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1.
Radiologe ; 60(1): 6-14, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915840

RESUMEN

METHODICAL ISSUE: Machine learning (ML) algorithms have an increasingly relevant role in radiology tackling tasks such as the automatic detection and segmentation of diagnosis-relevant markers, the quantification of progression and response, and their prediction in individual patients. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: ML algorithms are relevant for all image acquisition techniques from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to ultrasound. However, different modalities result in different challenges with respect to standardization and variability. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: ML algorithms are increasingly able to analyze longitudinal data for the training of prediction models. This is relevant since it enables the use of comprehensive information for predicting individual progression and response, and the associated support of treatment decisions by ML models. PERFORMANCE: The quality of detection and segmentation algorithms of lesions has reached an acceptable level in several areas. The accuracy of prediction models is still increasing, but is dependent on the availability of representative training data. ACHIEVEMENTS: The development of ML algorithms in radiology is progressing although many solutions are still at a validation stage. It is accompanied by a parallel and increasingly interlinked development of basic methods and techniques which will gradually be put into practice in radiology. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Two factors will impact the relevance of ML in radiological practice: the thorough validation of algorithms and solutions, and the creation of representative diverse data for the training and validation in a realistic context.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Automático , Radiología , Algoritmos , Humanos , Terminología como Asunto
2.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 576-584, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985665

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prior studies demonstrate that social media are used by plastic surgeons to educate and engage. The hashtag #PlasticSurgery has been studied previously and is embraced by American plastic surgeons and journals; however, no studies have examined its use or adoption across Europe. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 800 tweets containing the words "plastic surgery" or the hashtag #PlasticSurgery in four of the most spoken European languages worldwide excluding English (Spanish, #CirugiaPlastica; French, #ChirurgiePlastique; Portuguese, #CirurgiaPlastica; and German, #PlastischeChirurgie) was performed. The following were assessed: identity of author, subject matter, use of the hashtag #PlasticSurgery in each language, whether posts by surgeons and academic institutions were self-promotional or educational, and whether a link to a journal article or a reference in PubMed was provided. RESULTS: Seventeen percent and 3 percent of analyzed tweets came from plastic surgeons or academic institutions, respectively; only 17.5 percent of them were for educational purpose. None of them had any digital link to a peer-reviewed article or a scientific journal. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the low participation of plastic surgeons and academic institutions in social media (especially for education) in four of the major world languages. Social media should be considered in Europe as an opportunity to increase leadership, improve education, and spread knowledge of plastic surgery by board-certified plastic surgeons.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/estadística & datos numéricos , Liderazgo , Cirugía Plástica/educación , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Lenguaje , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Cirugía Plástica/estadística & datos numéricos , Terminología como Asunto
3.
Int Endod J ; 53(2): 232-249, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520403

RESUMEN

A systematic review aims to answer a focussed research question through a structured review of the evidence, using a predefined methodology, which often includes a meta-analysis. A meta-analysis is a statistical method used to combine the effect estimates from the individual studies included in a systematic review. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are positioned at the highest level in the hierarchy of clinical evidence. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was introduced in 2009 to help authors improve the quality and reliability of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Recently, the volume of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the field of Endodontology has increased; however, the quality of the published manuscripts has been reported to be sub-optimal, which does not take account of the systematic reviews that were rejected because of more obvious deficiencies. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive glossary of terminology commonly used in systematic reviews and meta-analyses in an attempt to provide easily understood definitions and explanations to assist authors when reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses and to allow those wishing to read them to become better informed.


Asunto(s)
Metaanálisis como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Terminología como Asunto , Endodoncia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
4.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 17(1): 9-21, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358978

RESUMEN

Patients with known cardiovascular disease who have not had a recent acute event are often referred to as having stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The concept of 'stable' CAD is misleading for two important reasons: the continuing risks of cardiovascular events over the longer term and the diverse spectrum of powerful risk characteristics. The risks of cardiovascular events are frequently underestimated and continue to exist, despite current standards of care for secondary prevention, including lifestyle changes, optimal medical therapy, myocardial revascularization and the use of antiplatelet agents to limit thrombosis. In dispelling the myth of 'stable' CAD, we explore the pathophysiology of the disease and the relative contribution of plaque and systemic factors to cardiovascular events. A broader concept of the vulnerable patient, not just the vulnerable plaque, takes into account the diversity and future risks of atherothrombotic events. We also evaluate new and ongoing research into medical therapies aimed at further reducing the risks of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic - but not stable - atherothrombotic disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/clasificación , Terminología como Asunto , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/fisiopatología , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/terapia , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Supervivencia sin Progresión , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
5.
Arch Ital Biol ; 157(2-3): 76-88, 2019 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821531

RESUMEN

Ultrastructural evaluation of myelin coat helps to understand the possible background of pathological changes leading to deterioration or complete loss of nerve functions. A number of terms were previously introduced to describe the fine structural changes in myelin under various conditions. We believe that using a common terminology will be helpful to interpret the structure/function relationship in neurological disorders empowering the diagnosis and possible therapeutical approaches. In this paper, we present examples of ultrastructural changes in myelin during myelination, demyelination, re-myelination and dysmyelination processes and we reviewed the terminology previously used.We tried to include all studies reporting ultrastructural findings with no limitation to the experimental conditions, the species used and the disorders. The terminology used to describe the structural findings included compacted myelin, partially compacted myelin, noncompacted myelin, redundancy (hypermyelination, tomacula, myelinosome), splitting, complete circular splitting, myelin degradation, concentric lamellar bodies (myelin figures), loss of myelin lamellae, polyaxonal Schwann cells and necrotic cell debris.Ultrastructural data described in this paper aimed to provide a guide for future studies. We concluded that the evaluation of ultrastructural changes in any neurological disorder is greatly valuable for a better understanding of pathological and physiological changes occured. We also believe that supporting the ultrastructural findings with quantitative methods in the future will be of great value.


Asunto(s)
Vaina de Mielina , Células de Schwann , Terminología como Asunto
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 29, 2019 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823019

RESUMEN

Industrial parks, which are characterized as a group of industrial businesses designed to meet the concomitant demands of different organizations within an area, have played an important role in the national development strategies of many countries. Industrial parks have received increasingly more attention over time. Nevertheless, few scholars have visually analyzed global scientific data. This paper quantitatively and visually examines global academic research papers on industrial parks from 1987 to 2016 by using a bibliometric analysis. A total of 1823 papers from Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index databases were analyzed. The distributions of authorship, keywords, countries/territories, and institutes were generated. According to data from Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index databases, the top five most productive authors (i.e., Geng Y. with 22 articles, Fujita T. with 17, El-Halwagi M.M. with 15, Zhang Y. with 14, and Tan R.R. with 12) have contributed significantly to industrial park research. Papers on industrial park research have mainly been from China, the USA, and Taiwan. The dominant keywords from industrial park research from 1987 to 2016 are "China", "system", "heavy metal", and "eco-industrial park". These keywords will be the hot topics in industrial park research in the future. The research findings can provide a reference for understanding the research development process and trends in analyses in the field of industrial parks.


Asunto(s)
Bibliometría , Instalaciones Industriales y de Fabricación/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación/tendencias , Terminología como Asunto
8.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(6): 10-13, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825325

RESUMEN

The work was devoted to the definition of a mechanical injury in the forensic medical literature. The study of the forensic medical terminology is important because of the absence of a uniform understanding of such terms as 'injury', 'wound', 'wound canal', and 'wounding' by different authors. Different approaches of authors towards the definition of terms and concepts cause confusion in the scientific knowledge, thus breaking its orderliness and continuity. The authors of the present article invite specialists to discuss some definitions referring to a mechanical injury.


