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2.
Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci ; 96(3): 122-129, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161210

RESUMEN

Black carbon (BC) particles cause adverse health effects and contribute to the heating of the atmosphere by absorbing visible solar radiation. Efforts have been made to reduce BC emissions, especially in urban areas; however, long-term measurements of BC mass concentration (MBC) are very limited in Japan. We report MBC measurements conducted in Tokyo from 2003 to 2017, showing that MBC decreased by a factor of 3 from 2003 to 2010 and was stable from 2010 to 2017. Fine particulate concentrations (PM2.5) decreased by a much smaller factor during 2003-2010. The diurnal variations of BC size distributions suggest that the BC in Tokyo originates mainly from local sources, even after 2010. Our three-dimensional model calculations show that BC from the Asian continent contributes a small portion (about 20%) of the annual average MBC in the Kanto region of Japan, which includes Tokyo. This indicates that continued reduction of BC emissions inside Japan should be effective in further decreasing MBC.


Asunto(s)
Carbono/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Material Particulado/química , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/química , Contaminación del Aire , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Salud Pública , Tokio
4.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101631, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184129

RESUMEN

Our recommendation, as experts who have monitored health hazards at the Hajj for over 15 years, especially if the situation with COVID-19 continues to escalate globally is that Hajj 2020 will be at risk of being suspended and a means for Muslims to fulfill their rights in the future either personally or even by proxy need to be announced. The same holds true for the Summer 2020 Olympics in Japan and for many other MGs and large gatherings. Decisions in the time of COVID-19 will be closely followed and will be a blueprint for other mass gatherings.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Aglomeración , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Viaje , Betacoronavirus , China , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Islamismo , Arabia Saudita , Deportes , Tokio
6.
Mutat Res ; 849: 503137, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087853

RESUMEN

The International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) meets every four years to obtain consensus on unresolved issues associated with genotoxicity testing. At the 2017 IWGT meeting in Tokyo, four sub-groups addressed issues associated with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline TG471, which describes the use of bacterial reverse-mutation tests. The strains sub-group analyzed test data from >10,000 chemicals, tested additional chemicals, and concluded that some strains listed in TG471 are unnecessary because they detected fewer mutagens than other strains that the guideline describes as equivalent. Thus, they concluded that a smaller panel of strains would suffice to detect most mutagens. The laboratory proficiency sub-group recommended (a) establishing strain cell banks, (b) developing bacterial growth protocols that optimize assay sensitivity, and (c) testing "proficiency compounds" to gain assay experience and establish historical positive and control databases. The sub-group on criteria for assay evaluation recommended that laboratories (a) track positive and negative control data; (b) develop acceptability criteria for positive and negative controls; (c) optimize dose-spacing and the number of analyzable doses when there is evidence of toxicity; (d) use a combination of three criteria to evaluate results: a dose-related increase in revertants, a clear increase in revertants in at least one dose relative to the concurrent negative control, and at least one dose that produced an increase in revertants above control limits established by the laboratory from historical negative controls; and (e) establish experimental designs to resolve unclear results. The in silico sub-group summarized in silico utility as a tool in genotoxicity assessment but made no specific recommendations for TG471. Thus, the workgroup identified issues that could be addressed if TG471 is revised. The companion papers (a) provide evidence-based approaches, (b) recommend priorities, and (c) give examples of clearly defined terms to support revision of TG471.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Mutagénesis , Pruebas de Mutagenicidad/normas , Mutágenos/toxicidad , Salmonella typhimurium/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas/organización & administración , Bases de Datos de Compuestos Químicos/provisión & distribución , Escherichia coli/genética , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Mutágenos/clasificación , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Tokio
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110806, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056600

RESUMEN

PCBs and PBDEs in microplastics and zooplankton collected in surface water at 27 locations in the Pacific Ocean and around the coast of Japan were investigated. Both PCBs and PBDEs were observed in buoyant microplastics, even in smaller particles of 0.315-1 mm. Concentrations of Σ13 PCBs were 0.04-124 ng/g, and were higher in urban bay areas such as Tokyo Bay. Sporadic moderate to high concentrations of PBDEs were observed in both urban-offshore and rural-offshore locations, consisting mostly of higher-brominated congeners. From the latter, BDE 209 ranged from not detected to 2158 ng/g. The microplastic-to-zooplankton abundance ratio threshold was 0.6 for PCBs and 0.08 for PBDEs, above which exposure would be greater from microplastics than from zooplankton.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Éteres Difenilos Halogenados/análisis , Microplásticos/análisis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Zooplancton , Animales , Japón , Océano Pacífico , Plásticos , Tokio
8.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 61(1): 53-60, 2020 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074588

