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1.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20210500. 31 p. ilus.
Monografía en Español | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1222399

RESUMEN

El documento establece los parámetros de materiales, diseño, confección, acabados, etiquetado, empaque y métodos de pruebas de ensayo, de las mascarillas faciales textiles de uso comunitario reutilizables.


Asunto(s)
Textiles , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Materiales , Parámetros , Máscaras , Métodos
2.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3416, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852687

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to analyze evidence concerning the feasibility of antimicrobial-impregnated fabrics in preventing and controlling microbial transmission in health services. METHOD: an integrative review using the following databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), regardless of language and date of publication. Seven studies were included in the analysis to verify the types of fabrics and substances used to impregnate the fabrics, applicability in health services, and decrease in microbial load. RESULTS: silver nanoparticles and copper oxide are the main antimicrobial substances used to impregnate the fabrics. The patients' use of these fabrics, such as in bed and bath linens and clothing, was more effective in reducing antimicrobial load than in health workers' uniforms. CONCLUSION: the use of these antimicrobial-impregnated textiles, especially by patients, is a viable alternative to prevent and control microbial transmission in health services. Implementing these fabrics in health workers' uniforms requires further studies, however, to verify its effectiveness in decreasing microbial load in clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Nanopartículas del Metal , Región del Caribe , Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Plata , Textiles
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804688

RESUMEN

Wearable electronics are playing an important role in the health care industry. Wearable sensors are either directly attached to the body surface or embedded into worn garments. Textile-based batteries can help towards development of body conformal wearable sensors. In this letter, we demonstrate a 2D planar textile-based primary Ag2O-Zn battery fabricated using the stencil printing method. A synthetic polyester woven fabric is used as the textile substrate and polyethylene oxide material is used as the separator. The demonstrated battery achieves an areal capacity of 0.6 mAh/cm2 with an active electrode area of 0.5 cm × 1 cm.


Asunto(s)
Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Suministros de Energía Eléctrica , Plata , Textiles , Zinc
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805146

RESUMEN

Massive production of carcinogenic fly ash waste poses severe threats to water bodies due to its disposal into drains and landfills. Fly ash can be a source of raw materials for the synthesis of adsorbents. Rag fly ash as a new class of raw materials could be a cheap source of Al and Si for the synthesis of Na-zeolites. In this work, NaOH activation, via a prefusion- and postfusion-based hydrothermal strategy, was practiced for the modification of rag fly ash into Na-zeolite. Morphology, surface porosity, chemical composition, functionality, mineral phases, and crystallinity, in conjunction with ion exchangeability of the tailored materials, were evaluated by SEM, ICP-OES, XRF, FTIR, XRD, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) techniques. Rag fly ash and the synthesized Na-zeolites were applied for the removal of Pb (II) from synthetic wastewater by varying the reaction conditions, such as initial metal ion concentration, mass of adsorbent, sorption time, and pH of the reaction medium. It was observed that Na-zeolite materials (1 g/100 mL) effectively removed up to 90-98% of Pb (II) ions from 100 mg/L synthetic solution within 30 min at pH ≈ 8. Freundlich adsorption isotherm favors the multilayer heterogeneous adsorption mechanism for the removal of Pb (II). It is reasonable to conclude that recycling of textile rag fly ash waste into value-added Na-zeolites for the treatment of industrial wastewater could be an emergent move toward achieving sustainable and green remediation.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Zeolitas , Adsorción , Ceniza del Carbón , Iones , Plomo , Textiles , Aguas Residuales
5.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(7): 1703-1713, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843753

