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1.
Estud. Interdiscip. Psicol ; 10(3): 26-42, dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049791

RESUMEN

O estudo objetivou verificar a ocorrência da Síndrome de Burnout nos Motoristas do Transporte da Saúde, analisando-se as consequências que esta pode trazer para a vida do profissional. A pesquisa é de abordagem quanti-qualitativa e de caráter descritivo. Aplicou-se o formulário do Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS) para identificação da síndrome e uma entrevista semiestruturada. Participaram da investigação 14 Motoristas da Saúde dos municípios que compõem a Agência de Desenvolvimento Regional de município do interior do estado de Santa Catarina. Para a análise dos dados relativos ao instrumento MBI-HSS, foram seguidas as normas apresentadas pelo instrumento e, para a análise dos dados da entrevista, foi utilizada a técnica de análise de conteúdo de Bardin (2009). Os resultados apontaram a manifestação da Síndrome de Burnout nessa categoria de trabalhadores (93% dos entrevistados). Conclui-se que a manifestação da síndrome neste público ocorre pela profissão ocasionar intenso estresse e exposição a fatores nocivos (AU).


The study aimed to verify the occurrence of Burnout Syndrome in Health Transport Drivers, analyzing its consequences to the life of the professional. The research is quantitative-qualitative and descriptive in nature. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS) form was applied to identify the syndrome and a semi-structured interview. The participants of the study were 14 Health Drivers from the municipalities that make up the Regional Development Agency of a municipality in the interior of the state of Santa Catarina. For the analysis of the MBI-HSS data, the standards presented in the instrument were followed and for data analysis of the interview, the technique of content analysis of Bardin (2009) was used. The results pointed to the manifestation of Burnout Syndrome in this category of workers (93% of respondents). We concluded that the manifestation of the syndrome in this public occurs because the profession causes intense stress and exposure to harmful factors (AU).


El estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar la ocurrencia del síndrome de Burnout en los conductores del transporte sanitario, analizando sus consecuencias para vida del profesional. La investigación es de naturaleza cuantitativa-cualitativa y descriptiva. Se aplicó el formulario Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS) para identificar el síndrome y una entrevista semiestructurada. En el estudio participaron 14 Promotores Sanitarios de los municipios que integran la Agencia de Desarrollo Regional de un municipio del interior del estado de Santa Catarina. Para el análisis de los datos de MBI-HSS, se siguieron los estándares presentados en el instrumento y para el análisis de datos de la entrevista, se utilizó la técnica de análisis de contenido de Bardin (2009). Los resultados apuntan la manifestación del Síndrome de Burnout en esta categoría de trabajadores (93% de los encuestados). Concluimos que la manifestación del síndrome en este público ocurre porque la profesión causa estrés intenso y exposición a factores dañinos (AU).


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Enfermedades Profesionales , Trabajo/psicología
2.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 65, 2019 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619278

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: When enrolled in university or college, students receive varying degrees of training in managing practical situations in the workplace. However, after graduation, the young professionals meet their responsibilities at work. The experience of the transition between education and work may connote a feeling of professional uncertainty and lack of coping, both of which are important factors related to young professionals' mental health. The gap between the two areas of knowledge is frequently described as 'practice shock'. Very few studies of mental health among students and young professional workers have used longitudinal designs. In the present study, we conducted a longitudinal investigation of change and stability in the levels of psychological distress among healthcare professionals, teachers, and social workers from the end of their study programs until 3 years into their subsequent professional lives. We also assessed the extent to which psychological distress at the end of the study program, sociodemographic characteristics, coping with the professional role, the psychosocial workplace environment, and experience of overall quality of life can predict psychological distress 3 years into their professional lives. METHODS: Psychological distress was measured using the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). A total of 773 students/young professionals participated at both the end of their study programs and 3 years into their professional lives. Group differences were examined by the chi-squared test, independent samples t-test, and one-way analysis of variance. McNemar's test were applied to identify changes in the proportion of cases at the two time points. Linear and logistic regressions were employed to identify factors associated with GHQ-12 Likert scores and GHQ-12 case scores, respectively. RESULTS: Psychological distress was significantly reduced at 3 years for health professionals. Among the social workers and teachers, the change in psychological distress was not significant during the same period. Higher current quality of life contributed to lower psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support assumptions about higher levels of mental health problems as students, with mental health improving as health professionals and social workers move into professional work.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Estudiantes/psicología , Trabajo/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Empleo , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad de Vida , Universidades , Adulto Joven
3.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(11)2019 Aug 20.
Artículo en Noruego, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429227