RESUMEN

An extremely rare case of fibrolipoma in the hard palate is presented and discussed with reference to the literature. An 85-year-old woman visited the Tokyo Dental College Chiba hospital in September 2016 with the chief complaint of a mass in the hard palate. The patient had first become aware of this mass several years earlier. An examination at another hospital in June 2009 resulted in a clinical diagnosis of lipoma. Regular examinations followed every 6 months until September 2014, at which time she stopped attending these appointments because there was no change. In August 2016, however, the patient realized that the tumor was increasing in size. Although there was no pain, awareness of a foreign body in the oral cavity when eating or talking was increasing, so she decided to visit our clinic for detailed examination and treatment. At this point, the mass extended from the center to the left side of the hard palate. It measured 15 mm along the major axis, and had a clear border; nearly spherical, its surface was smooth and glossy, and was of a slightly yellowish color. The mass was painless, elastic, and soft. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumorous lesion. Based on a clinical diagnosis of lipoma, it was subsequently excised under general anesthesia in January 2017. The tumor lay under the palatal mucosa, extending from the center to the left side of the hard palate. It was surrounded by a single-layered membranous structure, and had not adhered to the surrounding tissues. Healthy palatal mucosa and periosteum were also removed en bloc with the tumor within a safety margin of approximately 5 mm. No pressure absorption of palatine bone was seen. Histopathologically, proliferation of mature adipose tissue was observed. This was surrounded by a thin, single-layer membrane within the subepithelial connective tissue, which was covered by stratified squamous epithelium. Proliferation of fibrotic connective tissue was seen between the adipocytes. The final diagnosis was fibrolipoma. To date, at 18 months postoperatively, no recurrence has been observed and progress has been satisfactory.


Asunto(s)
Lipoma , Paladar Duro , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Tokio , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
9.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 61(1): 37-42, 2020 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074589

RESUMEN

Maintaining dental and oral health and increasing healthy life expectancy are important issues for Japan as it deals with the rapid aging of its population. The purpose of this study was to determine effective dental health measures aimed at increasing the number of present teeth in the elderly. Change in the number of present teeth was determined based on data obtained from the 2009 and 2014 "Good Teeth Tokyo (Ii-ha Tokyo)" surveys carried out by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. The number of present teeth and percentile curves were compared between these two time points. The number only showed a significant increase in individuals aged 60 years in 2014 (p<0.05). This may have been due to the establishment of a national public insurance system. The number of present teeth showed an increase in 2014 in the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile curves. In the 75th and 90th percentile curves, tooth loss accelerated when the number of present teeth was fewer than 25. This finding is consistent with studies reporting that tooth loss itself is a risk for tooth loss. Tooth loss showed a slight acceleration between the ages of approximately 20 and 45 years in the 90th percentile curve. These results indicate that dental check-ups at universities and companies, periodontal disease check-ups performed by local governments, and health instruction at these check-ups are necessary to increase the number of present teeth in the elderly. They further suggest that implementing measures to promote periodic visits to dental clinics and providing incentives to undergo treatment for tooth defects are necessary in high-risk individuals. In conclusion, dental check-ups, health instruction, and strategies for high-risk individuals in their 20s and 40s are necessary to increase the number of present teeth in the elderly.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Diente , Adulto , Anciano , Humanos , Japón , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Bucal , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tokio , Adulto Joven
10.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113469, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902538