RESUMEN

Textile effluents containing synthetic refractory azo dyes are one of the most important sources of water pollution. However, these kinds of refractory organic pollutants did not resist a persulfate (PS) oxidation process which was correctly activated. In this study, PS was activated by ferrous sulfide (FeS) in a heterogeneous system to break down azo dyes wastewater. The results showed that all five selected azo dyes were efficiently broken down using the PS/FeS system, except for DY 12, and more than 95% of azo dyes were decolored within 60 minutes. The decolorization efficiency of DR 81 in the PS/FeS system was comparable to PS activated with heat (60 °C) or Fe2+, and was slightly superior to Fe0 powders under the same conditions. Quenching studies indicated that both SO4-• and •OH were formed in the FeS surface and diffused into the solution to facilitate the successive transformation of DR 81, the •OH reaction with DR 81 might the crucial reaction. The coexisting chelating agents in real azo dye effluents at high concentrations had a negative influence on azo dye decolorization by PS/FeS. However, the superior factor of the PS/FeS system was the regenerability and reusability of the heterogeneous catalyst.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Azo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Colorantes , Compuestos Ferrosos , Textiles , Aguas Residuales
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2689-2702, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854315

RESUMEN

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is requesting highly effective protective personnel equipment, mainly for healthcare professionals. However, the current demand has exceeded the supply chain and, consequently, shortage of essential medical materials, such as surgical masks. Due to these alarming limitations, it is crucial to develop effective means of disinfection, reusing, and thereby applying antimicrobial shielding protection to the clinical supplies. Purpose: Therefore, in this work, we developed a novel, economical, and straightforward approach to promote antimicrobial activity to surgical masks by impregnating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Methods: Our strategy consisted of fabricating a new alcohol disinfectant formulation combining special surfactants and AgNPs, which is demonstrated to be extensively effective against a broad number of microbial surrogates of SARS-CoV-2. Results: The present nano-formula reported a superior microbial reduction of 99.999% against a wide number of microorganisms. Furthermore, the enveloped H5N1 virus was wholly inactivated after 15 min of disinfection. Far more attractive, the current method for reusing surgical masks did not show outcomes of detrimental amendments, suggesting that the protocol does not alter the filtration effectiveness. Conclusion: The nano-disinfectant provides a valuable strategy for effective decontamination, reuse, and even antimicrobial promotion to surgical masks for frontline clinical personnel.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Desinfectantes/farmacología , Máscaras , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Plata/farmacología , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/administración & dosificación , Antiinfecciosos/química , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/farmacología , /transmisión , Embrión de Pollo , Desinfectantes/administración & dosificación , Desinfectantes/química , Desinfección/métodos , Dispersión Dinámica de Luz , Equipo Reutilizado , Humanos , Subtipo H5N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/efectos de los fármacos , Máscaras/virología , Nanopartículas del Metal/administración & dosificación , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Plata/química , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Textiles , Difracción de Rayos X
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(8)2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920830

RESUMEN

Overexposure to hand transmitted vibrations (HTVs) from prolonged use of vibrating power tools can result in severe injuries. By monitoring the exposure of a worker to HTVs, overexposure, and injury, can be mitigated. An ideal HTV-monitoring system would measure vibration were it enters the body, which for many power tools will be the palm and fingers, however this is difficult to achieve using conventional transducers as they will affect the comfort of the user and subsequently alter the way that the tool is held. By embedding a transducer within the core of a textile yarn, that can be used to produce a glove, vibration can be monitored close to where it enters the body without compromising the comfort of the user. This work presents a vibration-sensing electronic yarn that was created by embedding a commercially available accelerometer within the structure of a yarn. These yarns were subsequently used to produce a vibration-sensing glove. The purpose of this study is to characterize the response of the embedded accelerometer over a range of relevant frequencies and vibration amplitudes at each stage of the electronic yarn's manufacture to understand how the yarn structure influences the sensors response. The vibration-sensing electronic yarn was subsequently incorporated into a fabric sample and characterized. Finally, four vibration-sensing electronic yarns were used to produce a vibration-sensing glove that is capable of monitoring vibration at the palm and index finger.


Asunto(s)
Textiles , Vibración , Electrónica , Guantes Protectores , Mano
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(9)2021 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923071

RESUMEN

The continuous and simultaneous monitoring of physiological parameters represents a key aspect in clinical environments, remote monitoring and occupational settings. In this regard, respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) are correlated with several physiological and pathological conditions of the patients/workers, and with environmental stressors. In this work, we present and validate a wearable device for the continuous monitoring of such parameters. The proposed system embeds four conductive sensors located on the user's chest which allow retrieving the breathing activity through their deformation induced during cyclic expansion and contraction of the rib cage. For monitoring HR we used an embedded IMU located on the left side of the chest wall. We compared the proposed device in terms of estimating HR and RR against a reference system in three scenarios: sitting, standing and supine. The proposed system reliably estimated both RR and HR, showing low error averaged along subjects in all scenarios. This is the first study focused on the feasibility assessment of a wearable system based on a multi-sensor configuration (i.e., conductive sensors and IMU) for RR and HR monitoring. The promising results encourage the application of this approach in clinical and occupational settings.


Asunto(s)
Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Monitoreo Fisiológico , Frecuencia Respiratoria , Textiles
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(9)2021 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925330

RESUMEN

Blood is key evidence to reconstruct crime scenes in forensic sciences. Blood identification can help to confirm a suspect, and for that reason, several chemical methods are used to reconstruct the crime scene however, these methods can affect subsequent DNA analysis. Therefore, this study presents a non-destructive method for bloodstain identification using Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI, 397-1000 nm range). The proposed method is based on the visualization of heme-components bands in the 500-700 nm spectral range. For experimental and validation purposes, a total of 225 blood (different donors) and non-blood (protein-based ketchup, rust acrylic paint, red acrylic paint, brown acrylic paint, red nail polish, rust nail polish, fake blood, and red ink) samples (HSI cubes, each cube is of size 1000 × 512 × 224, in which 1000 × 512 are the spatial dimensions and 224 spectral bands) were deposited on three substrates (white cotton fabric, white tile, and PVC wall sheet). The samples are imaged for up to three days to include aging. Savitzky Golay filtering has been used to highlight the subtle bands of all samples, particularly the aged ones. Based on the derivative spectrum, important spectral bands were selected to train five different classifiers (SVM, ANN, KNN, Random Forest, and Decision Tree). The comparative analysis reveals that the proposed method outperformed several state-of-the-art methods.


Asunto(s)
Manchas de Sangre , Ciencias Forenses , Textiles
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 332: 125088, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839511

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the effect of bioaugmentation of a newly enriched electroactive bacterial community DC5 on the performance of a pilot scale sequential two-step Horizontal Sub-surface flow Constructed Wetland-Microbial Fuel Cell (HSCW-MFC) system treating textile dye wastewater. The system consisted of CW-MFC-1 planted with Fimbristylis ferruginea and CW-MFC-2 planted with consortium of Fimbristylis ferruginea and Elymus repens plant species. Before bioaugmentation, HSCW-MFC system showed 62 ± 2% Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and 90 ± 1.5% American Dye Manufacturer's Institute (ADMI) removal and 177.3 mW/m2 maximum power density (CW-MFC-1). After bioaugmentation of DC5 into the HSCW-MFC, COD and ADMI removal was enhanced to 74.10 ± 1.75% and 97.32 ± 1.90% with maximum power density of 197.94 mW/m2 (CW-MFC-1). The genera Exiguobacterium, Desulfovibrio and Macellibacteroides of DC5 were significantly enriched at the electrodes of HSCW-MFC after bioaugmentation. These results demonstrate that the performance of the CW-MFC treating textile dye wastewater can be improved by bioaugmentation of electroactive bacterial community.


Asunto(s)
Fuentes de Energía Bioeléctrica , Electricidad , Electrodos , Textiles , Aguas Residuales , Humedales
11.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(4): 579, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872535

Asunto(s)
Máscaras , Humanos , Textiles
12.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(4): 579, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872536

Asunto(s)
Máscaras , Humanos , Textiles
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(4): 579-580, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872537

Asunto(s)
Máscaras , Humanos , Textiles
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924707