Asunto(s)
Heridas y Traumatismos , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Terminología como Asunto
10.
Tech Vasc Interv Radiol ; 22(4): 100628, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864528

RESUMEN

Ongoing discovery regarding the origin and treatment of vascular anomalies requires standardized nomenclature which itself must undergo iterative updating. This article introduces the 2018 International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification, emphasizing the biologic basis of vascular anomalies, summarizing the key features of commonly encountered entities, and serving as a foundation for subsequent articles presented herein. Vascular tumors are discussed to highlight their distinction from vascular malformations which will receive greater attention with respect to management and technical considerations within the issue.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Tejido Vascular/clasificación , Neoplasias de Tejido Vascular/diagnóstico por imagen , Radiólogos , Terminología como Asunto , Malformaciones Vasculares/clasificación , Malformaciones Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Neoplasias de Tejido Vascular/terapia , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Malformaciones Vasculares/terapia
12.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(4): 57, 2019 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768774

RESUMEN

Translational research is a buzzword which dominates discussions about the quality, the utilization, and the benefits of (bio)medical research. Yet, although translational research has become a prominent topic, no commonly agreed definition of this terminology exists. Instead, experts from different contexts such as biomedical research, clinical practice or nursing discuss translational research in multiple ways depending on how they define the problem that translational research is supposed to be the solution to. In this paper, we do not seek to find a 'correct' definition of translational research, but instead ask how actors using this terminology for describing their own research make sense of it. To do so, we asked three questions: Which actors are engaged in the debate about translational research? What kind of different meanings of translational research exist? And, which actors refer to which meaning of translational research when using the term? In answering these questions, we highlight the role this terminology plays in defining what medical science is about today.


Asunto(s)
Investigación en Medicina Traslacional/métodos , Humanos , Terminología como Asunto
13.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(4): 55, 2019 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749015

RESUMEN

This article elaborates on McShea and Brandon's idea that drift is unlike the rest of the evolutionary factors because it is constitutive rather than imposed on the evolutionary process. I show that the way they spelled out this idea renders it inadequate and is the reason why it received some (good) objections. I propose a different way in which their point could be understood, that rests on two general distinctions. The first is a distinction between the underlying mathematical apparatus used to formulate a theory and a concept proposed by that theory. With the aid of a formal reconstruction of a population genetic model, I show that drift belongs to the first category. That is, that drift is constitutive of population genetics in the same sense that multiplication is constitutive in classical mechanics, or that circle is constitutive in Ptolemaic astronomy. The second distinction is between eliminating a concept from a theory and setting its value to zero. I will show that even though drift can be set to zero just like the rest of the evolutionary factors (as others have noted in their criticism of McShea and Brandon), eliminating drift is much harder than eliminating those other factors, since it would require changing the entire mathematical apparatus of standard population genetic theory. I conclude by drawing some other implications from the proposed formal reconstruction.


Asunto(s)
Flujo Genético , Genética de Población/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Selección Genética , Terminología como Asunto
14.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 98(5): 104-107, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701938

RESUMEN

The paper contains some measures of optimization of dental (mostly implantological) terminology. The goal of the research was to validate the rational use of modern international dental implantological lexicon. A critical analysis of Russian national analogues was conducted to achieve this goal. Analytical-theoretical and empirical research methods were used.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Terminología como Asunto , Humanos , Federación de Rusia
17.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(12): 3967-3968, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665099

RESUMEN

A recent publication has documented the fact that when the nomenclatural types of the genera Hungateiclostridium Zhang et al. 2018 [Hungateiclostridium thermocellum (Viljoen et al. 1926) Zhang et al. 2018], Acetivibrio Patel et al. 1980 (Acetivibrio cellulolyticus Patel et al. 1980) and Herbivorax Koeck et al. 2016 (Herbivorax saccincola Koeck et al. 2016) are treated as being members of the same genus, i.e. Hungateiclostridium Zhang et al. 2018, Acetivibrio Patel et al. 1980 and Herbivorax Koeck et al. 2016 are treated as heterotypic synonyms, the name at the rank of genus to be used is Acetivibrio Patel et al. 1980 and Hungateiclostridium Zhang et al. 2018 is an illegitimate name. In a previous publication this led to the replacement of the genus name Hungateiclostridium Zhang et al. 2018 in the combinations Hungateiclostridium aldrichii (Yang et al. 1990) Zhang et al. 2018, Hungateiclostridium alkalicellulosi (Zhilina et al. 2006) Zhang et al. 2018, Hungateiclostridium clariflavum (Shiratori et al. 2009) Zhang et al. 2018, Hungateiclostridium straminisolvens (Kato et al. 2004) Zhang et al. 2018, Hungateiclostridium saccincola (Koeck et al. 2016) Zhang et al. 2018, Hungateiclostridium cellulolyticus (Patel et al. 1980) Zhang et al. 2018 and Hungateiclostridium thermocellum (Viljoen et al. 1926) Zhang et al. 2018. Given the fact that the name Hungateiclostridium Zhang et al. 2018 is illegitimate, Hungateiclostridium mesophilum Rettenmaier et al. 2019 must follow the same fate as other members of the genus and the illegitimate genus name replaced by the genus name Acetivibrio Patel et al. 1980, creating the combination Acetivibrio mesophilus (Rettenmaier et al. 2019).


Asunto(s)
Clostridiaceae/clasificación , Filogenia , Terminología como Asunto
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3151-3156, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602866

RESUMEN

"Qi medicinal herbs" in China refers to a kind of regional national folk herbs related to the treatment of five labors and seven injuries,the last word of which is "Qi". Our study is to sort out and standardize the name and basic confused varieties through the establishment of " Qi medicinal herbs" VFP information database. " Qi medicinal herbs" variety sorting model of " literature research-variety survey-data mining-spatial distribution" was developed by means of literature analysis which the names and varieties of " Qi medicinal herbs" in the literature were summarized and sorted out. The relationship between the distribution of " Qi medicinal herbs" resources and the use of ethnic groups were visualized by Cytoscape 2. 8. 0 software. The information database of " Qi medicinal herbs" involved in 230 kinds of medicinal materials which including 211 species of plants( including varieties) from 66 families. Medicinal materials standard in China have 9 kinds of " Qi medicinal herbs". Among them,there are 31 kinds of " Qi medicinal herbs" with the confusion of " the different names of the same" and " the different substance of the same names". The most used ethnic groups are Tujia,Qiang and Miao. The main efficacy is clearing heat and detoxification,dispelling wind and removing dampness,etc.,and the main treatment is for injury,rheumatic arthralgia and so on. Names and varieties of " Qi medicinal herbs" among Chinese ethnic groups and folk are standardized and sorted out,which is served to promotethe " Qi medicinal herbs" reasonable protection and utilization of resources,and provide effective reference for exploring the information technology and geographical distribution of ethnic medicine and standardizing clinical medication.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/normas , Plantas Medicinales/clasificación , China , Humanos , Medicina China Tradicional , Qi , Terminología como Asunto
20.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(4): 46, 2019 Oct 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624931

RESUMEN

This paper addresses early modern botanical nomenclature, the practices of identifying and publishing synonyms in particular, as a collaborative "information science". Before Linnaean nomenclature became the lingua franca of botany, it was inevitable that, over time, the same plant was given several names by different people, which created confusion and made communication among botanists increasingly difficult. What names counted as synonyms and actually referred to the same plant had to be identified by meticulously comparing living and dried specimens of this and similar plants as well as relevant illustrations und descriptions in the botanical literature. Identifying synonyms required and generated an ever-expanding mass of data, which was used continuously to adjust and rearrange plant names. Despite the greatest care, judgements on synonyms were not definitive, which meant that published lists of synonyms for individual species of plants were in a state of flux and had to be constantly updated, corrected, and rewritten. This required long-term international collaborations, the accumulated results of which were not published once but consecutively, in augmented and corrected editions of a book. As a result of this networked approach, synonyms are networked names that reflect the epistemic interconnectedness of the botanical community. These questions will be discussed with a focus on the Dutch botanist Johannes Burman (1706-1779), who placed synonyms at the centre of his work as posthumous editor-and co-author-of the botanical manuscripts that were left behind by other botanists.


Asunto(s)
Botánica/historia , Clasificación/métodos , Plantas/clasificación , Comunicación Académica/historia , Terminología como Asunto , Europa (Continente) , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Países Bajos
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