Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.371
Filtrar
1.
Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech ; 87(1): 62-67, 2020.
Artículo en Checo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131974

RESUMEN

Recently, there has been an apparent increase in terrorism-related incidents. The security experts believe that the risk of terrorist attacks cannot be fully ruled out in the Czech Republic either. For this reason, it is appropriate to obtain information from regions with more experience with terrorism and to learn from their mistakes. Based on the analysis of terrorist attacks in Madrid (2004), Israel (2001-2012) and Paris (2015) and our own experience gained during the humanitarian missions in Libya, Syria, Iraq and Ukraine, adequate recommendations for crisis management are presented. An integral part of the preparedness is also a regular training of activation of disaster management plan and simulation of reaction to a mass casualty incident. Key words: mass casualty incident, terrorist attack, disaster management plan.


Asunto(s)
Intervención en la Crisis (Psiquiatría) , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa , Terrorismo , República Checa , Humanos
4.
J Relig Health ; 59(1): 428-430, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848801

RESUMEN

The Easter 2019 bombings in Sri Lanka signified how religious frictions could result in violence whose mental health impacts linger. Against the backdrop of nation-wide trauma due to a three-decade-long civil war and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the mental health consequences of the bombings in the context of Sri Lanka's history remain unknown, and likely underdiagnosed and undertreated. In this philosophical exploration, a medical student of Sri Lankan descent grapples with these issues by untangling his own connections to the island.


Asunto(s)
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Salud Mental , Terrorismo , Tsunamis , Violencia , Guerra , Humanos , Océano Índico , Religión , Sri Lanka , Estrés Psicológico
5.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 13(2): 160-173, 2019 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779743

RESUMEN

Understanding the explosive threat landscape is paramount to having a sound evacuation protocol. Security procedures and response to threats can no longer be static and uniformly applied; rather, they must be tailored to ever-evolving terrorist and criminal tactics. This paper introduces recent statistics regarding the decreasing number of domestic bombings in the USA. Data related to the increasing number of bomb threats is also brought into the discussion, along with data showing how threats are almost exclusively hoaxes. A case study of the disparate responses of two major cities to the same bomb threat reveals how and why the threat was handled differently, along with ramifications. Terrorist and criminal bombings often target evacuees and first responders, and devices, if they exist, are generally small and ineffective; therefore, sheltering in place, in the protection of the building, may be a better course of action than evacuation. The concept of treating a bomb threat as a possible dry run is discussed, along with information regarding detection of surveillance. The paper also ventures beyond data-gathering and explores the use of intuition in decision-making. These perspectives should be factored into bomb threat preparation, mitigation and response policy and procedures.


Asunto(s)
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Planificación en Desastres , Socorristas , Terrorismo , Humanos
7.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(6): 616-627, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490016

RESUMEN

This study analyzed the relationship between terrorist threat and discrimination, operationalized by support for retributive justice against Islamic groups suspect of terrorist crimes. Two experimental studies were performed. Study 1 (N = 215) showed that the terrorist threat against the ingroup raises the support for the retributive procedures through the dehumanization of the outgroup. Study 2 (N = 304) analyzed how the mediating role of dehumanization in the relationship between terrorist threat and support for retributive justice is moderated by right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). In addition, the study aimed to verify if the dehumanization of outgroup and RWA could explain the relationship between terrorist threat and discrimination of Muslim immigrants. The results indicated that adherence to RWA favors dehumanization of the outgroup and, consecutively, the discrimination, operationalized as support for the use of retributive justice. The adherence to RWA has been identified as the mechanism that explains the discrimination against Muslim immigrants.


Asunto(s)
Autoritarismo , Deshumanización , Procesos de Grupo , Política , Discriminación Social , Terrorismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , España , Adulto Joven
8.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 61(8): 554-562, 2019.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512739

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The extent to which psychiatry can, and should, contribute to the prevention of terrorism and the countering of radicalization is under debate. The political dimension of the problem raises questions about the desirability of active psychiatric involvement.
AIM: To deepen the debate by discussing the role of psychiatric disorders in terrorist activities, as well as the role of societal determinants in radicalization processes.
METHOD: Review of relevant literature and theoretical analysis.
RESULTS: Radicalization processes are heterogeneous and have determinants at individual, social and societal level. In a small minority of 'radicalizing' individuals severe psychopathology plays a role.
CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the factors relevant to radicalization at individual, social and societal level is necessary for psychiatrists to act responsibly, both at case level, and in the public and scientific debate.


Asunto(s)
Psiquiatría Forense , Terrorismo/prevención & control , Terrorismo/psicología , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Conducta Social , Violencia/psicología
10.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(4): 442-448, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389325

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Terror attacks have increased in frequency, and tactics utilized have evolved. This creates significant challenges for first responders providing life-saving medical care in their immediate aftermath. The use of coordinated and multi-site attack modalities exacerbates these challenges. The use of triage is not well-validated in mass-casualty settings, and in the setting of intentional mass violence, new and innovative approaches are needed. METHODS: Literature sourced from gray and peer-reviewed sources was used to perform a comparative analysis on the application of triage during the 2011 Oslo/Utoya Island (Norway), 2015 Paris (France), and 2015 San Bernardino (California USA) terrorist attacks. A thematic narrative identifies strengths and weaknesses of current triage systems in the setting of complex, coordinated terrorist attacks (CCTAs). DISCUSSION: Triage systems were either not utilized, not available, or adapted and improvised to the tactical setting. The complexity of working with large numbers of patients, sensory deprived environments, high physiological stress, and dynamic threat profiles created significant barriers to the implementation of triage systems designed around flow charts, physiological variables, and the use of tags. Issues were identified around patient movement and "tactical triage." CONCLUSION: Current triage tools are inadequate for use in insecure environments, such as the response to CCTAs. Further research and validation are required for novel approaches that simplify tactical triage and support its effective application. Simple solutions exist in tactical triage, patient movement, and tag use, and should be considered as part of an overall triage system.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres/organización & administración , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/organización & administración , Terrorismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Triaje/organización & administración , California , Socorristas/educación , Femenino , Francia , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Masculino , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa/estadística & datos numéricos , Noruega , Innovación Organizacional , Paris
11.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Aug 09.
Artículo en Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408186

RESUMEN

The current global security threats indicate a need for a change in the Swedish defense policies including the role of civilian and military healthcare in an armed conflict. The magnitude, outcome and management of the recent terror and mass casualty incidents in Europe necessitate a closer Swedish civilian-military collaboration. However, in reality, such a collaboration might be more difficult than expected. The aim of this article is to comment on some of the critical points of such collaboration from a civilian perspective.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres/organización & administración , Colaboración Intersectorial , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa , Personal Militar , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/organización & administración , Humanos , Suecia , Terrorismo
12.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 13(1): 67-80, 2019 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462364

RESUMEN

The scholarly literature regarding soft target terrorism indicates a likely shift from acts of terror against hardened targets to attacks against easier, softer targets. Office buildings and spaces, by their often open and inviting nature and capacity to house large numbers of people, fit within the commonly accepted model of soft targets. They are also designated by the US Department of Homeland Security as components of critical infrastructure. The literature, however, identifies very little terrorist threat in the ordinary work environment. To better understand the history of and potential for future attacks in the office environment, this article examines frequency-based terrorist attack data from 1990 to 2017, from the Global Terrorism Database, along with contemporary attack trend data from government reports and relevant journal articles. The article also discusses how the reporting of such events impacts on the public. Finally, the article recommends an objective and comprehensive forward-looking approach to understand the level of risk, which embraces not only historical data but ongoing intelligence, assessment and analysis.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres , Terrorismo , Lugar de Trabajo
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1163, 2019 Aug 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443708