RESUMEN

Research surrounding the mandated use of non-medical fabric masks is inconsistent and often confusing when compared to the standard N95. A recently published standard from ASTM International and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention attempts to normalize evaluation procedures. The purpose of this study is to conduct a preliminary evaluation of the new methods for testing filtration efficiency of masks outlined by ASTM International F3502, where results can be directly compared to standards outlined for non-medical fabric masks. Eleven consumer non-medical fabric masks were tested for filtration efficiency and airflow resistance using a face filtration mount in accordance with the newly released ASTM International standard for facial barriers. The mean FE% (SD) ranged from 0.46% (0.44) to 11.80% (2.76) with the 3-layer athletic mesh having the highest performance and the highest deviations. All the masks tested following the procedure failed to meet to minimum FE of 20%; however all masks performed below the minimum upper limits for airflow resistance. Using a non-medical fabric masks as the sole mitigation strategy may not be as effective, as previously reported. With efforts to standardize and regulate the non-medical fabric mask market, this study demonstrates a variety of currently available consumer mask products do not meet the minimum standards nor are these remotely close to the standards of surgical or N95 masks.


Asunto(s)
Filtración , Textiles
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1542, 2021 03 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750816

RESUMEN

Despite the fast development of various energy harvesting and storage devices, their judicious integration into efficient, autonomous, and sustainable wearable systems has not been widely explored. Here, we introduce the concept and design principles of e-textile microgrids by demonstrating a multi-module bioenergy microgrid system. Unlike earlier hybrid wearable systems, the presented e-textile microgrid relies solely on human activity to work synergistically, harvesting biochemical and biomechanical energy using sweat-based biofuel cells and triboelectric generators, and regulating the harvested energy via supercapacitors for high-power output. Through energy budgeting, the e-textile system can efficiently power liquid crystal displays continuously or a sweat sensor-electrochromic display system in pulsed sessions, with half the booting time and triple the runtime in a 10-min exercise session. Implementing "compatible form factors, commensurate performance, and complementary functionality" design principles, the flexible, textile-based bioenergy microgrid offers attractive prospects for the design and operation of efficient, sustainable, and autonomous wearable systems.


Asunto(s)
Bioingeniería/instrumentación , Ingeniería Biomédica/instrumentación , Textiles , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Fuentes de Energía Bioeléctrica , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Técnicas Biosensibles/instrumentación , Humanos , Sudor
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112093, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721667

RESUMEN

Organic aromatic compounds used for dyeing and coloring in the textile industry are persistent and hazardous pollutants that must be treated before they are discharged into rivers and surface waters. Therefore, we investigated the potential of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete velutina to decolorize commonly used reactive dyes. The fungus decolorized in average 55% of Reactive Orange 16 (RO-16) after 14 days at a maximum rate of 0.09 d-1 and a half-life of 8 days. Furthermore, we determined the inhibitory effects of co-present inorganic contaminants Nickel (Ni) and Cobalt (Co) salts on the decolorization potential and determined IC50 values of 5.55 mg l-1 for Co and a weaker inhibition by Ni starting from a concentration of 20 mg l-1. In the decolorization assay for Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) we observed the interference of a metabolite of P. velutina, which did not allow us to investigate the kinetics of the reaction. The formation of the metabolite, however, could be used to obtain IC50 values of 3.37 mg l-1 for Co and 7.58 mg l-1 for Ni. Our results show that living white rot fungi, such as P. velutina, can be used for remediation of dye polluted wastewater, alternatively to enzyme mixtures, even in the co-presence of heavy metals.


Asunto(s)
Biodegradación Ambiental , Colorantes/metabolismo , Phanerochaete/metabolismo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo , Antraquinonas , Compuestos Azo , Cobalto , Metales Pesados , Níquel , Sales (Química) , Industria Textil , Textiles , Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652644

RESUMEN

A textile patch antenna is an attractive package for wearable applications as it offers flexibility, less weight, easy integration into the garment and better comfort to the wearer. When it comes to wearability, above all, comfort comes ahead of the rest of the properties. The air permeability and the water vapor permeability of textiles are linked to the thermophysiological comfort of the wearer as they help to improve the breathability of textiles. This paper includes the construction of a breathable textile rectangular ring microstrip patch antenna with improved water vapor permeability. A selection of high air permeable conductive fabrics and 3-dimensional knitted spacer dielectric substrates was made to ensure better water vapor permeability of the breathable textile rectangular ring microstrip patch antenna. To further improve the water vapor permeability of the breathable textile rectangular ring microstrip patch antenna, a novel approach of inserting a large number of small-sized holes of 1 mm diameter in the conductive layers (the patch and the ground plane) of the antenna was adopted. Besides this, the insertion of a large number of small-sized holes improved the flexibility of the rectangular ring microstrip patch antenna. The result was a breathable perforated (with small-sized holes) textile rectangular ring microstrip patch antenna with the water vapor permeability as high as 5296.70 g/m2 per day, an air permeability as high as 510 mm/s, and with radiation gains being 4.2 dBi and 5.4 dBi in the E-plane and H-plane, respectively. The antenna was designed to resonate for the Industrial, Scientific and Medical band at a specific 2.45 GHz frequency.


Asunto(s)
Textiles , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Tecnología Inalámbrica , Radiación Electromagnética , Diseño de Equipo
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668250

RESUMEN

Textile electrodes, also called textrodes, for biosignal monitoring as well as electrostimulation are central for the emerging research field of smart textiles. However, so far, only the general suitability of textrodes for those areas was investigated, while the influencing parameters on the contact impedance related to the electrode construction and external factors remain rather unknown. Therefore, in this work, six different knitted electrodes, applied both wet and dry, were compared regarding the influence of specific knitting construction parameters on the three-electrode contact impedance measured on a human forearm. Additionally, the influence of applying pressure was investigated in a two-electrode setup using a water-based agar dummy. Further, simulation of an equivalent circuit was used for quantitative evaluation. Indications were found that the preferred electrode construction to achieve the lowest contact impedance includes a square shaped electrode, knitted with a high yarn density and, in the case of dry electrodes, an uneven surface topography consisting of loops, while in wet condition a smooth surface is favorable. Wet electrodes are showing a greatly reduced contact impedance and are therefore to be preferred over dry ones; however, opportunities are seen for improving the electrode performance of dry electrodes by applying pressure to the system, thereby avoiding disadvantages of wet electrodes with fluid administration, drying-out of the electrolyte, and discomfort arising from a "wet feeling".


Asunto(s)
Electrodos , Piel , Textiles , Impedancia Eléctrica , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos
20.
Chemosphere ; 271: 129804, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736209

RESUMEN

This paper deals with the degradation of Acid Violet 19 (AV19) textile dye by the electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process in a laboratory flow plant using a filter press cell fitted with a 3D gas diffusion electrode (3D GDE) containing a graphite felt positioned on carbon-cloth PTFE as cathode, and a Ti|IrSnSb-oxides plate as anode. H2O2 was formed by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the cathode; the air was supplied by an external compressor. The O3 produced externally by an ozonator was added in the pipeline at the outlet of the electrolyzer to promote the reaction between the H2O2 and O3 to produce OH, which is the responsible for the mineralization of the dye. The effect of electrolyte flow rate (Q), current density (j), and initial concentration of AV19 dye on its degradation was addressed. The best electrolysis in a solution containing 40 mg TOC L-1, 0.05 M Na2SO4, at pH 3, was obtained at j = 20 mA cm-2, Q = 2.0 L min-1, using a pressure of the air fed to the 3D GDE of PGDE = 3 psi, and an ozone inlet mass flow rate of [Formula: see text]  = 14.5 mg L-1, achieving 100% discoloration, 60% mineralization, with mineralization current efficiency and energy consumption of 36% and 0.085 kWh(gTOC)-1. The degradation of AV19 dye was also performed by anodic oxidation plus H2O2 electrogenerated (AO-H2O2) and ozonation. The oxidation power was AO-H2O2 < ozonation < E-peroxone. Three carboxylic acids were quantified by chromatography as oxidation end products.


Asunto(s)
Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Bencenosulfonatos , Electrodos , Laboratorios , Oxidación-Reducción , Textiles , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
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