with acute appendicitis complicated with atrial fibrillation. Seven days after admission, the patient suffered mixed aphasia with right limb asthenia. The NIHSS score was 11 points. and early infarction and hemorrhagic manifestations were not found in the emergency head CT. Thirty minutes after the onset of symptoms, NIHSS of patient increased from 11 to 14, but the INR was 1.92. DIAGNOSIS: Acute ischemic stroke. INTERVENTIONS: The IT therapy was recommended and all the therapy related risks were explained to the patient's parents. Briefly, the patient was given rTPA 38.5 mg. In addition to intravenous thrombolysis, VitK1 40 mg was simultaneously administered. OUTCOME: The patient's symptoms of drowsiness were improved. After 24 hours, all symptoms were stabilized with NIHSS of 2 points, there was a slight language obstruction, and no hemorrhagic transformation in head CT. Three months later, the review showed MRS score of 0, and the patient could take care of herself in daily life. CONCLUSION: The clinical guidelines are still the main reference for guiding clinical practice, and the main thrombolytic standards and contraindications for treatment still need to be conformed. On this basis, for individualized patients, clinicians must accurately judge the cause of acute stroke, to make optimal choice, reduce disability and mortality, and improve quality of life of patients.


Asunto(s)
Seguridad del Paciente/normas , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/normas , Warfarina/efectos adversos , Anciano , Apendicitis/complicaciones , Apendicitis/cirugía , Femenino , Fibrinolíticos/normas , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Relación Normalizada Internacional/métodos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/tratamiento farmacológico , Accidente Cerebrovascular/fisiopatología , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Warfarina/uso terapéutico
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e18995, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049794

RESUMEN

AIM: To determine the risk factors related to hemorrhagic transformation in Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis. METHODS: Studies published in different languages were retrieved by systematically searching PubMed, EMBASE, Vip, CNKI, and WanFang Data from the establishment of the library to December 31, 2018, as well as manually examining the references of the original articles. The outcome measures of efficacy covered risk factors. Safety evaluation was measured by relative ratio of complications. RESULTS: A total of 36 studies involving 5597 participants were covered in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that age [WMD = 2.44, 95% CI (1.39,3.48)], male [OR = 1.21, 95% CI (1.02, 1.44)], diabetes [OR = 2.05, 95%CI (1.72,2.44)], atrial fibrillation [OR = 2.85, 95%CI (2.40, 3.39)], previous stroke [OR = 1.8, 95%CI (1.33, 2.44)], onset to treatment time (OTT) [WMD = 3.74, 95%CI (2.91, 4.58)], National Institute of Health stroke scale scores (NIHSS) [WMD = 4.17, 95% CI (3.37, 4.97)], infarct size [WMD = 4.11, 95% CI (3.15, 5.37)], ischemic signs of computed tomography (CT) [OR = 3.49, 95%CI (2.47, 4.93)] were associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation after intravenous thrombolysis. CONCLUSION: The systematic review showed that male, age, diabetes, NIHSS, OTT, atrial fibrillation, post stroke, infarct size, and ischemic signs of CT were significantly correlated with hemorrhagic transformation (HT). PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019127499.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamiento farmacológico , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Administración Intravenosa , Factores de Edad , China , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales
3.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(2): 135-140, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769352

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Ultrasound-facilitated, catheter-directed, low-dose fibrinolysis (USAT) appears to provide promising results for the management of acute submassive pulmonary embolisms (ASMPEs) at tertiary care centers. This study assessed outcome measures at a community-based hospital systems and compared results to known studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective study assessing clinical outcomes of the EkoSonic Endovascular System intervention for ASMPEs performed by three surgical 3 subspecialties (interventional radiology, interventional cardiology, and vascular surgery) part of a pulmonary embolism response team (PERT). We reviewed 146 PERT activations from June 2013 to December 2017. Eighty-three patients with ASMPEs underwent USAT. RESULTS: Our study showed greater differences (P = .01) between baseline and follow-up pulmonary artery systolic pressures (20.9 ± 9.8 mm Hg [n = 14]) compared to the ULTIMA study (12.3 ± 10 mm Hg [n = 30]). Our length-of-stay measures were shorter (6.1 ± 5.1 [n = 83]; P = .0001) compared to the SEATTLE II study (8.8 ± 5.0 [n = 150]). Preprocedure transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs) were performed for 54 (65%) of 83 patients. Postprocedure TTEs at 48 hours was performed for 52 (62%) of 83 patients. Use of TTEs before and after intervention did not change outcomes. Intracranial hemorrhage was not observed in our patient population. There was no difference in outcomes between the three subspecialties in our study. CONCLUSIONS: Use of USAT in a community-based hospital PERT has similar outcomes to tertiary care centers. Furthermore, similar outcomes were observed between the three subspecialties suggesting development of a comprehensive care team for management of ASMPEs.