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The terror attack of July 14, 2016, in Nice, France, resulted in 86 deaths, including children, and several hundred wounded, with a major psychological impact on the population. Hospital staff had to cope with exceptional circumstances which made them vulnerable to detrimental effects on their own health. This paper describes the method that was selected for the survey entitled "ECHOS de Nice 14 Juillet" which aimed to assess the impact of the attack on the psychological, psycho-traumatic and somatic health condition of the Nice University and Lenval hospital staff who were directly or indirectly exposed to the attack, and also to describe the support and care facilities they were offered. METHOD: ECHOS de Nice 14 juillet is an observational, cross-sectional, multicentre study focusing on all the hospital staff and students of both institutions, i.e. 10,100 persons in June 2017. A web-based questionnaire based on the model developed by Santé Publique France (IMPACTS and ESPA 13 novembre 2015) was adapted to the contexts of the healthcare professionals and students employed in these healthcare institutions in Nice and published on line from June 21 to October 30, 2017. The paper describes the tools that were used to meet the aims of the study, i.e. identification of exposure categories ('civilian' exposure for those present during the attack and/or 'professional' exposure); indicators of psychological impact (anxiety, depression, burnout, compassion fatigue, suicidal states, tobacco and alcohol use, self-medications), psycho-traumatic and somatic impact; professional and social impact. Lastly, awareness of availability and use of psychological support and care-follow-up facilities by professionals were investigated. Respondents could include extensive qualitative comments on the various themes explored in the questionnaire, with text analysis complementing that of quantitative data. DISCUSSION: The benefits and limitations of the selected methodology are discussed, in view of contributing useful information to help anticipate and manage health issues among hospital staff who have been victims of traumatic events.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas Epidemiológicas/métodos , Personal de Hospital/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud/psicología , Terrorismo/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Crit Care Clin ; 35(4): 647-658, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445611

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic disasters may be defined as any disaster caused by human action or inaction. Natural disasters occur without human interference. Injuries caused by terrorists and related criminal activities may be broadly grouped into 3 categories: blunt, blast, and penetrating trauma. Most terrorist and criminal activities that create a mass-casualty situation are performed using the weapons most readily available, such as firearms or explosives. A consistent pattern, comparing terrorism with interpersonal violence, is the greater severity of impact on the victim.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Críticos , Planificación en Desastres , Desastres , Terrorismo , Violencia , Traumatismos por Explosión/epidemiología , Traumatismos por Explosión/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/organización & administración , Humanos , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa , Heridas no Penetrantes/epidemiología , Heridas no Penetrantes/terapia , Heridas Penetrantes/epidemiología , Heridas Penetrantes/terapia
15.
Am J Disaster Med ; 14(1): 65-70, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441029

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: The threat of terrorism is intensifying with a recent rise in the number of death and injuries. Nevertheless, few articles deal with the short and long-term medical costs of treating and assisting the civilian victims of terror. The objective of this article is to review the literature and describe the medical costs of supporting victims of terrorism. METHOD: The authors reviewed the literature on the medical costs following terror attacks in the PubMed/Medline and Google Web sites. Relevant scientific articles, textbooks, and global reports were included in the research. RESULTS: There was a scarcity of data related to the medical costs of terror. The authors review the few articles that describe the hospital and outpatient expenses. The terror attacks lead to increasing length of stay and the use of supplementary medical support. The authors detail the relevant global reports and working papers on terrorism that included the cost of injury and the over-all economic impact assessment. CONCLUSION: The medical costs result from hospital and outpatient treatment support. There is a clear need to track the long-term fate of the victims of terror. The authors recommend that future research should include all sectors of the healthcare system, including the whole rehabilitation process and have a precise tracking system for all victims.


Asunto(s)
Atención Ambulatoria/economía , Víctimas de Crimen/economía , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Costos de la Atención en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/economía , Servicios de Salud Mental/economía , Terrorismo/economía , Atención Ambulatoria/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales , Humanos , Israel , Servicios de Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Terrorismo/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 66: 155-161, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306915

RESUMEN

The simultaneous localisation and globalisation of 'terrorist threats' and cross-border criminality have led to increased expansion of surveillance activities and greater cross-border police and judicial cooperation, placing a greater priority on these activities within the political agenda of the EU. In this scenario, the expansion of technological systems for surveillance and monitoring, and the large-scale exchange of citizens' personal data play a pivotal role in the "fight against crime". This paper explores the multiplicity of data protection regimes in different EU Member States within the framework of the Prüm system. While EU regulations establish minimum standards for personal data flows at the transnational level, local and domestic practices are extremely heterogeneous. Based on analysis of 37 interviews conducted with professionals involved in the automated exchange of forensic genetic profiles, this paper provides empirical data that highlights the tensions between the local and the global within DNA data exchanges across the EU. These tensions relate to differentiated sociotechnical imaginaries regarding the protection of personal data flowing between Member-States. In sum, this paper analyses the potential threats to human rights created by the exchange of personal data with regards to issues of privacy and data protection.