RESUMEN

Both surface and satellite observations have shown a decrease in NOx emissions in East Asian countries in recent years. In order to reflect the recent NOx emission reduction and to investigate its impact on surface O3 concentrations in Asian megacities, we adjusted two bottom-up regional emission inventories of which base years are 2006 (E2006) and 2010 (E2010), respectively. We applied direct and relative emission adjustments to both E2006 and E2010 to constrain NOx emissions using OMI NO2 vertical column densities. Except for the relative emission adjustment with E2006, modeling results with adjusted emissions exhibit that NOx emissions over East Asian megacities (Beijing, Shanghai, Seoul, and Tokyo) in the bottom-up inventories are generally overestimated. When the direct emission adjustment is applied to E2006, model biases in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), South Korea are reduced from 24 ppb to 2 ppb for NOx (=NO+NO2) and from -9 ppb to 0 ppb for O3. In addition, NO2 model biases in Beijing and Shanghai in China are reduced from 8 ppb to 18 ppb-0 ppb and 1 ppb, respectively. Daily maximum 8-h average O3 model biases over the same places are decreased by 8 ppb and 14 ppb. Further analyses suggest that the reduction in domestic South Korean NOx emissions plays a significant role in increasing O3 concentrations in SMA. We conclude that the current strong drive to reduce NOx emissions as part of the strategy to lower particulate matter concentrations in South Korea can account for increased O3 concentrations in recent years and suggest that more aggressive NOx emissions will be necessary soon.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Óxidos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis , Beijing , China , República de Corea , Seúl , Tokio
12.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113673, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862581

RESUMEN

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are common pollutants in coastal waters. To investigate the estrogen risk of EDCs in the coastal areas of Japan, the Japanese common goby, which is a commonly observed species in these waters, was used as the target fish. Plasma 17ß-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (VTG) levels were analyzed and the gonads of fish collected from the Taira River (northern Nagasaki, reference site), Nagasaki Port, and two sites in Tokyo Bay were observed. Abnormal levels (>150 ng/mL, p < 0.05) of plasma VTG and high levels of plasma E2 were detected in the fish from Nagasaki Port and Tokyo Bay, whereas the levels of both were low in the fish from the Taira River. The target EDCs, including natural estrogen [estrone (E1), and E2] and alkylphenols [4-t-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), and bisphenol-A (BPA)] in water samples were quantified using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS), respectively. It was observed that the E2-equivalent (EEQ) in Nagasaki Port and Tokyo Bay, which was calculated from the actual EDC measurement value, were almost 20- and 150-fold higher, respectively, than that at the reference site (Taira River, 0.021 ng/L). The EEQs mostly comprised natural estrogen in the sampling sites, although there was some influence of alkylphenols. There was an association between the EEQ and the E2 in environmental water, suggesting a high estrogen risk in Japan coastal waters. Moreover, the results indicated that abnormal VTG synthesis was induced by environmental estrogen (EE) pollution in Nagasaki Port and Tokyo Bay.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estrógenos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Bahías , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Peces/fisiología , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Japón , Ríos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Tokio
13.
Nurse Educ ; 45(1): E1-E5, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865152

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Presenteeism, the act of going to work while sick, is associated with increases in medication errors, patient falls, diminished quality of care, and higher costs. To date, presenteeism has not been described among nursing students. PURPOSE: This study described presenteeism in nursing students from 3 different international nursing programs. METHOD: A self-administered survey with open-ended responses was used. RESULTS: While nearly all student respondents believed going to class and clinical experiences put their classmates and patients at risk, the overall presenteeism rate was 85.5% for class and 69.5% for clinical experiences. Although there were significant differences between universities for reasons for presenteeism, a lack of opportunity for making up missed lecture or clinical time predominated. CONCLUSION: Nursing students in 3 culturally different cities reported going to class and clinical experiences while sick despite recognizing the safety risk.


Asunto(s)
Intercambio Educacional Internacional , Presentismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Hawaii , Humanos , Masculino , Investigación en Educación de Enfermería , Seguridad del Paciente , Medición de Riesgo , Seúl , Estudiantes de Enfermería/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tokio , Universidades , Adulto Joven
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847195

RESUMEN

Ambient conditions may change rapidly and notably over time in urban areas. Conventional indices, such as the heat index and wet bulb globe temperature, are useful only in stationary ambient conditions. To estimate the risks of heat-related illness, human thermophysiological responses should be followed for ambient conditions in the time domain. We develop a computational method for estimating the time course of core temperature and water loss by combining micrometeorology and human thermal response. We firstly utilize an urban micrometeorology prediction to reproduce the environment surrounding walkers. The temperature elevations and sweating in a standard adult and child are then estimated for meteorological conditions. With the integrated computational method, we estimate the body temperature and thermophysiological responses for an adult and child walking along a street with two routes (sunny and shaded) in Tokyo on 7 August 2015. The difference in the core temperature elevation in the adult between the two routes was 0.11 °C, suggesting the necessity for a micrometeorology simulation. The differences in the computed body core temperatures and water loss of the adult and child were notable, and were mainly characterized by the surface area-to-mass ratio. The computational techniques will be useful for the selection of actions to manage the risk of heat-related illness and for thermal comfort.


