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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(9): e19295, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118743

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is one standard option for localized esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer patients but an optimal concurrent chemotherapy combination is not established. METHODS: 412 patients with resectable (cT1N1M0 or cT2-4N0-3M0) esophageal or GEJ cancer treated at the MDACC between October 2002 and June 2016 were analyzed. Exposures: CRT with DF or FOX followed by surgery (trimodality; TMT). Main outcomes and measures: Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses were performed. RESULTS: Of the 412 patients analyzed, 264 (64%) received DF and 148 (36%) FOX. The median age was 60 years, and 95% had adenocarcinoma. The clinical complete response, positron-emission tomography response, and pathologic complete response rates were 73%, 73%, and 30%, respectively. Median follow-up was 60.4 months. Median OS for the entire cohort was 81.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 56.3-122.0); 81.6 months (95% CI, 55.9-not estimable) for the DF group and 67.7 months (95% CI, 41.6-not estimable) for the FOX group (P = .24). The median DFS was 45.6 months (95% CI, 33.1-61.7) for the entire cohort; 49.5 months (95% CI, 38.6-70.3) for DF and 33.0 months (95% CI, 18.1-70.4; P = .38) for FOX. Higher tumor location (unfavorable) and clinical complete response (favorable) were prognostic for both OS and DFS in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: At our high-volume center, the outcome of 412 TMT esophageal cancer patients was excellent. Taxane-based chemotherapy produces nonsignificant favorable trend.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Aromáticos con Puentes/uso terapéutico , Quimioradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirugía , Compuestos de Platino/uso terapéutico , Taxoides/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Hidrocarburos Aromáticos con Puentes/normas , Quimioradioterapia/normas , Quimioradioterapia/estadística & datos numéricos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/normas , Quimioterapia Combinada/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Compuestos de Platino/normas , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Análisis de Supervivencia , Taxoides/normas , Texas , Resultado del Tratamiento
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(Suppl 4): 818, 2020 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185528

RESUMEN

Using ship-based surveys, the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) Trustees assessed the external oiling of offshore and pelagic marine birds inhabiting the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) in the year following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH spill). Study objectives were to (1) collect data on pelagic seabirds that were visibly oiled, (2) collect data to estimate abundance of seabirds in offshore and pelagic waters, and 3) document the location and condition of any bird carcasses encountered. Methods employed included strip line transects and station point counts. Surveys were conducted within a study area bound by the Texas-Mexico border and the Dry Tortugas of Florida to the south, and the nearshore coastal waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. A total of 5665 strip line transects and 386 station point-counts of variable duration were collected during the study. More than 23,000 individual seabirds comprising 45 estuarine, coastal, offshore, and pelagic species were tallied. Average daily abundance of seabirds detected varied from a low of approximately 7 birds/day in November 2010 along regions of the mid- and outer continental shelf to a high of more than 580 birds/day in June 2011 within the near-shore, coastal waters of the northern Gulf.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Contaminación por Petróleo , Petróleo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Florida , Golfo de México , Petróleo/toxicidad , Dinámica Poblacional , Texas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228944, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045457

RESUMEN

There are multiple common methods for collecting fossil material in the field for paleoecological analyses, so it is important to determine if and how different methods may affect the similarities and differences among taxonomic samples. Here, we evaluate the influence of two fossil collection field methods (stratigraphically in-place bulk-sediment versus picking up weathered-out fossils from the ground surface) on paleoecological results, using the Pennsylvanian marine invertebrate assemblages of the Finis Shale in Texas. Based on an informal review of recent paleoecology papers, we observed that the lithology of the study material and the nature of the research question correspond to choice of field collection protocols; however, collection protocols are not always clearly explained or justified in the text of the papers. For the present case study, we collected stratigraphically equivalent samples from three outcrops using both the surface pick-up and in-place bulk sediment methods. We found a difference in the abundance and composition of paleocommunities between these two collection methods. Evidence to support this includes the significant differences between samples using PERMANOVA (p < 0.001), the clear separation in ordination space of samples clustered by sampling method, the significantly higher richness in the surface samples (p < 0.001), and the considerable variation in relative abundances of various taxa and taxonomic groups. Richness and evenness were higher among the surface-collected samples, possibly due to collector bias, weathering artifacts, or spatial and temporal variability. Paleontologists strive to do the best science possible with the material available. Often, paleoecological research methods are limited by time, funding, or the nature of the material. In such cases, we recommend examining both collection methods, even if for only a fraction of the sampling. If only one method is possible, we recommend the use in-place, bulk-collected samples.


Asunto(s)
Paleontología/métodos , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Animales , Fósiles/anatomía & histología , Humanos , Texas
5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227808, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023260

RESUMEN

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones have been used by disaster relief organizations in the United States since 2005. However, their place in the disaster response ecosystem-the standardization, utility, ethical, and legal challenges of drone use-remains largely unstudied. This case series describes how UAVs were used by two teams of responders for damage assessment purposes during the 2017 southeastern US Hurricanes Harvey and Irma. Data streams ranged from social media, direct observation, participant-observation and semi-directed interviews. Qualitative analysis was performed for thematic content derived from field observation and from post-hoc interviews. Outcomes of the qualitative analysis emphasize the barriers to deploying drones in the disaster context, their tactical implementation, programmatic integration, and ethical and legal challenges. These observations lay the groundwork for both future research on the utilization of drones and the prudent and ethical implementation of programs that employ drones in post-disaster settings.


Asunto(s)
Aeronaves , Tormentas Ciclónicas , Desastres , Ecosistema , Florida , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Control Social Formal , Texas
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 200, 2020 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107644

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to characterize exposures to metals using biological samples collected on socioeconomically disadvantaged black pregnant women. We obtained 131 anonymous urine samples provided by black pregnant women visiting a Medicaid-serving prenatal clinic in Houston, TX, from March 27, 2017 to April 11, 2017. We analyzed urine samples for 15 metals including cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) and for creatinine and cotinine. We found that median concentrations of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and aluminum (Al) among black pregnant women in this study were 1.5 to 3 times higher than levels reported among a cohort of well-educated non-Hispanic white pregnancy planners. We also observed elevated levels of urinary Cd and antimony (Sb) as compared with those reported for a nationally representative sample of adult women in the USA. Based on the results of an exploratory factor analysis, potential sources of metal exposures in this population may arise in home environments or be due to diet, industrial and natural sources, or traffic.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Mujeres Embarazadas , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Adulto , Arsénico/orina , Cadmio/orina , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Metales Pesados/orina , Embarazo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Texas
9.
Pediatrics ; 145(3)2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051219

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Opioid overprescription has the potential to lead to harmful medications remaining in homes and to a rise in accidental or deliberate ingestion by children and adolescents. Although methods for opioid disposal are available, many are costly or require greater than minimal effort for the patient. In this study, we used a mail-back return envelope to retrieve unused opioids after ambulatory pediatric surgery. METHODS: This feasibility study was performed to assess the rate of opioid return by using a mail-back envelope for children ages 0 to 18 prescribed opioids after outpatient surgery. Participants were provided a return envelope as well as instruction on the dangers of opioids in the home. Our primary outcome was to assess the absolute percent return rate through the use of a mail-back envelope. RESULTS: Between November 2017 and October 2018, we identified 355 patients, of whom 331 were included in the analysis. In total, 64 (19.3%) returned opioids. In total, >2000 mL of liquid opioids and >250 tablets or nearly 3000 mg of oral morphine equivalents were removed from the homes of the 64 participants. Of those patients returning unused medications, the median rate of return was 58% (interquartile range = 34.7%-86.1%) of the written prescription. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that providing a free mail-back return envelope is a suitable way to remove unused opioids from the home after pediatric surgery. Additional research is needed to identify barriers to return of unused medications.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Ambulatorios , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Alta del Paciente , Servicios Postales , Accidentes Domésticos/prevención & control , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Hospitales Pediátricos , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/prevención & control , Dolor Postoperatorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Envenenamiento/prevención & control , Desvío de Medicamentos bajo Prescripción/prevención & control , Texas
10.
Am J Public Health ; 110(4): 574-579, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078350

RESUMEN

Objectives. To compare the flood impacts experienced by Harris County, Texas, hospitals with Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood hazard areas and Hurricane Harvey's inundation boundary.Methods. One year following Hurricane Harvey, we created a novel data set of Hurricane Harvey's flood impacts in Harris County hospitals. We then mapped the hospital flood impact data in ArcGIS alongside FEMA flood hazard areas and Hurricane Harvey's inundation boundary to classify each hospital's location in high flood-risk areas and in areas purportedly affected by Hurricane Harvey.Results. Of the 66 hospitals for which flood impact information was ascertained, 16 (24%) hospitals experienced flood impacts during Hurricane Harvey. Of these 16 hospitals, 5 (31%) were located outside a FEMA flood hazard area and 8 (50%) were located outside Hurricane Harvey's inundation boundary.Conclusions. FEMA flood hazard areas did not accurately predict all areas of Harris County, Texas, that flooded during Hurricane Harvey or which hospitals experienced flood impacts.


Asunto(s)
Tormentas Ciclónicas , Inundaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis Espacial , Texas
11.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110022, 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090798

RESUMEN

Many species of coastal waterbirds have faced population declines in recent years as a result of loss and degradation of habitat. The creation of new habitat through strategic placement of dredge spoil can be an effective tool to mitigate habitat loss. The use of dredge spoil islands for nesting, wintering, and migratory stopover habitat by waterbirds has been documented extensively over the past several decades. Most of the reddish egret (Egretta rufescens) breeding population in the United States occurs in Texas, where it has declined by more than 30% since the 1970s. Reddish egrets breed on dredge spoil islands along the Texas coast, and the stability of breeding colonies has been variable since the 1970s. If nesting habitat is degraded or limiting in Texas, the creation of new nesting islands through strategic dredge spoil placement could benefit reddish egrets. We developed a spatially explicit prioritization model for targeted conservation of reddish egrets in the Laguna Madre, Texas, through colonial island establishment using dredge spoil. Prioritization is based on availability of foraging areas, potential competition at foraging areas, and distance of potential sites to the mainland. 'Priority areas' are potential nesting island locations that would maximize the foraging benefits for breeding reddish egrets. Model outputs show that highest priority areas in the Laguna Madre are located in the southernmost portion of the lagoon. Other priority areas are located in the lower Laguna Madre, and at the mouth of Baffin Bay. In addition, we provide a repeatable and transparent framework for the development of spatial support tools that help guide targeted placement of dredge spoil in an effort to conserve colonial waterbirds. We illustrate the model development for reddish egrets, a threatened species in Texas, however our framework can be applied to other similar species.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Ecosistema , Animales , Cruzamiento , Estaciones del Año , Texas
12.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(2): 52-55, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051059

RESUMEN

ASCP's 2019 Annual Meeting & Exhibition marked an historic moment - the Society's 50th annual conference. From the thought-provoking keynotes, brand-reveal announcement, and VIP experiences, ASCP's 50th Annual Meeting & Exhibition was an exceptional event. More than 1,100 attendees convened in Grapevine, Texas, for #ASCP50. We've rounded up a few of our favorite highlights from this year's meeting.


Asunto(s)
Congresos como Asunto , Texas
13.
Plant Dis ; 104(4): 1118-1126, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040392

RESUMEN

Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening disease) in the major citrus-producing states of the United States is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), which is vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). Surveys were conducted in Texas from 2007 to 2017 to assess the prevalence and titer of CLas in ACPs and citrus trees. ACP and citrus leaf tissue samples were collected from suspect trees in residential areas and commercial groves (orchards) and assayed for CLas by quantitative PCR. CLas detection in ACPs (2011) preceded that of citrus trees (2012) by several months. Annual incidences of CLas-positive ACPs and leaf tissue followed an exponential growth pattern over the survey period, varying from 0.03 to 28.7% in ACPs and 0.6 to 36.5% in citrus trees. There was a significant and positive relationship between the monthly incidences of CLas-positive ACP and leaf tissue samples. The proportion of HLB detection sites also increased with time, reaching 26 and 40% of commercial groves and residential sites, respectively, by 2017. Seasonal variations were observed in the incidences of CLas-positive ACPs and citrus trees such that significantly more CLas-positive ACPs and trees were recorded during the fall and winter of a given year relative to the hot summer. A temporal analysis of the class distribution of cycle threshold values revealed a trend of increased bacterial accumulation in ACPs and trees over time, with the trend more pronounced for the former than the latter host type. These findings provide a comprehensive insight into the ongoing CLas/HLB epidemic in Texas, with potential lessons for California and other citrus-producing areas where the disease is not yet established.


Asunto(s)
Citrus , Hemípteros , Animales , California , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Texas
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110794, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056589

RESUMEN

There is an increasing awareness of microplastics within the global problem of marine plastic pollution. In 2018, small plastic pellets or "nurdles" were observed on the beaches of Corpus Christi, Texas. A citizen science project, "Nurdle Patrol," was established by the Mission-Aransas National Estuarine Research Reserve to monitor the presence of nurdles, with volunteer interest enabling this project to expand across the Gulf of Mexico region. This case study describes the sampling methodology, the policy framework, and initial quantitative data from the citizen science project on nurdle distribution along the Gulf coast. A total of 2042 Nurdle Patrol surveys have been conducted by 744 citizen scientists covering shorelines from Mahahual, Mexico to Fort Jefferson, Florida. All 20 of the highest standardized nurdle counts were recorded at sites in Texas. Results can inform decision-maker response across regulatory scales and further research on nurdle pollution.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plásticos , Residuos , Contaminantes del Agua/análisis , Política Ambiental , Florida , Golfo de México , Humanos , Texas
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 341-347, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037964

RESUMEN

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the most prevalent healthcare-associated infection in the United States and carries a significant healthcare system burden. As part of an ongoing, active surveillance system of C. difficile throughout Texas, the objective of this study was to assess changes in C. difficile ribotypes of clinical isolates obtained from hospitalized patients in Texas over the past seven years. Fifty hospitals located in Texas, USA sent C. difficile positive stool specimens to a centralized laboratory for PCR ribotyping and toxin characterization between 2011 and 2018. Data collected included specimen collection date, patient age, and sex. Strain genotypes were compiled, and changes in ribotype distribution over time were assessed. Overall, 7796 samples were ribotyped from predominately female patients (58.4%) aged 62 ± 19 years. Samples were obtained from all geographic regions of Texas including Houston/Southwest region (n = 5129; 85%), Dallas/North Texas (n = 579, 9.6%), Central Texas (n = 164; 2.7%), and South Texas (n = 162; 2.6%). The 10 most common ribotypes comprised 73% of all isolates tested during the study period. The most common ribotypes were 027 (17.5%), followed by 014-020 (16.1%), 106 (11.6%), and 002 (9.1%). The prevalence of ribotypes 027, 001, and 078-126 declined significantly over time, while ribotypes 106 and 054 increased in prevalence (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the emergence of a novel ribotype 255 strain was observed. Differences in ribotype distribution were also noted based on age and geographic distribution (P < 0.001, each). This seven-year study demonstrated changing molecular epidemiology of C. difficile in Texas, including the emergence of a novel ribotype 255.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Clostridium/microbiología , Clostridium difficile/clasificación , Ribotipificación , Adulto , Anciano , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Infecciones por Clostridium/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Epidemiología Molecular , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , Texas
16.
Am J Public Health ; 110(3): 351-353, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944836

RESUMEN

Objectives. To estimate the percentage of Texas judicial bypass petitions for abortion denied annually from 2001 to 2018, and to assess whether that fraction changed after the state's 2016 bypass process change.Methods. Because official statistics on Texas judicial bypass case counts and outcomes are only available for 2016 and later, we systematically reviewed monthly internal reports from Jane's Due Process (JDP), an organization providing legal representation to pregnant minors seeking bypass from 2001 to 2018. We report numbers and percentages of JDP cases denied for 2001 to 2018 and numbers and percentages of all cases denied from official Texas statistics for 2016 to 2018 (all available years).Results. At least 1 denial occurred in 11 out of 15 years observed before the bypass law changed in Texas (percentages = 0%-6.2%). After Texas made its bypass process more restrictive, the percentage denied increased (from 2.8% in 2015 to 10.3% in 2016 among JDP cases).Conclusions. We found the greatest percentages of judicial bypass for abortion petitions denied after the policy was implemented and after the bypass process changed. Judicial bypass for abortion may expose pregnant minors to judicial veto of their abortion decision.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Legal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Rol Judicial , Menores/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Consentimiento Paterno/legislación & jurisprudencia , Embarazo , Texas
17.
Am J Pathol ; 190(2): 306-322, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955791

RESUMEN

Mediterranean spotted fever is a reemerging acute tick-borne infection produced by the α-proteobacterium, Rickettsia conorii. Rickettsia conorii infects vascular endothelial cells producing disseminated plasma leakage, manifesting as nonspecific fever, headache, and maculopapular rash. Because there are no available tests of early infection, Mediterranean spotted fever is often undiagnosed and untreated, resulting in significant mortality. To address this critical need, we have applied a quantitative proteomics pipeline for analyzing the secretome of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Of the 104 proteins whose abundance changed significantly in the R. conorii-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells' secretome, 46 proteins were up-regulated: 45 were host secreted proteins (including cytokines), and 1 was a rickettsial protein, the putative N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase RC0497. Proteins with sequence highly homologous to RC0497 were found to be shared by many species of the spotted fever group rickettsiae, but not typhus group rickettsiae. Quantitative targeted proteomics studies of plasma from a mouse model of sublethal and lethal R. conorii identified RC0497 in the blood, and its circulating levels were proportionally associated with infection outcome. Finally, the presence of RC0497 in the serum samples from a cohort of humans presenting with acute rickettsioses was confirmed. The detection of RC0497 has the potential to be a sensitive and specific marker for acute rickettsial spotted rickettsioses.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/sangre , Fiebre Botonosa/diagnóstico , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , N-Acetil Muramoil-L-Alanina Amidasa/sangre , Proteoma/análisis , Infecciones por Rickettsia/complicaciones , Rickettsia/patogenicidad , Animales , Fiebre Botonosa/epidemiología , Fiebre Botonosa/microbiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/microbiología , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C3H , Proteómica , Rickettsia/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Rickettsia/microbiología , Infecciones por Rickettsia/transmisión , Texas/epidemiología
18.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1463-1469, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961287

RESUMEN

Strain MS2379T was isolated from a pasteurized solution sample from a predominantly anaerobic fermentation system processing bovine manure in Pilot Point, Texas. Phylogenetic analyses based on both 16S rRNA gene and rpoB gene sequences showed that MS2379T was most closely related to Paenibacillus polymyxa (DSM 36T), P. jamilae (DSM 13815T), and P. peoriae (DSM 8320T), yet DNA-DNA relatedness through DNA-DNA hybridization revealed only 22.6, 32.0 and 24.7 % relatedness to these three species respectively. Rod-shaped cells of strain MS2379T are Gram-stain variable with sub-terminal, ellipsoidal, deforming endospores. The peptidoglycan contains meso-diaminopimelic acid (mDAP) and the predominant fatty acids are anteiso-C15 : 0 (61.9 %) and anteiso-C17 : 0 (11.6 %), confirming that strain MS2379T has diagnostic features of other Paenibacillus species. The G+C content of MS2379T is 45.9 mol%. Fermentation of glucose yields acid and gas end-products. The polar lipids found were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and glycolipids, but also included some unidentified lipids, aminolipids, aminoglycolipid, and phosphatidylmethylethanolamine. The growth range of MS2379T was observed from 10-45 °C with optimal growth temperature at 30 °C. Growth was observed between pH 6-10 and up to 3 % NaCl. Unlike the most closely related Paenibacillus species, strain MS2379T was negative in the Voges-Proskauer reaction. Nucleic acid, chemotaxonomic and biochemical features support the distinctiveness of strain MS2379T. Thus, strain MS2379T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus for which the name Paenibacillus ottowii sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain MS2379T (=DSM 107750T=ATCC TSD-165T).