Asunto(s)
Cateterismo Periférico , Fibrinolíticos/administración & dosificación , Hospitales Comunitarios , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Terapia por Ultrasonido , Enfermedad Aguda , Adulto , Anciano , Cardiólogos , Cateterismo Periférico/efectos adversos , Femenino , Fibrinolíticos/efectos adversos , Humanos , Infusiones Intraarteriales , Masculino , Michigan , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagen , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatología , Radiólogos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Especialización , Cirujanos , Terapia Trombolítica/efectos adversos , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Terapia por Ultrasonido/efectos adversos
4.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e835-e841, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614218

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Several independent randomized controlled trials have shown superior efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, elderly patients have been underrepresented or excluded in these trials. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of MT in patients with AIS ≥90 years old. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of patients ≥90 years old presenting with AIS who underwent MT between 2010 and 2018. RESULTS: Of 453 patients with AIS, 5.74% (n = 26) were ≥90 years old, and 69.32% (n = 314) were 60-89 years old. Of baseline characteristics between both groups, there was a significant difference in age, sex, body mass index, smoking, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes mellitus. Mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission was higher in the nonagenarians (17 vs. 15). Similar proportions of both groups received tissue plasminogen activator, 57.69% (n = 15) versus 42.68% (n = 134), P = 0.14). There was no difference in periprocedural and postprocedural complications, good Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction scores (88.46% [n = 23] vs. 87.58% [n = 275], P = 1.00), good modified Rankin Scale scores (34.62% [n = 4] vs. 49.36% [n = 155], P = 0.40), or mortality (11.54% [n = 3] vs. 13.06% [n = 41], P = 0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Age is a factor that affects functional outcome following MT. Advancements in catheter techniques, technical experience, and great outcomes with MT allow for pushing the boundaries to consider age as one factor, rather than an exclusion criterion. Our results show that MT is safe and feasible in nonagenarians.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica/cirugía , Accidente Cerebrovascular/cirugía , Trombectomía/métodos , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Activador de Tejido Plasminógeno/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Radiol Med ; 125(1): 57-65, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473929

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: A direct aspiration first pass technique (ADAPT) is an alternative technique as first-line thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke, still debated when compared to first-line stent retriever. To retrospectively evaluate technical and clinical outcomes of the ADAPT as first-line treatment for anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke with large-bore reperfusion catheters. METHODS: A multicentric data collection from 14 medical centers was retrospectively analyzed. Large-bore catheters had a distal diameter between 0.64 and 0.71 in; stent retriever was added when aspiration alone failed. Baseline characteristics, technical and clinical variables were collected, including NIHSS, thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI), peri-procedural complications, 90-day mRS and 90-day mortality. RESULTS: Overall, 501 patients were treated. No statistically significant difference in terms of baseline features or tPA administration was recorded between patients treated with ADAPT and with additional stent retriever. ADAPT alone was successful in achieving TICI ≥ 2b in 71.8% with a median of 1.55 aspiration attempts. In terms of TICI ≥ 2b, ADAPT alone was better than additional stent retriever (p < 0.001), while no statistical difference was achieved from catheter diameter. Embolization to a new territory was less frequent in ADAPT group (5.2 vs 18%; p = 0.0026). Patients treated with ADAPT alone had better clinical outcomes in terms of mRS ≤ 2 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ADAPT is a valid technique with respect to the rates of TICI 2b/3 recanalization and 90-day mRS scores. In this series, an attempt at recanalization with ADAPT with larger-bore reperfusion catheter may be warranted prior to stentriever thrombectomy.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica/cirugía , Catéteres , Reperfusión/instrumentación , Accidente Cerebrovascular/cirugía , Trombectomía/instrumentación , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Angiografía de Substracción Digital , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagen , Angiografía Cerebral/métodos , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reperfusión/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico por imagen , Trombectomía/métodos , Trombectomía/estadística & datos numéricos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
6.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(1): e40-e49, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786086