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many questionnaires for measuring the quality of life for patients with obesity require comprehensive calculation before they are used. There is a need for questionnaires that permit simple assessment of the responses during a patient consultation. We have developed the questionnaire Patient-Reported Outcomes in Obesity (PROS). The objective of the study was to test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The questionnaire was used to ask patients about the extent to which they perceived their weight or body shape as bothersome. A group of patients with an average body mass index (BMI) of 42 (n = 109) completed the PROS questionnaire and The Impact of Weight Quality of Life questionnaire (IWQOL-Lite) before undergoing obesity surgery. Another group with an average body mass index of 29 (n = 95) completed the PROS questionnaire 1-5 years after having undergone obesity surgery. 67,7 % of the patients were > 40 years and 79 % were women. For the statistical analysis we used Cronbach's alpha, factor analysis, Spearman's rank test and independent t-test. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha for the total PROS score was 0.90, and the factor analysis showed a significant factor (eigenvalue = 4.7) that explained 58.4 % of the variance. The test-retest correlation was 0.93 (p < 0.001). The correlation coefficients between the PROS score, the total IWQOL-Lite score (rs = -0.91) and body mass index (rs = 0.60) were all significant (p < 0.001). The t-test showed an effect size (difference in standard deviation) between the non-surgery and the surgery groups of 1.9 (95 % CI 1.6-2.5) for the PROS questionnaire and 2.1 (95 % CI 1.7-2.5 for the total IWQOL-Lite score. INTERPRETATION: The PROS questionnaire is a reliable and valid questionnaire for measurement of obesity-specific quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad/psicología , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Cirugía Bariátrica , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Ejercicio/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Estado Civil , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor/psicología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Autoimagen , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Sueño , Discriminación Social/psicología , Trabajo/psicología
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1125, 2019 Aug 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419956

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increasing life expectancy has made understanding the mechanisms underlying late-life health and function more important. We set out to investigate whether trajectories of change in psychosocial working conditions are associated with late-life physical function. METHODS: Two Swedish surveys, linked at the individual level, were used (n = 803). A psychosocial job exposure matrix was used to measure psychosocial working conditions during people's first occupation, as well as their occupation every five years thereafter until baseline in 1991. Physical function was measured in 2014. Random effects growth curve models were used to calculate intraindividual trajectories of working conditions. Predictors of physical function were assessed with ordered logistic regression. RESULTS: A more active job at baseline was associated with increased odds of late-life physical function (OR 1.15, CI 1.01-1.32). Higher baseline job strain was associated with decreased odds of late-life physical function (OR 0.75, CI 0.59-0.96). A high initial level followed by an upward trajectory of job strain throughout working life was associated with decreased odds of late-life physical function (OR 0.32, CI 0.17-0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Promoting a healthier workplace by reducing chronic stress and inducing intellectual stimulation, control, and personal growth may contribute to better late-life physical function.


Asunto(s)
Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Rendimiento Físico Funcional , Trabajo/psicología , Anciano , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Suecia/epidemiología
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443601

RESUMEN

Salutary retirement policy depends on a clear understanding of factors in the workplace that contribute to work ability at older ages. Research in occupational health typically uses either self-reported or objective ratings of the work environment to assess workplace determinants of health and work ability. This study assessed whether individual characteristics and work-related demands were differentially associated with (1) self-reported ratings of job resources from older workers in the Health and Retirement Study, and (2) corresponding objective ratings of job resources from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). Results from regression and relative weights analyses showed that self-reported ratings were associated with self-reported job demands and personal resources, whereas corresponding O*NET ratings were associated with differences in gender, race, or socioeconomic standing. As a result, subjective ratings may not capture important aspects of aging workers' sociodemographic background that influence work ability, occupational sorting, opportunities for advancement, and ultimately the job resources available to them. Future studies should consider including both subjective and objective measures to capture individual and societal level processes that drive the relationship between work, health, and aging.