Asunto(s)
Fermentación , Estiércol/microbiología , Paenibacillus/clasificación , Filogenia , Animales , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , Bovinos , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Grasos/química , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico , Paenibacillus/aislamiento & purificación , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolípidos/química , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Texas
19.
Plant Dis ; 104(3): 630-633, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958249

RESUMEN

A virus-like disease characterized by foliar yellow blotch symptoms and resembling those described for cilantro yellow blotch disease in California was observed in a 4.05-ha cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) cv. Santo field in Hidalgo County, Texas during spring 2019. Disease incidence at harvest was estimated at ∼20%, and the affected plants were rendered unmarketable. Foliar systemic chlorosis symptoms were observed on sap-inoculated Nicotiana occidentalis plants (n = 3) using inocula from symptomatic cilantro. Total RNA aliquots from 11 randomly collected leaf tissue samples (symptomatic = 7, asymptomatic = 4) were pooled into a composite cilantro RNA sample which was analyzed by high throughput sequencing (HTS). Analyses of the obtained 15.7 million raw reads (76 nt each) yielded virus-specific contigs that mapped to the genomes of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), beet pseudoyellows virus (BPYV), and lettuce chlorosis virus (LCV). Virus-specific primers designed from the HTS-derived sequences were used to screen the samples in two-step RT-PCR assays, resulting in the detection of AMV+BPYV in 3 of 7 symptomatic cilantro samples, AMV+LCV in 4 of 7 symptomatic cilantro samples, and AMV alone in the 4 asymptomatic cilantro and sap-inoculated N. occidentalis samples. The results represent the first reports of the natural infection of cilantro by BPYV and LCV and implicate the mixed infection of a Crinivirus and AMV in cilantro yellow blotch disease.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Mosaico de la Alfalfa , Coriandrum , California , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Texas
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(4): 2133-2142, 2020 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995368

RESUMEN

Diverse urban air pollution sources contribute to spatially variable atmospheric concentrations, with important public health implications. Mobile monitoring shows promise for understanding spatial pollutant patterns, yet it is unclear whether uncertainties associated with temporally sparse sampling and instrument performance limit our ability to identify locations of elevated pollution. To address this question, we analyze 9 months of repeated weekday daytime on-road mobile measurements of black carbon (BC), particle number (PN), and nitrogen oxide (NO, NO2) concentrations within 24 census tracts across Houston, Texas. We quantify persistently elevated, intermittent, and extreme concentration behaviors at 50 m road segments on surface streets and 90 m segments on highways relative to median statistics across the entire sampling domain. We find elevated concentrations above uncertainty levels (±40%) within portions of every census tract, with median concentration increases ranging from 2 to 3× for NO2, and >9× for NO. In contrast, PN exhibits elevated concentrations of 1.5-2× the domain-wide median and distinct spatial patterns relative to other pollutants. Co-located elevated concentrations of primary combustion tracers (BC and NOx) near 30% of metal recycling and concrete batch plant facilities within our sampled census tracts are comparable to those measured within 200 m of highways. Our results demonstrate how extensive mobile monitoring across multiple census tracts can quantitatively characterize urban air pollution source patterns and are applicable to developing effective source mitigation policies.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Ambientales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado , Texas
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