Asunto(s)
Temperatura Corporal , Sudoración , Caminata , Adulto , Niño , Ciudades , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Tokio , Tiempo (Meteorología)
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1442, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675931

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study explored the relationship between community social capital and cognitive impairment, with a focus on the buffering role of community social capital in the association between educational disadvantage and cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults in Japan. METHODS: We used data from two population-based, cross-sectional surveys targeting people aged ≥65 years in a suburban city of the Tokyo metropolitan area (n = 897; 49.8% men; average age = 74.4 years). Social capital included social support (emotional and instrumental support) and the strength of social networks (neighborly ties). To create district-level social capital indicators, we aggregated individual responses on social capital within each district. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Japanese version was used for the assessment of cognitive function. RESULTS: Using multilevel logistic regression analysis, we found that lower amounts of district-level emotional and instrumental support were associated with a greater likelihood of cognitive impairment among men. For women, district-level emotional support was associated with a greater likelihood of cognitive impairment. Additionally, a strong district-level social network buffered the relationship between low education and cognitive impairment in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Community social capital appears to have a protective role in determining cognitive function in old age. Our findings may facilitate the development of new community-based strategies to combat dementia.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva/prevención & control , Escolaridad , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Capital Social , Anciano , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Demencia/epidemiología , Demencia/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Masculino , Análisis Multinivel , Red Social , Apoyo Social , Tokio/epidemiología
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(12): 104455, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680032

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Perioperative cerebral infarction is one of the concerning complications after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with aortic stenosis. Several studies have reported on this complication; however, those included only Caucasians and analyzed a small number of cases. Here, we report on the characteristics and risk factors of symptomatic cerebral infarction after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a single, high-volume center in Japan. METHODS: We included 308 consecutive patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation in our facility between 2013 and 2016. We retrospectively analyzed the occurrence, characteristics, and prognoses of symptomatic cerebral infarction within 7 days after the procedure and statistically compared the risk factors between patients with or without cerebral infarction. RESULTS: Five patients (1.6%) suffered from symptomatic cerebral infarction, which was usually recognized just after the procedure, with mild symptoms. Long-term prognoses tended to be good unless other factors influenced disability. Comorbidities, such as carotid artery stenosis and peripheral artery disease, were significantly higher in patients with cerebral infarction (P = .036 and .002, respectively); in addition, coronary artery disease and longer anesthesia duration (indicating challenging catheter procedures) tended to be associated with cerebral infarction (P = .080 and .069, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic cerebral infarction occurred in 1.6% of patients after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a single, high-volume center in Japan; the infarctions were of mild severity tending toward good long-term prognoses. We speculate arterial embolism from atherosclerotic large arteries, especially from the aortic arch, during catheter procedures might be the mechanistic basis of cerebral infarction.


Asunto(s)
Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica/cirugía , Infarto Cerebral/etiología , Hospitales de Alto Volumen , Reemplazo de la Válvula Aórtica Transcatéter/efectos adversos , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Infarto Cerebral/terapia , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Tokio , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
Intern Med ; 58(22): 3213-3217, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735735