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early thrombus removal might prevent post-thrombotic syndrome by preserving venous function and restoring flow. Previous trials comparing additional catheter-directed thrombolysis to standard treatment showed conflicting outcomes. We aimed to assess the benefit of additional ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis for the prevention of post-thrombotic syndrome compared with standard therapy in patients with iliofemoral deep-vein thrombosis. METHODS: We did a multicentre, randomised, single-blind, allocation-concealed, parallel group, superiority trial in 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients aged 18-85 years with a first-time acute iliofemoral deep-vein thrombosis and symptoms for no more than 14 days were randomly assigned (1:1) to either standard treatment with additional ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis or standard treatment alone. Randomisation was done with a web-based automatic programme and a random varying block size (2-12), stratified by age and centre. Standard treatment included anticoagulant therapy, compression therapy (knee-high elastic compression stockings; 30-40 mmHg), and early ambulation. Additional ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis was done with urokinase with a starting bolus of 250 000 international units (IU) in 10 mL NaCl followed by a continuous dose of 100 000 IU/h for a maximum of 96 h through the Ekos Endowave-system. Adjunctive percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, thrombosuction, or stenting was performed at the discretion of the physician who performed the intervention. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with post-thrombotic syndrome at 12 months diagnosed according to the original Villalta criteria-a Villalta-score of at least 5 on two consecutive occasions at least 3 months apart or the occurrence of venous ulceration-and was assessed in a modified intention-to-treat population of all randomly assigned patients who passed screening and started treatment. The safety analysis was assessed in the same modified intention-to-treat population. This study is complete and is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00970619. FINDINGS: Between May 28, 2010, and Sept 18, 2017, 184 patients were randomly assigned to either additional ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis (n=91) or standard treatment alone (n=93). Exclusion because of screening failure or early withdrawal of informed consent resulted in 77 patients in the intervention group and 75 in the standard treatment group starting allocated treatment. Median follow-up was 12·0 months (IQR 6·0-12·0). 12-month post-thrombotic syndrome occurred in 22 (29%) patients allocated to additional treatment versus 26 (35%) patients receiving standard treatment alone (odds ratio 0·75 [95% CI 0·38 to 1·50]; p=0·42). Major bleeding occurred in four (5%) patients in the intervention group, with associated neuropraxia or the peroneal nerve in one patient, and no events in the standard treatment group. No serious adverse events occurred. None of the four deaths (one [1%] in the intervention group vs three [4%] in the standard treatment group) were treatment related. INTERPRETATION: This study showed that additional ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis does not change the risk of post-thrombotic syndrome 1 year after acute iliofemoral deep-vein thrombosis compared with standard therapy alone. Although this trial is inconclusive, the outcome suggests the possibility of a moderate beneficial effect with additional ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis. Further research is therefore warranted to better understand this outcome in the context of previous trials, preferably by combining the available evidence in an individual patient data meta-analysis. FUNDING: The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), Maastricht University Medical Centre, BTG-Interventional Medicine.


Asunto(s)
Anticoagulantes/administración & dosificación , Cateterismo Periférico , Síndrome Postrombótico/prevención & control , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Trombosis de la Vena/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Método Simple Ciego , Medias de Compresión , Adulto Joven
7.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(1): 58-64, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500542

RESUMEN

A retrospective review from July 2016 to April 2018 was performed of 23 patients with submassive pulmonary embolism (PE) who received catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT). Five (22%) of the 23 patients were discharged the same day from the intensive care unit (ICU) following thrombolysis completion. Their presentation, hospital courses, complications, and follow-up are reviewed. All 5 patients were diagnosed using chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrating a clot in the pulmonary vasculature and right ventricle dysfunction based on abnormal right ventricle to left ventricle (RV/LV) ratio. Patients with severe right heart dysfunction (RV/LV ratio ≥1.4) were protocolized to receive CDT via EkoSonic catheters (EKOS Corporation). Postoperatively, patients were admitted to the ICU with continuous alteplase at 1 mg/h. Echocardiography was then performed after 24 hours of therapy to assess right ventricle function and removal of EkoSonic catheters. Patients with reversal of right heart dysfunction and symptomatic improvement received bedside removal of catheters. The mean patient age was 50.6 years and body mass index was 33.6. Mean RV/LV ratio on admission via CT imaging was 1.56, with a mean troponin of 0.44. Interval mean RV/LV ratio on echocardiography after thrombolysis therapy was 0.91. There was a 0% incidence of periprocedural complications. One (20%) patient out of 5 had an emergency department visit 10 days postdischarge for acute shortness of breath, with workup revealing no evidence of recurrent PE. No patient required hospital readmission within 30 days. At the 6-week follow-up, all patients had continued normal right ventricular function noted on echocardiography. This case series demonstrates that for a select population of patients with severe submassive PE, the use of CDT and echocardiography monitoring can facilitate same-day discharge from the ICU.


Asunto(s)
Fibrinolíticos/administración & dosificación , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Tiempo de Internación , Alta del Paciente , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Adulto , Ecocardiografía , Femenino , Fibrinolíticos/efectos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagen , Sistema de Registros , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Terapia Trombolítica/efectos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/instrumentación , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Dispositivos de Acceso Vascular
8.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(7): 932-934, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859993

RESUMEN

We report an 89-year-old male under oral anticoagulant therapy with a therapeutic international normalized ratio, presenting at the emergency room with right side hemiparesis and aphasia. Neuroimaging was compatible with an acute middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke. Anticoagulation was reverted with the use of four factor prothrombin complex, followed by thrombolysis with alteplase, with a favorable evolution, returning to his basal functional status.


Asunto(s)
Acenocumarol/efectos adversos , Amlodipino/efectos adversos , Infarto de la Arteria Cerebral Media/tratamiento farmacológico , Metformina/efectos adversos , Protrombina/administración & dosificación , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Acenocumarol/administración & dosificación , Administración Intravenosa , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Amlodipino/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Infarto de la Arteria Cerebral Media/etiología , Masculino , Metformina/administración & dosificación , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etiología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
9.
J Clin Ethics ; 30(4): 338-346, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851625

RESUMEN

Although tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only medication approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for acute ischemic stroke, there is no consensus about the need for informed consent for its use. As a result, hospitals throughout the U.S. have varying requirements regarding obtaining informed consent from patients for the use of tPA, ranging from no requirement for informed consent to a requirement for verbal or written informed consent. We conducted a study to (1) determine current beliefs about obtaining patients' informed consent for tPA among a large group of stroke clinicians and (2) identify the ethical, clinical, and organizational factors that influence tPA consent practices. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by trained and experienced investigators and research staff to identify key barriers to implementing acute stroke services. Part of the interview explored current beliefs and practices around informed consent for tPA. This was a multicenter study that included 38 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospital locations. Participants were 68 stroke team clinicians, serving primarily on the neurology (35 percent) or emergency medicine (41 percent) service. We conducted thematic analysis based on principles of grounded theory to identify codes about consent for tPA. We used interpretive convergence to ensure consistency among the individual investigators' codes and to ensure that all of the investigators agreed on coding and themes. We found that 38 percent of the stroke clinicians did not believe any form of consent was necessary for tPA, 47 percent thought that some form of consent was necessary, and 15 percent were unsure. Clinicians who believed tPA required informed consent were divided on whether consent should be written (40 percent) or verbal (60 percent). We identified three factors describing clinicians' attitudes about consent: (1) legal and policy factors, (2) ethical factors, and (3) medical factors. The lack of consensus regarding consent for tPA creates the potential for delays in treatment, uneasiness among clinicians, and legal liability. The identified factors provide a potential framework to guide discussions about developing a standard of care for acquiring the informed consent of patients for the administration of tPA.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Consentimiento Informado , Accidente Cerebrovascular/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Activador de Tejido Plasminógeno/uso terapéutico , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Isquemia Encefálica/complicaciones , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Hospitales de Veteranos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Investigación Cualitativa , Terapia Trombolítica/efectos adversos , Activador de Tejido Plasminógeno/administración & dosificación , Activador de Tejido Plasminógeno/efectos adversos , Estados Unidos
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(10)2019 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684683

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pleural infection, including parapneumonic effusions and thoracic empyema, may complicate lower respiratory tract infections. Standard treatment of these collections in adults involves antibiotic therapy, effective drainage of infected fluid and surgical intervention if conservative management fails. Intrapleural fibrinolytic agents such as streptokinase and alteplase have been hypothesised to improve fluid drainage in complicated parapneumonic effusions and empyema and therefore improve treatment outcomes and prevent the need for thoracic surgical intervention. Intrapleural fibrinolytic agents have been used in combination with DNase, but this is beyond the scope of this review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of adding intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy to standard conservative therapy (intercostal catheter drainage and antibiotic therapy) in the treatment of complicated parapneumonic effusions and empyema. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) trials portal. We contacted trial authors for further information and requested details regarding the possibility of unpublished trials. The most recent search was conducted on 28 August 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: Parallel-group randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adult patients with post-pneumonic empyema or complicated parapneumonic effusions (excluding tuberculous effusions) who had not had prior surgical intervention or trauma comparing an intrapleural fibrinolytic agent (streptokinase, alteplase or urokinase) versus placebo or a comparison of two fibrinolytic agents. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data. We contacted study authors for further information. We used odds ratios (OR) for dichotomous data and reported 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used Cochrane's standard methodological procedures of meta-analysis. We applied the GRADE approach to summarise results and to assess the overall certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included in this review a total of 12 RCTs. Ten studies assessed fibrinolytic agents versus placebo (993 participants); one study compared streptokinase with urokinase (50 participants); and one compared alteplase versus urokinase (99 participants). The primary outcomes were death, requirement for surgical intervention, overall treatment failure and serious adverse effects. All studies were in the inpatient setting. Outcomes were measured at varying time points from hospital discharge to three months. Seven trials were at low or unclear risk of bias and two at high risk of bias due to inadequate randomisation and inappropriate study design respectively. We found no evidence of difference in overall mortality with fibrinolytic versus placebo (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.91; 8 studies, 867 participants; I² = 0%; moderate certainty of evidence). We found evidence of a reduction in surgical intervention with fibrinolysis in the same studies (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.68; 8 studies, 897 participants; I² = 51%; low certainty of evidence); and overall treatment failure (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.58; 7 studies, 769 participants; I² = 88%; very low certainty of evidence, with evidence of significant heterogeneity). We found no clear evidence of an increase in adverse effects with intrapleural fibrinolysis, although this cannot be excluded (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.36 to 4.57; low certainty of evidence). In a sensitivity analysis, the reduction in referrals for surgery and overall treatment failure with fibrinolysis disappeared when the analysis was confined to studies at low or unclear risk of bias. In a moderate-risk population (baseline 14% risk of death, 20% risk of surgery, 27% risk of treatment failure), intra-pleural fibrinolysis leads to 19 more deaths (36 fewer to 59 more), 115 fewer surgical interventions (150 fewer to 55 fewer) and 214 fewer overall treatment failures (252 fewer to 93 fewer) per 1000 people. A single study of streptokinase versus urokinase found no clear difference between the treatments for requirement for surgery (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.13 to 7.72; 50 participants; low-certainty evidence). A single study of alteplase versus urokinase showed no clear difference in requirement for surgery (OR alteplase versus urokinase 0.46, 95% CI 0.04 to 5.24) but an increased rate of adverse effects, primarily bleeding, with alteplase (OR 5.61, 95% CI 1.16 to 27.11; 99 participants; low-certainty evidence). This translated into 154 (6 to 499 more) serious adverse events with alteplase compared with urokinase per 1000 people treated. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In patients with complicated infective pleural effusion or empyema, intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy was associated with a reduction in the requirement for surgical intervention and overall treatment failure but with no evidence of change in mortality. Discordance between the negative largest trial of this therapy and other studies is of concern, however, as is an absence of significant effect when analysing low risk of bias trials only. The reasons for this difference are uncertain but may include publication bias. Intrapleural fibrinolytics may increase the rate of serious adverse events, but the evidence is insufficient to confirm or exclude this possibility.


Asunto(s)
Empiema Pleural/terapia , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapéutico , Derrame Pleural/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Drenaje , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estreptoquinasa/uso terapéutico , Activador de Tejido Plasminógeno/uso terapéutico , Activador de Plasminógeno de Tipo Uroquinasa/uso terapéutico
11.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 285, 2019 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722675

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Capsular warning syndrome (CWS) is a rare clinical syndrome, which is defined as a recurrent transient lacunar syndrome. The mechanism and clinical management of CWS remain unclear. The aim of the study was to discuss the clinical characteristics of CWS and evaluate the different outcome between rt-PA and no rt-PA therapy. METHODS: The present multicenter retrospective study involved three medical centers, and the clinical data were collected from patients with CWS between January 2013 and December 2018. The clinical characteristics of CWS were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups: rt-PA and no rt-PA groups. The therapeutic effects and prognosis of these two groups were analyzed. A good prognosis was defined as 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≤ 2. RESULTS: Our study included 72 patients, 27 patients were assigned to rt-PA group, 45 in no rt-PA group. Hypertension and dyslipidemia were the most common risk factors. The mean number of episodes before irreversible neurological impairment or the symptoms completely disappeared was five times (range: 3-11 times). A total of 58 (80.55%) patients had acute infarction lesions on the diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). The most common infarct location was the internal capsule (41,70.69%), followed by the thalamus and pons. The difference in therapeutic effects between the rt-PA, single and double antiplatelet groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). A good prognosis was observed in 61 (84.72%) patients after 3 months, in which 23 (23/27, 85.19%) patients were from the rt-PA group and 38 (38/45,84.44%) patients were from the no rt-PA group (P > 0.05). After 3 months of follow-up, two patients had recurrent ischemic stroke. CONCLUSION: The most effective treatment of CWS remains unclear. Intravenous thrombolysis is safe for CWS patients. Regardless of the high frequency of infarction in CWS patients, more than 80% patients had a favorable functional prognosis.


Asunto(s)
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapéutico , Accidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/tratamiento farmacológico , Accidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/patología , Activador de Tejido Plasminógeno/uso terapéutico , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento
12.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 300, 2019 Nov 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771530

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The benefit of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) for acute ischemic stroke is time dependent. Despite great effort, the median door-to-needle time (DNT) was 60 min at the United States stroke centers. We investigated the effect of a simple quality improvement initiative on DNT for IVT. METHODS: This is a single-center study of patients treated with IVT between 2013 and 2017. A simple quality improvement initiative was implemented in January 2015 to allow the Stroke team to manage hypertension in the emergency room, to make decision for IVT before getting blood test results unless patients were taking oral anticoagulants, and to give IVT in the CT suite. Baseline characteristics, DNT and outcomes at hospital discharge were compared between pre- and post-intervention groups. RESULTS: Ninety and 136 patients were treated with IVT in pre- and post-intervention groups, respectively. The rate of IVT was significantly higher in the post-intervention group (20% vs. 14.4%, p = 0.007). The median DNT with interquartile range (IQR) was reduced significantly by 23 min (63[53-81] vs. 40[29-53], p < 0.001) with more patients in the post-intervention group receiving IVT within 60 min (81.6% vs. 46.7%) and 45 min (64.0% vs.17.8%). There was no significant difference in symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage rate (1.5% vs. 1.1%), modified Rankin Scale 0-1 (29.4% vs. 23.3%), and hospital mortality (7.4% vs. 6.7%) between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Three easily-implementable quality improvement initiative increases IVT rate and reduces DNT significantly without increasing the rate of IVT-related complications in our comprehensive stroke center.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/administración & dosificación , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Administración Intravenosa , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Tiempo de Tratamiento
14.
Neurology ; 93(20): e1834-e1843, 2019 11 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653709

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is common practice to withhold IV thrombolysis (IVT) for acute ischemic stroke in patients with preexisting disabilities. To test the hypothesis of an association of IVT and good clinical outcome also in patients with preexisting disabilities without an increase in mortality, we analyzed data from 52,741 patients (15,317 treated with IVT) depending on prestroke Rankin Scale (pRS) score. METHODS: We performed an observational study based on a consecutive stroke registry covering 10.8 million inhabitants. The outcome at discharge of patients with stroke admitted in the time window of potential eligibility for IVT (<4.5 hours after stroke onset) was compared between patients treated and those not treated with thrombolysis, stratified by pRS score. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for favorable clinical outcome, defined as returning to the baseline pRS score or a score of 0 or 1 and mortality. Sensitivity analyses for subgroups of mildly and severely affected patients with stroke were performed, and the influence of treatment duration was assessed. RESULTS: Among included patients, IVT rates were 32% for patients with pRS scores of 0 to 1 and 20% for patients with pRS scores of 2 to 5. IVT in patients with pRS scores of 0 to 4 was associated with a higher chance of returning to the baseline pRS score (or a modified Rankin Scale score of 0/1), with ORs ranging between 1.42 (pRS score 2; 95% CI 1.16-1.73) and 1.73 (pRS score 0; 95% CI 1.61-1). The OR observed in patients with a pRS score of 5 was 0.65 (95% CI 0.25-1.70). Observed associations remained consistent in sensitivity analyses. Subgroup analyses revealed no evidence of bias due to potential floor and ceiling effects. No evidence of elevated in-hospital mortality of patients treated with thrombolysis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that IVT can be effective even in patients with severe preexisting disabilities, provided that they were not bedridden before stroke onset. Withholding IVT on the sole ground of prestroke disabilities may not be justified.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Accidente Cerebrovascular/fisiopatología , Resultado del Tratamiento
15.
Life Sci ; 236: 116889, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610199