Asunto(s)
Trabajo/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Laboral , Jubilación , Autoinforme , Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323860

RESUMEN

In this study, we examine employees' perceptions of their work ability from a sustainable career perspective. Specifically, we investigate the role of a person's perceived current fit (i.e., autonomy, strengths use and needs-supply fit), and future fit with their job as resources that affect perceived work ability, defined as the extent to which employees feel capable of continuing their current work over a longer time period. In addition, we test whether meaningfulness of one's work mediates this relationship, and we address the moderating role of age. Our hypotheses were tested using a sample of 5205 employees working in diverse sectors in Belgium. The results of multi-group Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) provide mixed evidence for our hypotheses. While all four resources were significantly and positively related to perceived meaningfulness, only needs-supply fit was positively related to perceived work ability. Strengths use, on the other hand, was also significantly related to perceived work ability, yet in a negative way. These findings underscore the importance of distinguishing between several types of resources to understand their impact upon perceived work ability. Interestingly, the relationship between future-orientedness of the job and perceived work ability was moderated by age, with the relationship only being significant and positive for middle-aged and senior workers. This suggests an increasingly important role of having a perspective of future fit with one's job as employees grow older. Contrary to our expectations, meaningfulness did not mediate the relationships between resources and perceived work ability. We discuss these findings and their implications from the perspective of sustainable career development.


Asunto(s)
Aptitud , Ocupaciones , Autonomía Profesional , Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Bélgica , Selección de Profesión , Femenino , Recursos en Salud , Humanos , Longevidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recursos Humanos
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 874, 2019 Jul 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272426

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to identify the association between psychosocial working conditions, global stress perception, and needle-stick injury among Chinese healthcare workers. It also endeavors to detect the mediating effects of global stress perception. METHODS: A total of 1956 valid samples were collected from eight teaching hospitals in Shanghai, China. A self-reported questionnaire was administered to participants after obtaining their written consent. Structural equation model was used to analyze the relationship between study variables. RESULTS: Most of the correlation coefficients between psychosocial conditions at work, stress perception, and needle-stick injury are of statistical significance ranging from 0.004 to 0.869. Results of the internal consistency test shows that Cronbach's α is between 0.770 and 0.925. All three models for effect analysis demonstrated satisfactory global goodness and acceptable path loadings. Psychosocial working conditions and stress perception were directly associated with events of needle-stick injury, as 0.39 (95%CI: 0.32 to 0.48) and 0.32 (95%CI: 0.22 to 0.39), respectively. Furthermore, stress perception had been proved to have a mediating effect (0.25, 95%CI: 0.19 to 0.31) between psychosocial working condition and needle-stick injury, which occupied over one-third of the total effect. CONCLUSIONS: Both stressful psychosocial working conditions and negative stress perception could increase the risk of needle-stick injury that occurs among healthcare workers. Management of stress perception could reduce health risk brought by stressful psychosocial working conditions.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones por Pinchazo de Aguja/epidemiología , Estrés Laboral/psicología , Personal de Hospital/psicología , Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Humanos , Masculino , Personal de Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269658

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The Need for Recovery (NFR) Scale facilitates the understanding of the factors that can lead to sustainable working and employability. Short-form scales can reduce the burden on researchers and respondents. Our aim was to create and validate a short-form Danish version of the NFR Scale. METHODS: Two datasets were used to conduct the exploratory and confirmatory analyses. This was done using qualitative and quantitative methods. The exploratory phase identified several short-form versions of the Danish NFR Scale and evaluated the quality of each through the assessment of content, construct and criterion validity, and responsiveness. These evaluations were then verified through the confirmatory analysis, using the second dataset. RESULTS: A short-form NFR scale consisting of three items (exhausted at the end of a work day, hard to find interest in other people after a work day, it takes over an hour to fully recover from a work day) showed excellent validity and responsiveness compared to the nine-item scale. Furthermore, a short-form consisting of just two items also showed excellent validity and good responsiveness. CONCLUSION: A short-form NFR scale, consisting of three items from the Danish NFR Scale, seems to be an appropriate substitute for the full nine-item scale.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Dinamarca , Empleo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
9.
Appl Ergon ; 80: 161-167, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280800

RESUMEN

Active computer workstations may help reduce workplace sedentarism. However, their impact on the upper limb musculoskeletal system is unknown. Subjects participated in two 60-min computer laptop-based Bike-and-Type sessions at different cycling intensities (LOW, HIGH). Upper trapezius and wrist extensor muscle blood flow, sensitivity and pain thresholds, and typing performance were measured intermittently. Neck/shoulder discomfort increased over time (p < 0.001), and was higher in the HIGH intensity (p = 0.036). Blood flow to the trapezius (p = 0.041) and wrist (p = 0.021) muscles were higher during HIGH, and wrist blood flow increased over time (p = 0.01). Trapezius sensitivity threshold significantly decreased over time (p = 0.003). There were no effects on pressure pain thresholds (interaction p = 0.091). Average typing speed was greater during HIGH (p = 0.046) and increased over time (p < 0.001). Time spent biking while typing effectively improved performance, which may facilitate muscle regeneration, although effects depend on biking intensity.