RESUMEN

Objective Acute cholangitis is occasionally life-threatening and requires immediate treatment. For the management of acute cases, globally accepted diagnostic criteria and the use of severity grading, as defined in the Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18), are recommended. This study was performed to explore the association between acute cholangitis and the level of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in blood as determined with a simple measurement method. Methods Twenty-three consecutive patients admitted for acute cholangitis and 14 healthy individuals were enrolled. Based on the TG18, the patients were categorized according to the degree of severity as Grade I, II, or III. We measured the amount of ATP in blood samples using a bioluminescence meter and evaluated the correlation with the degree of severity. Results The ATP/total hemoglobin (tHgb) level showed a significant decline in association with an increase in severity, as that in the healthy controls was 236.60 ± 8.10 and in the Grade I, II, and III groups was 238.56 ± 6.98, 186.88 ± 7.62, and 154.60 ± 11.01, respectively (p<0.01). While no significant difference was observed between the healthy controls and Grade I patients (p=0.649), there was a statistically significant difference between Grade I and Grade II (p<0.01) in the ATP/tHgb level. According to a receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve for ATP/tHgb, used as an index for predicting the need for emergency biliary drainage (Grade II, III cases), was the highest among various examined factors. Conclusion The present novel measurement method was found to be simple to perform and useful for detecting acute cholangitis patients with a low ATP level who may require emergency biliary drainage.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Aguda/terapia , Adenosina Trifosfato/análisis , Colangitis/sangre , Colangitis/diagnóstico , Colangitis/terapia , Drenaje/métodos , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Tokio
19.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 60(4): 241-250, 2019 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761876

RESUMEN

The postgraduate training course at the Department of Orthodontics of Tokyo Dental College, which started in April 1975, comprises a 3-year curriculum aimed at fostering orthodontic specialists. A system of Accreditation for Orthodontists was introduced by the Japan Orthodontic Society in 1990, since which time, this postgraduate training course has also sought to provide the basic training required to obtain such certification. The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographics of the students on this course and the current work status of its graduates by means of a questionnaire-based survey. The results revealed that, when the fortieth intake of students graduated in March 2017, the total number completing the course had reached 326. The annual mean number of students on this course was 8.2, and recent years have seen a marked increase in the number of women enrolling. In total, 37.5% of the questionnaire respondents had opened orthodontic clinics; 14.8% had opened general dentistry clinics; and 42.6% were working as employees. In addition, 46.2% had an additional place of employment other than their principal place of employment, mainly at a general dentistry clinic. Regarding the field of treatment, 82.4% provided solely orthodontic treatment. We believe that this may because all the responders had completed the postgraduate orthodontics course. The rate of earning accreditation as an orthodontist was high (82.4%), with no difference in the rate of acquisition between men and women. The rate of qualification as a Board-certified orthodontist was 17.9%, with the rate of acquisition by women approximately half of that by men. The number of female orthodontists is rising, and no difference was observed between sexes in the rate of acquiring accreditation as an orthodontist. Women were found to be lagging behind men, however, in regard to the rate of advancement to masters/PHD programs; qualifying as a Board-certified orthodontist; opening an orthodontic practice; and number of days worked. These findings suggest that there are differences in regard to the actual working conditions among the alumni of our postgraduate orthodontic training course, and that these differences are sex-based.


Asunto(s)
Ortodoncia , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Sociedades Odontológicas , Tokio
20.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 60(4): 251-260, 2019 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761878

RESUMEN

The facilities comprising Tokyo Dental College (TDC) -the college itself and its medical institutions at Suidobashi, Ichikawa, and Chiba - have been officially recognized as a center for treating oral cancer. The TDC Oral Cancer Center (OCC) was established on April 1, 2006. It provides comprehensive medical care, including that aimed at recovery of postoperative function, such as restoration of stomatognathic function, dysphagia therapy, and placement of maxillary prostheses. The purpose of this study was to investigate patient trends at TDC-OCC over the 10 years following its establishment in order to determine how the safe and high-quality cancer care already provided might be even further improved. Oral cancer patients attending TDC-OCC between April 2007 and March 2017 were investigated. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and analyzed, including that on patient numbers, age, sex, primary site of tumor, clinical stage, and surgery provided. There were 758 new cases, and the number of new cases showed an annual increase. Among the total number of new patients, 575 (75.9%) represented primary cases. The number of operations also showed an increase, which correlated with the increase in the number of patients. The incidence in oral cancer has increased in several countries, including Japan. Oral cancer can be observed macroscopically and touched. In contrast to with cancers at many other sites, and despite various diagnostic devices for early detection having been developed, however, cases are often advanced when first encountered. Many advanced cases were treated at TDC-OCC, and the number of reconstructive operations following progressive cancer also increased over time.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Deglución , Neoplasias de la Boca , Humanos , Japón , Tokio
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