RESUMEN

Stroke is the major cause of adult disability and the second or third leading cause of death in developed countries. The treatment options for stroke (thrombolysis or thrombectomy) are restricted to a small subset of patients with acute ischemic stroke because of the limited time for an efficacious response and the strict criteria applied to minimize the risk of cerebral hemorrhage. Attempts to develop new treatments, such as neuroprotectants, for acute ischemic stroke have been costly and time-consuming and to date have yielded disappointing results. The repurposing approved drugs known to be relatively safe, such as statins and minocycline, may provide a less costly and more rapid alternative to new drug discovery in this clinical condition. Because adequate perfusion is thought to be vital for a neuroprotectant to be effective, endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) with advanced imaging modalities offers the possibility of documenting reperfusion in occluded large cerebral vessels. An examination of established medications that possess neuroprotective characters using in a large-vessel occlusive disorder with EVT may speed the identification of new and more broadly efficacious medications for the treatment of ischemic stroke. These approaches are highlighted in this review along with a critical assessment of drug repurposing combined with reperfusion therapy as a supplementary means for halting or mitigating stroke-induced brain damage.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Hemorragia Cerebral/terapia , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Procedimientos Endovasculares/métodos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/terapia , Trombectomía/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Reperfusión , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 5406923, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565095

RESUMEN

Objectives: Unknown onset stroke (UOS) is usually excluded from intravenous thrombolysis concerning the unclear symptom onset time. Attempts have been done to use thrombolytic therapy in these patients. The current meta-analysis was done to examine the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis in UOS. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched for studies comparing thrombolysis with conservative therapy among UOSs. Data of good outcome (mRS, 0-2), mortality, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and symptomatic ICH (sICH) were extracted and analyzed using the Revman 5.2 software. Results: In total, 8 studies with 1271 subjects (542 with thrombolysis and 729 with conservative therapy) were included in this meta-analysis. The data showed that patients receiving thrombolysis had a higher incidence of 90-day good outcome (P = 0.0005) than conservative therapy. The comparison of discharge (P = 0.89) and 90-day mortality (P = 0.10) in both groups did not find any significances. The incidences of ICH (P = 0.42) and sICH (P = 0.06) were relatively comparable between the two therapies. Conclusions: Intravenous thrombolysis is a better choice for UOS patients for its efficacy and safety. In addition, pretreatment imaging assessment is beneficial for improving the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy. However, it needs more supporting evidences for clinical use in the future.


Asunto(s)
Accidente Cerebrovascular/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/mortalidad , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Administración Intravenosa/métodos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamiento farmacológico , Hemorragia Cerebral/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Accidente Cerebrovascular/mortalidad , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17331, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568020

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: The regimen of the recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is identical in every case where it is indicated in the treatment of cerebral infarction. We report a case of efficient recanalization of large arterial occlusion after rapid injection of rt-PA. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 78-year-old man was admitted with right-sided hemiplegia and global aphasia that occurred an hour ago. DIAGNOSES: His brain computed tomography (CT) revealed no hemorrhage, suggesting cerebral infarction. INTERVENTIONS: Ten percent of a total rt-PA dose was injected over 1 minute promptly. The remainder of rt-PA was designed to be infused for 60 minutes. Unexpectedly, during the study of CT angiography, administration of rt-PA was completed within 5 minutes. CT angiography showed occlusion from carotid bifurcation to the middle cerebral artery. OUTCOMES: After 2 hours of rt-PA administration, the patient began to regain strength in his right arm and leg. By the next day, he had only mild dysarthria and aphasia. Follow-up CT angiography revealed recanalized internal cervical artery and severe residual stenosis with a plaque. He was discharged without any neurologic symptoms. LESSONS: The infusion protocol of rt-PA administration is established in 1995 and has not changed. Successful recanalization of long segmental large vessel occlusion with only intravenous rt-PA is relatively low. In our case, a high concentration of rt-PA may have influenced the successful dissemination of large thrombus in the whole internal cervical artery. Our case is of significance as it raises the question of unanswered efficacy of diverse injection protocol according to thrombus size and bleeding risk.


Asunto(s)
Infarto Cerebral/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Activador de Tejido Plasminógeno/uso terapéutico , Anciano , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Inyecciones Intravenosas/métodos , Masculino , Neuroimagen , Proteínas Recombinantes , Factores de Tiempo , Activador de Tejido Plasminógeno/administración & dosificación , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
Neurol Res ; 41(11): 1034-1042, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584350

RESUMEN

Objectives: To investigate the thrombolysis with recombinant human prourokinase (rhPro-UK) on thromboembolic stroke in rats at different therapeutic time windows (TTW). Methods: Rats were subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion. RhPro-UK and positive control drugs rt-PA,UK were administered 3 h, 4.5 h, 6 h after inducing thromboem-bolic stroke. Neurological deficit scoring (NDS) was evaluated at 6 h and 24 h after the treatment. The lesion volume in cerebral hemispheres was measured by MRI scanning machine after 6 h of thrombolysis, and the infarct volume was measured by TTC stain, together with hemorrhagic volume quantified by a spectrophotometric assay after 24 h of thrombolysis. Results: RhPro-UK 10, 20 × 104 U/kg significantly improved the NDS after cerebral thromboembolism in rats at 3 h, 4.5 h TTW, and at the 6 h TTW, the NDS was improved by 28.0% (P = 0.0690) and 29.2% (P = 0.0927) at 6 h and 24 h after rhPro-UK 20 ×104 U/kg administration, respectively. RhPro-UK 10, 20 × 104 U/kg significantly reduced the brain lesions measured by MRI at 3 h and 4.5 h TTW. RhPro-UK 10, 20 × 104 U/kg significantly reduced the cerebral infarction measured by TTC at 3 h, 4.5 h TTW. There was no increase in cerebral hemorrhage compared with untreated group after rhPro-UK administration. Conclusions: RhPro-UK had an obvious therapeutic effect on ischemic stroke caused by thrombosis, and could be started within 4.5 h TTW with less side effects of cerebral hemorrhage than that of UK.


Asunto(s)
Hemorragia Cerebral/tratamiento farmacológico , Embolia Intracraneal/tratamiento farmacológico , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico , Activador de Tejido Plasminógeno/farmacología , Animales , Hemorragia Cerebral/patología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Infarto de la Arteria Cerebral Media/complicaciones , Infarto de la Arteria Cerebral Media/tratamiento farmacológico , Embolia Intracraneal/complicaciones , Masculino , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Tromboembolia/complicaciones , Tromboembolia/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Factores de Tiempo
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17628, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626146

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of anticoagulation therapy for stroke prevention in older atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation therapy in this population. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase databases were systematically searched for studies reporting the effect of anticoagulation therapy in older patients with AF and CKD. The risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were regarded as the risk estimates. A random-effects model selected was to evaluate the treatment outcomes. The presentations were based on the Preferred Reporting Items for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement. RESULTS: A total of 7 studies with 24,794 older patients with AF and CKD were included. The follow-up of the included studies ranged from 0.9 to 9.0 years. In older patients with no dialysis, compared with nonanticoagulants, anticoagulants reduced the risk of all-cause death (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.54-0.79), but had comparable risks of ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA, RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.46-1.79) and bleeding (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.86-1.60). In older patients with dialysis, compared with nonanticoagulants, anticoagulants increased the risk of bleeding (RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.74), but had similar risks of ischemic stroke/TIA (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.88-1.58) and death (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.60-1.27). CONCLUSION: Compared with nonanticoagulation, anticoagulation therapy is associated with a reduced risk of death in older AF patients with nondialysis, but an increased risk of bleeding in older patients with dialysis.


Asunto(s)
Anticoagulantes/uso terapéutico , Fibrilación Atrial/tratamiento farmacológico , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Accidente Cerebrovascular/prevención & control , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Fibrilación Atrial/complicaciones , Humanos , Diálisis Renal , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/terapia , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
20.
J Clin Neurosci ; 69: 1-6, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521472

RESUMEN

Thrombolysis-induced haemorrhagic transformation is the most challenging preventable complication in thrombolytic therapy. This condition is often associated with poor functional outcome and long-term disease burden. Statins, or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, are controversially suggested to either increase or decrease the odds of better primary outcomes compared to treatment without statins after thrombolysis in patients or animals; statins are thought to act by influencing lipid levels, the inflammatory response, blood brain barrier permeability and cell apoptosis. Statins are the cornerstone of secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the role of statins in acute phase stroke, and the necessity of their use, remains unclear. Currently, whether statins can increase the risk of haemorrhagic transformation is of great concern for patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Herein, we thoroughly summarize the recent advances that address whether the administration of statins in ischaemic stroke increases haemorrhagic transformation in patients or animals who received thrombolysis at an early stage and the related mechanisms. This review will provide more clinical and preclinical evidence to address questions regarding the exercise of caution in the use of high dose statins in patients who received thrombolysis and if low dose statins may be beneficial in decreasing thrombolysis-induced haemorrhagic transformation.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/administración & dosificación , Hemorragias Intracraneales/etiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etiología , Terapia Trombolítica/efectos adversos , Animales , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Accidente Cerebrovascular/patología , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Activador de Tejido Plasminógeno/efectos adversos
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