Asunto(s)
Ciclismo/fisiología , Ciclismo/psicología , Computadores , Trabajo/fisiología , Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Electromiografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/prevención & control , Músculos del Cuello/fisiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Músculos Superficiales de la Espalda/fisiología , Extremidad Superior/fisiología , Muñeca/fisiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357740

RESUMEN

International students represent an increasingly large segment of the Australian workforce. Most international students are working while studying, but there is a scarcity of quantitative data regarding potential work-study conflicts. Data from an online survey were analyzed with multivariate statistical methods to clarify the risk factors associated with perceived work-study conflicts in an Australian university. More than 66% of students felt that working demands interfered with their study. Negative impacts included tiredness and timetable clashes. Statistically significant correlates of work-study conflict were a perception of unfair wages and a lack of confidence in discussing occupational health and safety issues with employers. Underpayment may signify other vulnerabilities, such as unsafe working conditions. As many universities seek to increase their international student enrolments, these are important factors to consider for student retention. To mitigate this potential negative influence on study, universities should provide education and training related to international students' rights and responsibilities in the workplace.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades , Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Australia , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Salud Laboral , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
11.
Work ; 63(2): 151-152, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156195
12.
Work ; 63(2): 231-241, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156203

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obesity prevalence in the workforce is clearly increasing. Simultaneously, manual lifting/lowering loads, referred to as Vertical Handling Tasks (VHT) in this paper, are common in industries and services. Performing VHT exposes workers to physical overload, which can be measured using a psychophysical approach. Various risk factors can increase this overload, including individual factors such as workers' Body Mass Index (BMI). OBJECTIVE: To study the possible effects of workers' BMI and some task conditions on physical overload during VHT. METHODS: Psychophysical data were collected from 51 participants having different body constitutions (including non-obese, overweight and obese). The participants performed 6 VHT (3 different loads ×2 workstation configurations), during which they lifted and lowered a test-box between their knees and shoulders. For each task, they reported their perceived exertion using the Borg Category Ratio-10 (CR-10) scale. RESULTS: The results showed that the CR-10 scale is sensitive to the variation of the task conditions tested. However, the psychophysical data pointed to a tendency to decrease the perception of physical overload as workers' BMI increases. CONCLUSIONS: This may compromise the validity of the application of psychophysical data as an ergonomic approach for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSD) prevention in obese workers.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Percepción , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Adulto , Ergonomía/instrumentación , Ergonomía/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Elevación/efectos adversos , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto , Psicofísica/métodos , Psicofísica/tendencias , Factores de Riesgo , Trabajo/fisiología , Trabajo/psicología
13.
Work ; 63(2): 269-282, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156208

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While investigation of physicians' work experience is often limited to issues of satisfaction or burnout, a broader view of their experiences is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To explore professional experiences, we asked Japanese physicians (N = 18, 12 men and 6 women) of a general hospital to react to so-called "narrative facilitators". METHODS: The narrative facilitators - inspired by clinical psychology, visual sociology and purpose-designed techniques - oriented physicians' narratives towards clinical practise, relationship with peers and context. Transcribed interviews were subject to thematic analysis. RESULTS: The thematic analysis of participants' narratives revealed a lonely physician with a tough job, torn between the ideal of patient-centred care and a clinical reality, which limits these aspirations. Patients emerged as anxious and burdensome consumers of medicine. Feeling neither supported by peers nor the institution, physicians also perceived the society as somewhat negligent, delegating its problem to medicine. Communication difficulties, with patients and peers, and the absence of joyful aspects of the profession constituted fundamental elements of their narratives. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive investigation of physicians' lived professional experience could become a key to conceive ways to support them.


Asunto(s)
Narración , Médicos/psicología , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto/métodos , Japón , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Trabajo/psicología
14.
J Psychol ; 153(8): 820-842, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199199

RESUMEN

The present study sought to examine the role of fulfilled vs. unfulfilled expectations in work-related and non-work domains. Specifically, we examined how congruence and incongruence between implicit leadership theories across multiple categories of leaders (typical, ideal, and effective leaders) and characteristics recognized on one's supervisor affect leader-member exchange (LMX), work-family conflict, and subsequent counter-productive work behavior. We tested our hypotheses using polynomial regression and response surface modeling. The results of this study showed that congruence between implicit leadership theories (ILT's) of typical, ideal, and effective leaders and supervisor recognition, as well as incongruity between ILT's of ideal leaders and characteristics recognized in one's supervisor, significantly impacts perceived LMX quality with supervisors. Incongruity between ILT's of typical and ideal leaders and supervisor recognition was also associated with higher ratings of work-family conflict (WFC). Finally, the results showed support for a significant indirect effect of congruence between ILTs of typical and ideal leaders and characteristics recognized in one's supervisor on CWB through WFC. These results add meaningful depth to literature on congruent implicit theories in two ways: (a) we add to existing knowledge of outcomes associated with congruence on ILT's, and, (b) we examine these associations using ILT's across multiple categories of leaders. Implications are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Liderazgo , Rol , Rendimiento Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Equilibrio entre Vida Personal y Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Trabajo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
15.
Ergonomics ; 62(8): 1008-1022, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056015

RESUMEN

In a context of job rotation, this study determined the extent to which the difficulty of a cognitive task (CT) interspersed between bouts of repetitive, low-intensity work (pipetting) influences recovery from fatigue. Fifteen participants performed three experimental sessions, each comprising 10 repeats of a 7 min + 3 min combination of pipetting and CT. The CT was easy, moderate or hard. Surface electromyography (EMG amplitude of the forearm extensor and trapezius muscles) and self-reports was used to assess fatigability. Perceived fatigue and trapezius EMG amplitude increased during sessions. CT difficulty influenced fatigue development only little, besides forearm extensor EMG increasing more in CT3 than in CT1 and CT2. During CT bouts, fatigability recovered, and to a similar extent irrespective of CT. Thus, CT difficulty influenced recovery of perceived as well as performance fatigability to a minor extent, and may not be a critical issue in job rotation comprising alternating physical and cognitive tasks. Practitioner summary: Alternations between physical and cognitive tasks may be an attractive option for job rotation. In this study on women, we show that the difficulty of the cognitive task influences recovery from fatigue only little and we conclude that cognitive difficulty, within reasonable limits, may be a minor issue in job rotation.


Asunto(s)
Fatiga/psicología , Enfermedades Profesionales/psicología , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Trabajo/fisiología , Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Cognición , Electromiografía , Fatiga/fisiopatología , Femenino , Antebrazo/fisiopatología , Humanos , Fatiga Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Enfermedades Profesionales/fisiopatología , Hombro
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 600, 2019 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101099

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Kamrangirchar and Hazaribagh are the largest slum areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In 2013, Médecins Sans Frontières initiated an urban healthcare programme in these areas providing services for factory workers and responding to the sexual and reproductive health needs of young women. Little in-depth information is available on perceptions of health and health seeking behaviour in this population. We aimed to provide a better understanding of community perceptions toward health and health care in order to inform programme strategies. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with women (n = 13); factory workers (n = 14); and key informants (n = 13). Participants were selected using purposive maximum variation sampling and voluntarily consented to take part. Topic guides steered participant-led interviews, which were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed from Bangla into English. By comparing cases, we identified emerging themes, patterns and relationships in the data. NVivo11© was used to sort and code the data. RESULTS: Emerging themes indicated that in Kamrangirchar and Hazaribagh, health is seen as an asset necessary for work and, thus, for survival. Residents navigate a highly fragmented health system looking for 'quick fixes' to avoid time off work, with the local pharmacy deemed 'good enough' for 'common' health issues. Health care seeking for 'serious' conditions is characterised by uncertainty, confusion, and unsatisfactory results. Decisions are made communally and shaped by collective perceptions of quality care. People with limited socio-economic capital have few options for care. 'Quality care' is perceived as comprehensive care 'under one roof,' including predictive biomedical diagnostics and effective medication, delivered through a trusting relationship with the care provider. CONCLUSIONS: Health seeking behaviour of slum dwellers of Kamrangirchar and Hazaribagh is based on competing priorities, where quick and effective care is key, focussed on the ability to work and generate income. This takes place in a fragmented healthcare system characterised by mistrust of providers, and where navigation is informed by word-of-mouth experiences of peers. Improving health in this context demands a comprehensive and integrated approach to health care delivery, with an emphasis on rapid diagnosis, effective treatment and referral, and improved trust in care providers. Health education must be developed in collaboration with the community to identify knowledge gaps, support decision-making, and be channelled through existing networks. Further research should consider the effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve the practice of pharmacists.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Pobreza/psicología , Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Bangladesh , Toma de Decisiones , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Áreas de Pobreza , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Investigación Cualitativa , Confianza
18.
Appl Ergon ; 79: 66-75, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109463

RESUMEN

This study investigated whether there is empirical support for the current EU regulation mandating breaks of at least 10 min after each period of 20 min continuously reviewing X-ray images in airport security screening. As a second goal, it examined whether providing more autonomy to airport security officers (in the form of spontaneous rest breaks and adaptable automation) would improve their performance and subjective state. Seventy-two student participants had to indicate the presence (or absence) of a threat item (either a gun or a knife) in a series of grey-scaled X-ray images of cabin baggage. Three work-rest schedules were examined: spontaneous breaks (i.e. participants could take breaks at any time), two 5-min breaks and two 10-min breaks during a 1-h testing session. Furthermore, half of the participants were assisted in their task by an adaptable support system offering three levels of automation: (1) no support, (2) cues indicating the presence of a potential threat item, and (3) cues indicating the exact location of a potential threat item. Results showed no performance differences between break regimes, which suggests that there may be viable alternatives to the current EU regulations. It also emerged that providing participants with adaptable automation did not lead to better detection performance but resulted in a less positive response bias than participants without automatic support. Implications for current aviation security regulations are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Aeropuertos , Automatización/métodos , Admisión y Programación de Personal , Medidas de Seguridad/organización & administración , Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Simulación por Computador , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Laboral , Descanso/psicología , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Tolerancia al Trabajo Programado , Carga de Trabajo , Adulto Joven
19.
Appl Ergon ; 79: 76-85, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109464

RESUMEN

Alternate work positions are being considered as a way to address sedentary behaviour for office workers. This study evaluated the effect of two hours of just-sitting versus sitting while under-desk cycling on musculoskeletal discomfort and cognitive function (sustained attention and creative problem solving). To consider mechanisms, muscle fatigue, kinematics and mental state were also measured. Discomfort increased significantly across all body areas with knee and ankle discomfort greater (in a clinically meaningful manner) in under-desk cycling. Sustained attention reaction time was the only cognitive measure to show a difference between conditions (slower for under-desk cycling [ß-34.82 CI (-62.12 to -7.53)]). There was no evidence of muscle fatigue, while kinematic differences between conditions were identified. Mental state deteriorated over time in both conditions. This study found no clear benefit of under-desk cycling compared to just-sitting for musculoskeletal health and cognitive function measures.


Asunto(s)
Ciclismo/fisiología , Ciclismo/psicología , Cognición , Fatiga Muscular , Trabajo/fisiología , Trabajo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Atención , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Ergonomía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Laboral , Tiempo de Reacción , Conducta Sedentaria , Sedestación , Factores de Tiempo , Lugar de Trabajo , Adulto Joven
20.
Haemophilia ; 25(3): 433-440, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016823

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Haemophilia A is a chronic disease requiring frequent intravenous infusions of recombinant factor VIII. Previous studies have shown that challenges associated with current treatments may have significant impacts on quality of life (QoL) that are as important as the health outcomes conferred by the therapy. Emerging therapeutic innovations offer the potential to mitigate treatment-related challenges, and it is therefore important to develop a better understanding of patient and caregiver experiences with existing haemophilia A treatments in order to characterize the full value of new treatments. AIM: To gather firsthand perspectives from people with haemophilia A (PWHA) and caregivers on the challenges with current treatment, their impact on QoL and desired improvements in future therapies. METHODS: Qualitative insights were gathered from 20 non-inhibitor PWHA or caregivers of PWHA across Canada through one-on-one interviews; insights were further explored through focus group sessions to uncover overarching themes and prioritize issues with current treatments. RESULTS: PWHA and caregivers identified several challenges, including administration of intravenous infusions, coordination of treatment schedules and ensuring adequate medication and supplies. Participants described how these challenges impact psychosocial well-being, physical health, personal/social life and work. Alternate modes of administration and longer-lasting treatment effects were identified as desired improvements over current treatments. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the impact that existing haemophilia A treatments have on psychological well-being, employment opportunities and adherence to treatment regimens. These considerations may help to inform decision-making for policymakers and health systems around the true value of new therapies entering the haemophilia market.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Hemofilia A/tratamiento farmacológico , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Factor VIII/provisión & distribución , Factor VIII/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado del Tratamiento , Trabajo/psicología
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