Asunto(s)
Seguridad Computacional/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bases de Datos de Ácidos Nucleicos , Difusión de la Información/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cooperación Internacional , Privacidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Crimen/prevención & control , Dermatoglifia del ADN/legislación & jurisprudencia , Dermatoglifia , Unión Europea , Humanos , Terrorismo/prevención & control
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307052

RESUMEN

Purpose: To describe Faculty of Pharmacy experience in the development of an elective course of pharmacist's roles in disaster management for third-year pharmacy students and to evaluate the effectiveness of this innovative teaching module in students' knowledge and their perception of the introduction of this specific course into their curriculum. Methods: An expert team of physicians, surgeons and pharmacists of the Service de Santé des Armées, pharmacists teaching at the Faculty and pharmacists of Bataillon des Marins Pompiers de Marseille defined the program of a 30-hour module in disaster response in line with previously published recommendations, literature analysis and international guidelines on disaster response training. Students' knowledge of key competencies was assessed after each teaching session through a multiple-choice questionnaire. Assessment of self-perceived students' knowledge, teaching quality and students' degree of satisfaction was carried out using a volunteer survey just after the last teaching, the November 15th. Results: The creation of the final curriculum resulted in a course of 6 modules. Concerning the students' knowledge of key competencies, a mean score of 19/25 for the multiple-choice questionnaire was obtained. 98.3% of students reported that this teaching allowed them to improve their knowledge in the field of pharmacist's roles in disaster management. 79.3% of them will recommend this optional course. Conclusion: This teaching represents a potential to increase the number of pharmacists prepared to respond to disasters. It also expands students' understanding of pharmacist's roles and stimulates their interest in emergency preparedness. Further formation, including emergency simulation in mass triage will be conducted next year.


Asunto(s)
Defensa Civil/educación , Curriculum/tendencias , Desastres , Educación en Farmacia , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Femenino , Francia , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Terrorismo
18.
J Bioeth Inq ; 16(3): 455-461, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278467

RESUMEN

Balfe argues against enhanced interrogation. He particularly focuses on the involvement of U.S. healthcare professionals in enhanced interrogation. He identifies several empirical and normative factors and argues that they are not good reasons to morally justify enhanced interrogation. I argue that his argument can be improved by making two points. First, Balfe considers the reasoning of those healthcare professionals as utilitarian. However, careful consideration of their ideas reveals that their reasoning is consequential rather than utilitarian evaluation. Second, torture is a serious human rights abuse. When healthcare professionals become involved in enhanced interrogation, they violate not only human rights against torture but also human rights to health. Considering the consequential reasoning against human rights abuses, healthcare professionals' involvement in enhanced interrogation is not morally justified. Supplementing Balfe's position with these two points makes his argument more complete and convincing, and hence it can contribute to the way which shows that enhanced interrogation is not justified by consequential evaluation.


Asunto(s)
Terrorismo , Tortura , Teoría Ética , Derechos Humanos , Violaciones de los Derechos Humanos , Humanos
20.
J Med Syst ; 43(8): 256, 2019 Jun 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256330

RESUMEN

Automated human activity analysis has been, and remains, a challenging problem. Security and surveillance are essential issues in today's world. Any behavior which is uncommon in occurrence and deviates from customarily understood action could be termed as suspicious. For different application regions, while identifying human exercises, fundamentally three angles are taking in worry for human movement recognition system: Segmentation, feature extraction, and activity classification. This model aims at automatic detection of abnormal behavior in surveillance videos. In this proposed work adaptive linear activity classification method and internet of things (IoT) frameworks are used to detection human activities as well as to find out who is doing unusual activities. The enhanced plan of the built environment condition will give a better observation. Such framework can be actualized in peoples in general places, for example, shopping centers, airports, and railway station or any private premises where security is the prime concern. The proposed ALAC method validated through simulation using MATLAB and VB.net software. Its ability to detect the activity of human the simulation result shows the effectiveness using ALAC method, Overall 97% efficiency achieved by using ALAC method.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Observación Conductual/métodos , Terrorismo/prevención & control , Grabación en Video , Algoritmos , Técnicas de Observación Conductual/instrumentación
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA