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4.
Am J Med ; 133(4): e160, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331573
5.
Am J Med ; 133(4): e161, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331574
9.
Br J Psychiatry ; 216(4): 235, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271140
13.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(2): 126-140, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114950

RESUMEN

The Association Between Illicit Drug Use, Borderline Personality Disorder and Depression in a Help-Seeking Sample of Adolescents Risk-taking behavior is a common phenomenon in adolescence. Even prevalence rates for illicit drug use are considerably high in youth and associated with a range of psychiatric disorders, especially depression and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). However, there is a lack of data investigating differences in psychopathology between different substance user groups. Therefore, aim of the study was to investigate occurrence of depression and BPD symptoms in different drug risk groups (no use vs. occasional use vs. frequent use). Further aim of the study was to examine risk profiles regarding single BPD criteria. Data of n = 347 adolescents (81.7 % female, mean age 14.95, SD = 1.50) presenting at the specialized outpatient clinic for risk-taking and self-harming behavior (AtR!Sk) in Heidelberg were analyzed. Results show that BPD is clearly associated with illicit drug use in adolescence. There is no difference between occasional and frequent users in terms of mean number of BPD criteria. However, frequent users differ from occasional users regarding greater number of impulsivity and anger criteria. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables there was no association between drug use and depression. Since even single events of illicit drug use are associated with higher levels of BPD, clinicians should rapidly target to stop consumption. Further, psychotherapeutic interventions for BPD in high-risk consumers should especially focus on facilitating adaptive emotion regulation skills in regards to impulsivity and anger.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/complicaciones , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/psicología , Depresión/complicaciones , Depresión/psicología , Conducta de Búsqueda de Ayuda , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adolescente , Trastorno Depresivo/complicaciones , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Conducta Autodestructiva
15.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80 Suppl 2: 12-16, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150706

RESUMEN

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a qualitative alteration in social interaction and communication, associated with restricted interests and stereotyped behaviors. People with autism are four times more likely to develop depression, than the general population, it is even considered as the most common mental health condition in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). One of the challenges is to recognize the manifestations related to depression in people with ASD, in whom, in general, it is expressed differently in relation to those with typical development. Depression in people with autism can manifest itself with restlessness and insomnia and not with feelings of sadness, so it is essential to be attentive and not justify all behavioral problems to autism. Young adults with ASD have higher baseline levels of almost all the depression characteristics listed in the DSM-5, which can lead to overdiagnosis or underreporting of depression. On the other hand, adults with autism have an increased risk of experiencing suicidal thoughts, planning suicide, carrying it out and even dying from suicide. Many of them have a history of depression, harassment and loneliness. It is essential the early detection of depression, develop appropriate tools for diagnosis in autism as well as generate awareness of the risk of ideation or suicide, a problem that only in recent years has been addressed with greater depth. In this paper I analyze depression in autism, the risk of suicidal ideation and suicide, prioritizing clinical aspects, their evaluation and risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Suicidio/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19527, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176105

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive enhancers, including cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are used to treat dementia, but their effect for reducing post-electroconvulsive therapy (post-ECT) cognitive side effects is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of cognitive enhancers in the prevention of cognitive side effects due to ECT. METHODS: We identified relevant studies by searching electronic databases (e.g., PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library). Only studies published up to October 2019 comparing cognitive enhancer vs placebo for cognitive function after ECT were included. The primary outcome extracted from the studies was cognitive function score. RESULTS: Five studies with 202 patients were included in this study. The cognitive enhancer group (CEG) had a significantly higher cognitive function score. Moreover, sensitivity analysis showed that no individual study had a significant impact on the overall results. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis revealed that cognitive enhancers might improve cognitive function and reduce ECT-induced cognitive side effects. Nevertheless, more high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with long-term follow-up are still needed to make the final conclusion.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Conocimiento/prevención & control , Cognición , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Terapia Electroconvulsiva/efectos adversos , Nootrópicos/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Periodo Preoperatorio , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación
19.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 72-76, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055367

RESUMEN

Objective: Depression has been associated with hepatitis C, as well as with its treatment with proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., interferon). The new direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have minimal adverse effects and high potency, with a direct inhibitory effect on non-structural viral proteins. We studied the incidence and associated factors of depression in a real-life prospective cohort of chronic hepatitis C patients treated with the new DAAs. Methods: The sample was recruited from a cohort of 91 patients with hepatitis C, of both sexes, with advanced level of fibrosis and no HIV coinfection, consecutively enrolled during a 6-month period for DAA treatment; those euthymic at baseline (n=54) were selected. All were evaluated through the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9-DSM-IV), at three time points: baseline, 4 weeks, and end-of-treatment. Results: The cumulative incidence (95%CI) of major depression and any depressive disorder during DAA treatment was 13% (6.4-24.4) and 46.3% (33.7-59.4), respectively. No differences were observed between those patients with and without cirrhosis or ribavirin treatment (p > 0.05). Risk factors for incident major depression during DAA treatment included family depression (relative risk 9.1 [1.62-51.1]), substance use disorder (11.0 [1.7-73.5]), and baseline PHQ-9 score (2.1 [1.1-3.1]). Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the importance of screening for new depression among patients receiving new DAAs, and identify potential associated risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Anciano , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Hepatitis C/psicología , Hepatitis C/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Ribavirina/uso terapéutico , España/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo , Modelos Logísticos , Incidencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad
20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229268, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097427

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: It is unknown whether male body dissatisfaction is related to anxiety and depression. This study investigates whether there is an association between body dissatisfaction and self-reported anxiety and/or depression in otherwise healthy adult males. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses as the reporting guideline. Four databases including CINAHL complete, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for observational studies with a correlational design. Studies were appraised using the Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies to measure quality and risk of bias. Data were extracted from studies to analyse and synthesise findings using content analysis and random effects meta-analyses in male body dissatisfaction and anxiety, depression, and both anxiety and depression. RESULTS: Twenty-three cross-sectional studies were included in the review. Nineteen studies found positive correlations between male body dissatisfaction and anxiety and/or depression. Meta-analyses of Pearson's correlation coefficients found statistically significant associations with body satisfaction for anxiety 0.40 (95% CI 0.28 to 0.51) depression 0.34 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.45) and both anxiety and depression outcomes 0.47 (95% CI 0.33 to 0.59). The quality appraisal found study samples were homogeneous being mostly ascertained through academic institutions where participants were predominantly young, Caucasian and with relatively high educational attainment. Measures of body satisfaction focused predominantly on muscularity and thinness. DISCUSSION: This study provides the first pooled estimates of the correlation between body dissatisfaction and anxiety and depression in men. Findings need to be interpreted with respect to the samples and outcomes of the included studies. It is recommended that future research should increase the diversity of men in studies. Studies should measure a wider range of body dissatisfaction types found in men. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate that an association between male body dissatisfaction and anxiety and depression is likely to exist. Future research should address the temporal relationship between body dissatisfaction and anxiety and depression.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Insatisfacción Corporal/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida , Autoinforme , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Salud del Hombre
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