Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 54.575
Filtrar
1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(6): E11-E13, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055302

RESUMEN

The name of the study should properly reflect the actual conduct and analysis of the study. This short paper provides guidance on how to properly name the study design. The first distinction is between a trial (intervention given to patients to study its effect) and an observational study. For observational studies, it should further be decided whether it is cross-sectional or whether follow-up time is taken into account (cohort or case-control study). The distinction prospective-retrospective has two disadvantages: prospective is often seen as marker of higher quality, which is not necessarily true; there is no unifying definition that makes a proper distinction between retrospective and prospective possible.


Asunto(s)
Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/clasificación , Estudios Transversales/clasificación , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto/clasificación , Terminología como Asunto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Proyectos de Investigación , Estudios Retrospectivos
2.
Amyloid ; 27(4): 217-222, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100054

RESUMEN

The ISA Nomenclature Committee met electronically before and directly after the XVII ISA International Symposium on Amyloidosis, which, unfortunately, had to be virtual in September 2020 due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic instead of a planned meeting in Tarragona in March. In addition to confirmation of basic nomenclature, several additional concepts were discussed, which are used in scientific amyloid literature. Among such concepts are cytotoxic oligomers, protofibrils, primary and secondary nucleation, seeding and cross-seeding, amyloid signature proteins, and amyloid plaques. Recommendations for their use are given. Definitions of amyloid and amyloidosis are confirmed. Possible novel human amyloid fibril proteins, appearing as 'classical' in vivo amyloid, were discussed. It was decided to include fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (amyloid protein: AEFEMP1), which appears as localised amyloid in portal veins. There are several possible amyloid proteins under investigation, and these are included in a new Table.


Asunto(s)
Amiloide/clasificación , Proteínas Amiloidogénicas/clasificación , Amiloidosis/clasificación , Terminología como Asunto , Amiloide/genética , Amiloide/metabolismo , Proteínas Amiloidogénicas/genética , Proteínas Amiloidogénicas/metabolismo , Amiloidosis/diagnóstico , Amiloidosis/genética , Amiloidosis/patología , Congresos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Educación a Distancia/organización & administración , Expresión Génica , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral
3.
Zootaxa ; 4820(1): zootaxa.4820.1.10, 2020 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056088

RESUMEN

Taxon names are at the core of communication related to biodiversity. Thus, systems that regulate such names should prevent unnecessary changes. Unfortunately, the current regulatory codes have some articles that produce confusion or, even, generate name instability. To promote nomenclatural stability, while maintaining a system that effectively conveys information about biological diversity and its evolution, we argue in favor of emendations to the current International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). We propose that taxon names should be created within an evolutionary framework; ideally, this would mean including a phylogenetic tree or, at the very least, formulating a hypothesis in words based on explicit arguments (homologous traits) for the evolutionary relatedness of taxa, avoiding subjective perceptions. Additionally, we consider that some relatively minor changes of the ICZN would greatly increase name stability; the most relevant modifications that would facilitate long-term stability are: (i) immutability of the species epithet of species names, (ii) intercalation of unranked taxa between formal Linnaean ranks, (iii) elimination of homonyms in taxon names at the genus-group level, and (iv) inclusion of flexible phylogenetic definitions when supraspecific taxa are named.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Terminología como Asunto , Animales , Fenotipo , Filogenia
4.
Zootaxa ; 4768(1): zootaxa.4768.1.1, 2020 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056532

RESUMEN

The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, or Commission) considered amendments to Articles of its Constitution (ICZN 1999a) at a special session in Singapore, convened on June 3-7, 2019. During this meeting, Commissioners also planned revisions to the Bylaws, the current International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999b, 2003, 2012, 2017) and ZooBank user policies.


Asunto(s)
Terminología como Asunto , Animales
5.
6.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200798, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111783

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to describe the theoretical construction process of nursing process support documents in COVID-19 care scenarios. METHODS: an experience report of the joint activity of the Brazilian Nursing Process Research Network (Rede de Pesquisa em Processo de Enfermagem) composed of Higher Education and Health Institution researchers in Brazil. RESULTS: five instruments were organized collectively, involving the elements of nursing practice (nursing diagnoses, outcomes and interventions) in assistance for community; for patients (with suspected or mild, moderate, and critical COVID-19 and residents in Nursing Homes); for nursing workers' health support, also subsidizing registration and documentation during the COVID-19 pandemic. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: valuing the phenomena manifested by families/communities, patients and health professionals is essential for early detection, intervention, and prevention of diseases.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/enfermería , Proceso de Enfermería , Investigación en Enfermería , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/enfermería , Factores de Edad , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Enfermedad Crítica/enfermería , Hogares para Ancianos , Humanos , Diagnóstico de Enfermería , Casas de Salud , Personal de Enfermería , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Terminología como Asunto
7.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 3079-3083, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025196

RESUMEN

On several occasions over the past century it has been proposed that Latinized (Linnaean) binomial names (LBs) should be used for the formal names of virus species, and the opinions expressed in the early debates are still valid. The use of LBs would be sensible for the current Taxonomy if confined to the names of the specific and generic taxa of viruses of which some basic biological properties are known (e.g. ecology, hosts and virions); there is no advantage in filling the literature with formal names for partly described viruses or virus-like gene sequences. The ICTV should support the time-honoured convention that LBs are only used with biological (phylogenetic) classifications. Recent changes have left the ICTV Taxonomy and its Code uncoordinated, and its aims and audience uncertain.


Asunto(s)
Virología/tendencias , Virus/clasificación , Clasificación/métodos , Terminología como Asunto
9.
OMICS ; 24(11): 645-648, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986539

RESUMEN

Health futures are not preordained, nor are they entirely predictable by extrapolation from the past. This is particularly relevant in an era of unprecedented uncertainties converging from the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple zoonotic outbreaks for the past two decades, and the climate crisis currently unfolding. Moreover, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services cautioned in 2019 that around one million animal and plant species are threatened with extinction. Human existence and medical innovations are closely intertwined with preservation and sustainability of biodiversity. COVID-19 is a "dry run" for future ecological crises in the 21st century. We need new frames and ways of conceptualizing planetary health, biodiversity futures, and their principled governance post-COVID-19. In this article, I propose "One Nature" as a critically informed planetary health governance frame, and outline its key conceptual pillars. One Nature aims to transcend the socially constructed binaries between humans versus nature, humans versus nonhuman animals or inanimate objects in nature, among other false binaries, and thus, envisions nature as an overlapping, interdependent, and co-constitutive continuum among life forms and ecosystems. One Nature also recognizes animal sentience and agency of nonhuman animals. In doing so, the One Nature governance frame places a firm emphasis on the internal levers of social change and the human values essential to cultivate collective action to curb unchecked extraction of nature that placed human societies in harm's way for future health crises. One Nature is a governance frame and reflexive value system that can be transformative to correct the astigmatism we have long suffered, from the ways in which we have conceived, enacted on, and extracted the natural systems over the centuries. All in all, One Nature supports planetary health and biodiversity through a new vocabulary and post-anthropocentric critical governance lens, and shall help formulate progressive policies to prevent zoonotic outbreaks and future ecological crises.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/tendencias , Salud Global/tendencias , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Telemedicina/tendencias , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Animales , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Biodiversidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Ecosistema , Salud Global/ética , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Política , Justicia Social/tendencias , Teoría Social , Terminología como Asunto
10.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(9): 5172-5176, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915125

RESUMEN

The original type strains of Agrobacterium radiobacter and Agrobacterium tumefaciens recorded in the eighth edition of Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology published in 1974 were NCIB 9042T and ATCC 4720T, respectively. However, in the list of the valid names of bacteria compiled in 1980, both strains were changed, A. radiobacter NCIB 9042T to ATCC 19358T and A. tumefaciens ATCC 4720T to ATCC 23308T. These changes were unjustified, particularly in the case of A. tumefaciens whose type strain was replaced by another strain from the same collection, although the original type strain ATCC 4720T was never lost and it is currently available in several culture collections. Therefore, we request that the type strain of A. tumefaciens be corrected from ATCC 23308T to ATCC 4720T.


Asunto(s)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/clasificación , Filogenia , Terminología como Asunto
11.
Neuron ; 107(6): 1071-1079.e2, 2020 09 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931755

RESUMEN

Drosophila melanogaster is an established model for neuroscience research with relevance in biology and medicine. Until recently, research on the Drosophila brain was hindered by the lack of a complete and uniform nomenclature. Recognizing this, Ito et al. (2014) produced an authoritative nomenclature for the adult insect brain, using Drosophila as the reference. Here, we extend this nomenclature to the adult thoracic and abdominal neuromeres, the ventral nerve cord (VNC), to provide an anatomical description of this major component of the Drosophila nervous system. The VNC is the locus for the reception and integration of sensory information and involved in generating most of the locomotor actions that underlie fly behaviors. The aim is to create a nomenclature, definitions, and spatial boundaries for the Drosophila VNC that are consistent with other insects. The work establishes an anatomical framework that provides a powerful tool for analyzing the functional organization of the VNC.


Asunto(s)
Drosophila melanogaster/citología , Ganglios de Invertebrados/citología , Red Nerviosa/citología , Neuronas/clasificación , Terminología como Asunto , Animales , Linaje de la Célula , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiología , Ganglios de Invertebrados/fisiología , Red Nerviosa/fisiología , Neuronas/citología , Neuronas/fisiología
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(4): 1051-1068, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936878

RESUMEN

There is a lack of focus on the protective health effects of phytochemicals in dietary guidelines. Although a number of chemical libraries and databases contain dietary phytochemicals belonging to the plant metabolome, they are not entirely relevant to human health because many constituents are extensively metabolized within the body following ingestion. This is especially apparent for the highly abundant dietary (poly)phenols, for which the situation is compounded by confusion regarding their bioavailability and metabolism, partially because of the variety of nomenclatures and trivial names used to describe compounds arising from microbial catabolism in the gastrointestinal tract. This confusion, which is perpetuated in online chemical/metabolite databases, will hinder future discovery of bioactivities and affect the establishment of future dietary guidelines if steps are not taken to overcome these issues. In order to resolve this situation, a nomenclature system for phenolic catabolites and their human phase II metabolites is proposed in this article and the basis of its format outlined. Previous names used in the literature are cited along with the recommended nomenclature, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry terminology, and, where appropriate, Chemical Abstracts Service numbers, InChIKey, and accurate mass.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Polifenoles/metabolismo , Terminología como Asunto , Humanos , Isomerismo , Polifenoles/administración & dosificación
13.
Health Educ Behav ; 47(6): 870-879, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911985

RESUMEN

On March 8, 2020, there was a 650% increase in Twitter retweets using the term "Chinese virus" and related terms. On March 9, there was an 800% increase in the use of these terms in conservative news media articles. Using data from non-Asian respondents of the Project Implicit "Asian Implicit Association Test" from 2007-2020 (n = 339,063), we sought to ascertain if this change in media tone increased bias against Asian Americans. Local polynomial regression and interrupted time-series analyses revealed that Implicit Americanness Bias-or the subconscious belief that European American individuals are more "American" than Asian American individuals-declined steadily from 2007 through early 2020 but reversed trend and began to increase on March 8, following the increase in stigmatizing language in conservative media outlets. The trend reversal in bias was more pronounced among conservative individuals. This research provides evidence that the use of stigmatizing language increased subconscious beliefs that Asian Americans are "perpetual foreigners." Given research that perpetual foreigner bias can beget discriminatory behavior and that experiencing discrimination is associated with adverse mental and physical health outcomes, this research sounds an alarm about the effects of stigmatizing media on the health and welfare of Asian Americans.


Asunto(s)
Americanos Asiáticos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Racismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Terminología como Asunto , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Estereotipo , Estados Unidos
14.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(704): 1544-1547, 2020 Sep 02.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880109

RESUMEN

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a spectrum of hepatic pathology ranging from non-alcoholic fatty liver, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) occasionally complicated with hepatic fibrosis or even cirrhosis. In order to propose a diagnosis with positive criteria, a panel of experts recently proposed the use of an alternative nomenclature, metabolic-dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) whose use remains debated. In addition, in Switzerland and elsewhere, there is strong epidemiological growth of NAFLD. The next years will probably see the approval of new therapies for NAFLD/NASH but, at present, management remains focused on lifestyle interventions and joint monitoring by the primary care physician and, when necessary, the specialist.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Terminología como Asunto , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/clasificación , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/diagnóstico , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/epidemiología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/terapia , Suiza
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21714, 2020 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872051

RESUMEN

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, yet it is inconsistently defined, preventing accurate estimation of its incidence and identification of risk factors. Here we began to explore a unified definition of PPH that may be valid for vaginal delivery and cesarean section.Medical records of women who underwent vaginal delivery or cesarean section at our tertiary medical center between January and December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients who delivered by each route were compared in terms of PPH incidence and risk factors depending on different blood loss cut-off values.A total of 560 vaginal deliveries and 393 cesarean sections were analyzed. Vaginal deliveries were associated with significantly greater blood loss based on change of hemoglobin level, but significantly lower blood loss based on clinical estimation. When PPH was defined as blood loss ≥500 ml based on change of hemoglobin level, its incidence was 57.7% for vaginal deliveries and 28.2% for cesarean sections. The corresponding incidences were 15.4% and 3.3% when PPH was defined as blood loss ≥1000 ml based on change of hemoglobin levels. Independent risk factors for PPH in vaginal deliveries were lateral perineotomy (OR 2.835, 95%CI 1.694-4.743), suturing by a junior physician (OR 3.456, 95%CI 2.005-5.956), and long time from delivery of placenta to return to the recovery room (OR 1.013, 95%CI 1.003-1.022). A risk factor for PPH in cesarean sections was a long time from delivery of the fetus until the end of the operation.PPH is a significantly underestimated obstetric problem, especially in vaginal deliveries. Regardless of delivery route, hemoglobin-based blood loss of 500 ml and 1000 ml may be useful, respectively, as early warning and diagnostic cut-off values.


Asunto(s)
Cesárea/estadística & datos numéricos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Hemorragia Posparto/epidemiología , Adulto , Cesárea/efectos adversos , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Hemorragia Posparto/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Posparto/etiología , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Terminología como Asunto
17.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008063, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966274

RESUMEN

The explosive growth in semiconductor integrated circuits was made possible in large part by design automation software. The design and/or analysis of synthetic and natural circuits in living cells could be made more scalable using the same approach. We present a compiler which converts standard representations of chemical reaction networks and circuits into hardware configurations that can be used to simulate the network on specialized cytomorphic hardware. The compiler also creates circuit-level models of the target configuration, which enhances the versatility of the compiler and enables the validation of its functionality without physical experimentation with the hardware. We show that this compiler can translate networks comprised of mass-action kinetics, classic enzyme kinetics (Michaelis-Menten, Briggs-Haldane, and Botts-Morales formalisms), and genetic repressor kinetics, thereby allowing a large class of models to be transformed into a hardware representation. Rule-based models are particularly well-suited to this approach, as we demonstrate by compiling a MAP kinase model. Development of specialized hardware and software for simulating biological networks has the potential to enable the simulation of larger kinetic models than are currently feasible or allow the parallel simulation of many smaller networks with better performance than current simulation software.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Biológicos , Semiconductores , Silicio/química , Cinética , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Programas Informáticos , Terminología como Asunto
18.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 3023-3072, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888050

RESUMEN

In March 2020, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. At the genus rank, 20 new genera were added, two were deleted, one was moved, and three were renamed. At the species rank, 160 species were added, four were deleted, ten were moved and renamed, and 30 species were renamed. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.


Asunto(s)
Mononegavirales/clasificación , Terminología como Asunto
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(10): 5594-5595, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956033

RESUMEN

The Senate of The University of Queensland, on the recommendation of the Executive Board of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, is pleased to present the van Niel International Prize for Studies in Bacterial Systematics for the triennium 2017-2020 to Dr Tanja Woyke in recognition of her contributions made to the field of bacterial systematics. The award, established in 1986 by Professor V. B. D. Skerman of The University of Queensland, honours the contribution of scholarship in the field of microbiology by Professor Cornelis Bernardus van Niel.


Asunto(s)
Distinciones y Premios , Bacterias/clasificación , Microbiología/historia , Historia del Siglo XXI , Queensland , Terminología como Asunto
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA