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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 232, 2021 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947370

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study investigated cognitive and emotional functioning in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders (DICCD). METHODS: Thirty patients with ADHD, 26 with DICCD, 22 with ADHD+DICCD were recruited from the outpatient department of Shanghai Changning Mental Health Center, plus 20 healthy controls (HC). Differences between the groups in cognitive and emotional functioning were examined using Golden's Stroop and Emotional Stroop tests. For Emotional Stroop Mean reaction time (RT) of positive word (POS) and negative word (NEG) with color congruence (C) or incongruence (I) were recorded as POS-C, POS-I, NEG-C and NEG-I, respectively. RESULTS: For Golden's interference scores (IGs), both errors and RTs in the ADHD group were higher than in the other groups. Longer mean RTs of POS-C, POS-I, NEG-C and neural word (NEU) of the ADHD group, and NEG-I of ADHD+DICCD and DICCD groups were observed compared to HC. After 12 weeks of methylphenidate treatment, differences between ADHD subgroups and HC on Golden's Stroop RT disappeared, but differences in Golden's Stroop errors and Emotional Stroop mean RTs remained. The ADHD+DICCD group showed longer mean RTs in NEG-C, NEG-I and NEU of the Emotional Stroop test than the ADHD group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that regardless of emotional responding, deficit in cognitive control is the core symptom of ADHD. However, emotionally biased stimuli may cause response inhibitory dysfunction among DICCD with callous-unemotional traits, and the comorbidity of ADHD and DICCD tends to account for the negative emotional response characteristic of DICCD. These deficits may be eliminated by medication treatment in ADHD, but not the ADHD with comorbid DICCD. Our results support the notion that ADHD with comorbid DICCD is more closely related to DICCD than to ADHD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Trastorno de la Conducta , Adolescente , Atención , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/complicaciones , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Niño , China/epidemiología , Cognición , Comorbilidad , Trastorno de la Conducta/complicaciones , Trastorno de la Conducta/epidemiología , Emociones , Humanos , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas
2.
Global Health ; 17(1): 48, 2021 04 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874977

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the influences of digital media use on the core symptoms, emotional state, life events, learning motivation, executive function (EF) and family environment of children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHOD: A total of 192 participants aged 8-16 years who met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD were included in the study. Children scoring higher than predetermined cut-off point in self-rating questionnaires for problematic mobile phone use (SQPMPU) or Young's internet addiction test (IAT), were defined as ADHD with problematic digital media use (PDMU), otherwise were defined as ADHD without PDMU. The differences between the two groups in ADHD symptoms, EF, anxiety and depression, stress from life events, learning motivation and family environment were compared respectively. RESULTS: When compared with ADHD group without PDMU, the group with PDMU showed significant worse symptoms of inattention, oppositional defiant, behavior and emotional problems by Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (SNAP), more self-reported anxiety by screening child anxiety-related emotional disorders (SCARED) and depression by depression self-rating scale for children (DSRSC), more severe EF deficits by behavior rating scale of executive function (BRIEF), more stress from life events by adolescent self-rating life events checklist (ASLEC), lower learning motivation by students learning motivation scale (SLMS), and more impairment on cohesion by Chinese version of family environment scale (FES-CV). The ADHD with PDMU group spent significantly more time on both video game and social media with significantly less time spend on physical exercise as compared to the ADHD without PDMU group. CONCLUSION: The ADHD children with PDMU suffered from more severe core symptoms, negative emotions, EF deficits, damage on family environment, pressure from life events, and a lower motivation to learn. Supervision of digital media usage, especially video game and social media, along with increased physical exercise, is essential to the management of core symptoms and associated problems encountered with ADHD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Niño , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , /psicología , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803995

RESUMEN

In spite of the huge progress in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, we are still in the situation that both pregestational (PGDM) and gestational diabetes (GDM) impose an additional risk to the embryo, fetus, and course of pregnancy. PGDM may increase the rate of congenital malformations, especially cardiac, nervous system, musculoskeletal system, and limbs. PGDM may interfere with fetal growth, often causing macrosomia, but in the presence of severe maternal complications, especially nephropathy, it may inhibit fetal growth. PGDM may also induce a variety of perinatal complications such as stillbirth and perinatal death, cardiomyopathy, respiratory morbidity, and perinatal asphyxia. GDM that generally develops in the second half of pregnancy induces similar but generally less severe complications. Their severity is higher with earlier onset of GDM and inversely correlated with the degree of glycemic control. Early initiation of GDM might even cause some increase in the rate of congenital malformations. Both PGDM and GDM may cause various motor and behavioral neurodevelopmental problems, including an increased incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Most complications are reduced in incidence and severity with the improvement in diabetic control. Mechanisms of diabetic-induced damage in pregnancy are related to maternal and fetal hyperglycemia, enhanced oxidative stress, epigenetic changes, and other, less defined, pathogenic mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiología , Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Embarazo en Diabéticas/epidemiología , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/etiología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/patología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/etiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/patología , Diabetes Gestacional/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/fisiopatología , Resultado del Embarazo , Embarazo en Diabéticas/patología
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915884

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented many challenges to caregivers of children. Families with children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are an understudied but potentially vulnerable population to changes during the outbreak. As such, the aim of this study was to contrast quality of life for caregivers of children with ADHD and/or ASD, before and during the pandemic, compared to caregivers of neurotypical (NT) children. Total, Parent Health-Related Quality of Life, and Family Functioning Summary Scores from the Family Impact Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM were contrasted among caregivers of children with ADHD, ASD, comorbid ADHD and ASD, and NT development. For all scores, caregivers of ADHD and/or ASD children reported lower quality of life, both before and during the pandemic, in comparison to caregivers of NT children. For all diagnoses, quality of life decreased during the pandemic, but caregivers of children with ADHD and/or ASD reported a greater decrease in quality of life than caregivers for NT children. There are limitations to this study in terms of the composition of the sample and the survey methodology, but we are able to conclude that caregivers of children with ADHD and/or ASD have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic, and it is imperative that these families receive additional resources and support to improve their quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Cuidadores , Niño , Humanos , Pandemias , Calidad de Vida
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808366

RESUMEN

Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are vulnerable to traumatic injuries. Parents of children with ADHD experience undesirable impacts more frequently than parents of children without ADHD. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether traumatic injuries are more prevalent in parents of children with ADHD than in parents of children without ADHD. We compared the prevalence of traumatic injuries between parents of children with and without ADHD by using data from the Taiwan Maternal and Child Health Database from 2004 to 2017. The Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used to examine differences in burn injury, fracture, and traumatic brain injury between parents of children with and without ADHD after adjustment for age, urbanicity, and income level. In total, 81,401 fathers and 87,549 mothers who had at least one offspring with ADHD and 1,646,100 fathers and 1,730,941 mothers with no offspring with ADHD were included in the analysis. The results indicated that both fathers and mothers of children with ADHD had higher risks of burn injury, fracture, and traumatic brain injury than fathers and mothers of children without ADHD. Mothers of children with ADHD had higher risks for all kinds of traumatic events than fathers of children with ADHD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/epidemiología , Niño , Padre , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Madres , Taiwán/epidemiología
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809225

RESUMEN

Young adults exhibit greater sensitivity than adults to nicotine reinforcement, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) increases the risk for early-onset smoking. We investigated the correlation between ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) scores and smoking, evaluated the prevalence of ADHD symptomatology (not diagnoses) in smokers and non-smokers and its comorbidity with benzodiazepine and gambling addictions. A total of 389 young adults from 14 schools in Northern Italy fill out a survey and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). A total of 15.2% of subjects tested positive at the ASRS, which correlated with smoking; moreover, smokers had twice the probability of testing positive at the ASRS. ADHD symptomatology, especially when comorbid with tobacco abuse, is an important condition to monitor because early nicotine exposure could be a gateway for other addictive behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Productos de Tabaco , Tabaquismo , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Uso de Tabaco , Adulto Joven
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668090

RESUMEN

Physical activity (PA) may have positive effects on mental health in children and adolescents. This post hoc study aimed to further investigate the relationship between different frequency levels of PA and general mental health as well as specific hyperactivity/inattention symptoms in children and adolescents. METHODS: The analyses were based on data drawn from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) study, a regularly conducted large-scale, epidemiological investigation of somatic and mental health of children and adolescents in Germany. Parents were asked about their children's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) records and answered questionnaires concerning any mental health problem behavior of the children and adolescents using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The overall problem score as well as the hyperactivity/inattention symptoms subscale (SDQ-H/I) were entered as outcomes in a regression model controlling for parental socio-economic status and participants' sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted at three time points of the KiGGS study (baseline, wave 1, and wave 2) using general linear models (GLM). This was performed for different age groups (4-5, 6-9, 10-17 years). RESULTS: Significant negative relationships were found between PA and general mental health problems. For the relationship between PA and SDQ-H/I, different patterns emerged at the three time points. There was no interaction between PA frequency levels and diagnosis of ADHD (ADHD vs. non-ADHD controls) regarding the SDQ total score. CONCLUSION: This study underlines the importance of a high frequency level of PA for a good mental health status among children and adolescents, irrespective of the diagnosis of ADHD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Adolescente , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Alemania/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Salud Mental , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
J Affect Disord ; 286: 220-227, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740639

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is still spreading worldwide and posing a threat to individuals' physical and mental health including problematic internet use (PIU). A potentially high-risk group for PIU are those with symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD symptoms), because of restrictions in their physical activity levels and engagement in computer diversions requiring only short attention spans. METHODS: We used convenience sampling in a cross-sectional survey of university students from 30 universities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. We assessed PIU using the Internet Addiction Test and ADHD symptoms using the WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Screening Scale. Using logistic regression and linear regression analyses we adjusted for demographic, epidemic-related and psychological covariates in models of the association between ADHD symptoms and PIU. RESULTS: Among 11,254 participants, we found a 28.4% (95% CI, 27.5%-29.2%) prevalence of PIU, relatively higher than before the pandemic. In our final logistic regression model, participants with ADHD symptoms had approximately two times the risk for PIU (OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.89-2.83). Similarly, individuals with depression, anxiety, insomnia, PTSD symptoms and feeling stress during the pandemic had a higher risk of PIU, while those exercising regularly during the pandemic had a lower risk. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design and reliance on internet based self-reports for ADHD symptoms and PIU assessments, without direct structured interviews for validation, are limitations. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PIU was high during COVID-19, and those people with ADHD symptoms and other mental illness symptoms appear to be at higher risk of PIU. Regular exercise may reduce that PIU risk and hence should be recommended during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Conducta Adictiva , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Conducta Adictiva/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias , Estudiantes , Universidades
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 161, 2021 03 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752617

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although the body of research concerning neurodevelopmental disorders is vast, there is a scarcity of longitudinal studies beyond late adolescence, and of studies taking co-existing disorders into account. The present study aimed to investigate outcome in adulthood for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) diagnosed at 6.6 years of age. METHODS: Out of a screening-based population cohort of 589 individuals, 62 (10 female) diagnosed with ADHD+DCD at mean age 6.6 years naïve to stimulant treatment were followed into adulthood through national registries. Results were compared to a screen- and assessment negative population matched group from the same cohort (PM group, n = 51) and a registry-matched (RM group, n = 410) group of the same county and age. RESULTS: At 30 to 31 years of age, five deaths had occurred; one in the ADHD+DCD group and two each in the comparison groups. In time to event analyses of the composite outcome of any psychiatric disorder, psychotropic prescription, sick pension or criminal sentence, events occurred at a significantly higher rate in the ADHD+DCD group (p = 0.0032, vs PM group p = 0.0115, vs RM group p = 0.0054). The ADHD+DCD group had significantly higher rates of psychiatric diagnoses, prescriptions of psychoactive medications and occurrence of sick pension than both comparison groups. Further, the ADHD+DCD group had significantly lower educational attainment compared to both comparison groups, more years with unemployment, and overall higher welfare recipiency. Rates of pain diagnoses and analgesic prescriptions did not separate the groups. CONCLUSION: ADHD+DCD entailed a less favorable outcome in adulthood compared to a non-clinical comparison group and a registry-matched population. Neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed upon school entry is of prognostic utility with respect to function in adulthood, and warrants early identification and management.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central , Trastornos de la Destreza Motora , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos
10.
Environ Int ; 152: 106468, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765546

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to toxic metals or variations in maternal levels of essential elements during pregnancy may be a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether maternal levels of toxic metals and essential elements measured in mid-pregnancy, individually and as mixtures, were associated with childhood diagnosis of ADHD or ASD. METHODS: This study is based on the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study and included 705 ADHD cases, 397 ASD cases and 1034 controls. Cases were identified through linkage with the Norwegian Patient Registry. Maternal concentrations of 11 metals/elements were measured in blood at week 17 of gestation; cadmium; cesium; cobalt; copper; lead; magnesium; manganese; selenium; zinc; total arsenic; and total mercury. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine associations between quartile levels of individual metals/elements and outcomes. We also investigated non-linear associations using restricted cubic spline models. The joint effects of the metal/element mixture on ASD and ADHD diagnoses were estimated using a quantile-based g-computation approach. RESULTS: For ASD, we identified positive associations (increased risks) in the second quartile of arsenic [OR = 1.77 (CI: 1.26, 2.49)] and the fourth quartiles of cadmium and manganese [OR = 1.57 (CI: 1.07 2.31); OR = 1.84 (CI: 1.30, 2.59)], respectively. In addition, there were negative associations between cesium, copper, mercury, and zinc and ASD. For ADHD, we found increased risk in the fourth quartiles of cadmium and magnesium [OR = 1.59 (CI: 1.15, 2.18); [OR = 1.42 (CI: 1.06, 1.91)]. There were also some negative associations, among others with mercury. In addition, we identified non-linear associations between ASD and arsenic, mercury, magnesium, and lead, and between ADHD and arsenic, copper, manganese, and mercury. There were no significant findings in the mixture approach analyses. CONCLUSION: Results from the present study show several associations between levels of metals and elements during gestation and ASD and ADHD in children. The most notable ones involved arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, manganese, magnesium, and lead. Our results suggest that even population levels of these compounds may have negative impacts on neurodevelopment. As we observed mainly similarities among the metals' and elements' impact on ASD and ADHD, it could be that the two disorders share some neurochemical and neurodevelopmental pathways. The results warrant further investigation and replication, as well as studies of combined effects of metals/elements and mechanistic underpinnings.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Mercurio , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/inducido químicamente , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Mercurio/análisis , Noruega/epidemiología , Embarazo
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 139, 2021 03 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685413

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder. Effective long-term treatment options are limited, which warrants increased focus on potential modifiable risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between maternal diet quality during pregnancy and child diet quality and child ADHD symptoms and ADHD diagnosis. METHODS: This study is based on the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). We assessed maternal diet quality with the Prenatal Diet Quality Index (PDQI) and Ultra-Processed Food Index (UPFI) around mid-gestation, and child diet quality using the Diet Quality Index (CDQI) at 3 years. ADHD symptoms were assessed at child age 8 years using the Parent Rating Scale for Disruptive Behaviour Disorders. ADHD diagnoses were retrieved from the Norwegian Patient Registry. RESULTS: In total, 77,768 mother-child pairs were eligible for studying ADHD diagnoses and 37,787 for ADHD symptoms. Means (SD) for the PDQI, UPFI and CDQI were 83.1 (9.3), 31.8 (9.7) and 60.3 (10.6), respectively. Mean (SD) ADHD symptom score was 8.4 (7.1) and ADHD diagnosis prevalence was 2.9% (male to female ratio 2.6:1). For one SD increase in maternal diet index scores, we saw a change in mean (percent) ADHD symptom score of - 0.28 (- 3.3%) (CI: - 0.41, - 0.14 (- 4.8, - 1.6%)) for PDQI scores and 0.25 (+ 3.0%) (CI: 0.13, 0.38 (1.5, 4.5%)) for UPFI scores. A one SD increase in PDQI score was associated with a relative risk of ADHD diagnosis of 0.87 (CI: 0.79, 0.97). We found no reliable associations with either outcomes for the CDQI, and no reliable change in risk of ADHD diagnosis for the UPFI. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that overall maternal diet quality during pregnancy is associated with a small decrease in ADHD symptom score at 8 years and lower risk for ADHD diagnosis, with more robust findings for the latter outcome. Consumption of ultra-processed foods was only associated with increased ADHD symptom score of similar magnitude as for overall maternal diet quality, and we found no associations between child diet quality and either outcome. No causal inferences should be made based on these results, due to potential unmeasured confounding.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiología , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672943

RESUMEN

Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in childhood and adolescence associated with relevant psychosocial impairments. The basic pathophysiology of ADHD may be related, at least partly, to a deficit in autonomic arousal processes, which not only influence core symptoms of the disorder, but may also lead to blood pressure (BP) deviations due to altered arousal regulation. Objectives: This study examined long-term changes in BP in children and adolescents with ADHD up to young adulthood. Methods: In children and adolescents aged between 7 and 17 years at baseline, we compared BP recordings in subjects with (n = 1219, 11.1%) and without (n = 9741, 88.9%) ADHD over a 10-year follow-up using data from the nationwide German Health Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Propensity score matching was used to improve the comparability between children in the ADHD and control groups with now n = 1.190 in each group. Results: The results of these matched samples revealed that study participants with ADHD showed significantly lower systolic BP (107.6 ± 10.7 mmHg vs. 109.5 ± 10.9 mmHg, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.17) and diastolic BP (64.6 ± 7.5 mmHg vs. 65.8 ± 7.4 mmHg, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.16) at baseline. In a sensitivity analysis with a smaller (n = 272) and more stringently diagnosed ADHD group, the significant differences remained stable with somewhat higher Cohen's d; i.e., 0.25 and 0.27, respectively. However, these differences did not persist after 10-year follow-up in a smaller matched longitudinal sub-group (ADHD n = 273; control n = 323), as subjects with and without ADHD had similar levels of systolic (123.4 ± 10.65 vs. 123.78 ± 11.1 mmHg, p = 0.675, Cohen's d = 0.15) and diastolic BP (71.86 ± 6.84 vs. 71.85 ± 7.06 mmHg, p = 0.992, Cohen's d = 0.16). Conclusions: At baseline, children and adolescents with ADHD had significantly lower BP (of small effect sizes) compared to the non-ADHD group, whereas this difference was no longer detectable at follow-up ten years later. These developmental alterations in BP from adolescence to early adulthood may reflect changes in the state of autonomic arousal, probably modulating the pathophysiology of ADHD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Hipotensión , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Presión Sanguínea , Niño , Estudios de Seguimiento , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Adulto Joven
13.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(5): 653-659, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658172

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral disorder characterized by a lack of focus, impulsive behavior, and or excessive activity. This research aimed to evaluate the association between signs of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and malocclusion in schoolchildren. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 633 children aged 7-12 years. The children were clinically examined for malocclusion using the Dental Aesthetic Index. The predominant breathing pattern was also determined. Parents answered a questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics and the presence of nonnutritive sucking habits. The Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Scale-IV was filled out by both parents and teachers to compare behavioral patterns. The children were submitted to a neuropsychological evaluation using the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrix Test. Data analysis involved the chi-square test and Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of malocclusion was 42% higher among children with signs of hyperactivity reported by both parents and teachers (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.81; P = 0.004). In the final Poisson regression model, the prevalence of malocclusion was lower among schoolchildren aged 11 and 12 years (PR, 0.62; 95% CI. 0.52-0.73; P <0.001) and higher among those who used a pacifier for at least 4 years (PR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.54; P = 0.029) as well as those classified as mouth breathers (PR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09-1.51; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of malocclusion was higher among children with signs of hyperactivity independently of age, pacifier use, and mouth breathing.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Maloclusión , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Maloclusión/epidemiología , Chupetes , Prevalencia
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e25245, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761719

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: We compared the knowledge of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among the general public, parents of children with ADHD, and primary school teachers and identified factors associated with ADHD knowledge in each group, separately.Secondary data analysis was made on the pre-lecture data from those (122 from the general public, 64 parents of children with ADHD, and 515 primary school teachers) attending education lectures by the Department of Public Health, New Taipei City Government, Taiwan, 2014.ADHD onset age was least known in these 3 groups. Knowledge of ADHD was significantly better among teachers (test score, 75.3%) than among parents (65.5%) and the general public (59.2%). Among the general public, the test score significantly decreased with age and was worst in those who did not know their friends or relatives with ADHD. Among parents, service workers, and retired/unemployed knew significantly less about ADHD than housewife did. Among teachers, men knew significantly less than women; those who taught children with ADHD knew significantly more than those who did not.Primary school teachers knew more about ADHD than parents and the general public. Factors associated with ADHD knowledge varied among the 3 groups.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Padres , Maestros , Percepción Social , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Necesidades , Padres/educación , Padres/psicología , Opinión Pública , Maestros/psicología , Maestros/normas , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Taiwán/epidemiología
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 150, 2021 03 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711966

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To provide insight on physicians' perspectives concerning recent changes in the incidence and diagnostic process of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared to other mental and neurodevelopmental disorders. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to 191 specialists in child neurology and child development, and 200 child psychiatrists in Israel. Information was collected on professional background, as well as on physicians' opinions concerning the accuracy and rate of ASD diagnosis compared to that of cerebral palsy (CP), mental illness, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). For each closed-ended question, a global chi-square test for categorical variables was performed. RESULTS: 115 (60.2%) of specialists in child neurology and development, and 59 (29.5%) of child psychiatrists responded. Most physicians (67.2%) indicated that there was a moderate/significant increase in the incidence of ASD, which was higher than similar responses provided for CP (2.9%, p < 0.01) and mental illnesses (14.4%, p < 0.01), and similar to responses provided for ADHD (70.1%, p = 0.56). 52.8% of physicians believed that in more than 10% of clinical assessments, an ASD diagnosis was given despite an inconclusive evaluation (CP: 8.6%, p < 0.01; mental illnesses: 25.8%, p = 0.03; ADHD: 68.4%, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The clinicians perceive both ASD and ADHD as over-diagnosed disorders. The shared symptomology between ASD and other disorders, coupled with heightened awareness and public de-stigmatization of ASD and with the availability of ASD-specific services that are not accessible to children diagnosed with other conditions, might lead clinicians to over-diagnose ASD. It is advisable to adopt an approach in which eligibility for treatments is conditional on function, rather than solely on a diagnosis. The medical community should strive for accurate diagnoses and a continuous review of diagnostic criteria.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Médicos , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Niño , Humanos , Incidencia , Israel/epidemiología
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535410

RESUMEN

Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease that causes sudden hair loss. Although few studies have reported the association between AA and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the impact of methylphenidate (MPH) on AA has not been examined. This study examined whether AA risk is higher in children with ADHD than in those without ADHD as well as the impact of MPH use on AA risk in children with ADHD. From the Taiwan Maternal and Child Health Database, we enrolled all 1,750,456 newborns from 2004 to 2017 in Taiwan. Of them, 90,016 children received a diagnosis of ADHD whereas the remaining 1,660,440 did not. To compare AA risk in ADHD and the impact of MPH treatment on it, multiple Cox regression with adjustments for covariates (i.e., age, sex, and psychiatric comorbidities) was performed. The results indicated that 88 (0.098%) children with ADHD and 1191 (0.072%) children without ADHD had AA. Nevertheless, after adjustment for the covariates, AA risk was higher in children with ADHD than in those without ADHD (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.64). Our data indicated a considerable reduction in AA risk (aHR: 0.64) among children with ADHD who received MPH than among those who did not receive MPH; however, this difference was nonsignificant, indicated by a wide 95% CI (0.32-1.25). In conclusion, ADHD and AA may share some underlying mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Alopecia Areata , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central , Metilfenidato , Alopecia Areata/tratamiento farmacológico , Alopecia Areata/epidemiología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central/efectos adversos , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Metilfenidato/efectos adversos , Taiwán/epidemiología
18.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 75(3): 214-223, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612071

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the study were to determine which parents or teachers predict attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) better in children and adolescents, and to detect both diagnostical and symptomatological agreement levels across informant reports. METHOD: A total of 417 cases aged 6-14 from a non-referred community sample were assessed by a semi-structured interview, parent- and teacher-rated ADHD Rating Scale-IV. Also, impairment criteria were taken into account to ensure the gold standard diagnosis for ADHD. The measures of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated in each categorical sample. Besides, the agreement between parent and teacher reports of ADHD was investigated. RESULTS: Parents and teachers had similar diagnostic accuracy for predicting ADHD. Both parents and teachers predicted ADHD in similar accuracy in both boys and girls, separately. However, girls were found to be more predictable by both parents and teachers compared to boys. Parents with lower education levels had worse diagnostic accuracy than both parents with higher education levels and teachers. Low to moderate agreement and correlations between parent and teacher ADHD reports were detected. CONCLUSION: In general, parents and teachers seem to predict ADHD in similar accuracy. Nevertheless, child gender and parental education level may alter the predictability power for ADHD. The findings can guide for clinicians that how to evaluate observation reports of parents and teachers to make accurate ADHD diagnosis in patients.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Adolescente , Atención , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Padres , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas
19.
Compr Psychiatry ; 106: 152224, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581449

RESUMEN

Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is prevalent but often overlooked and undertreated. Left untreated, it is linked to increased risk of untoward outcomes including unemployment, relationship breakups, substance use, driving accidents and other mental health conditions. Several brief screening tools have been developed for adult ADHD. The most frequently used is the World Health Organization's Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS V1.1). Here, we show in two independent population samples (UK: N = 642, USA: N = 579) that the tool resulted in considerable overestimation of ADHD, indicating probable ADHD in 26.0% and 17.3% of participants, as compared to expected prevalence of 2.5%. The estimated positive predictive value was only ~11.5%. Both samples had normal levels of trait impulsivity as assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The data indicate that using the ASRS in general population samples will result in 7-10 times over-identification of ADHD. We use these results to highlight how such tools should most appropriately be used. When being used to determine possible cases (such as for onward referral to an ADHD specialist) they should be complemented by clinical assessment - we give examples of how non-specialists might determine this. When measuring ADHD symptoms dimensionally, researchers should be mindful that the ASRS captures impulsive symptoms other than those due to ADHD. Lastly, we note the need to screen for impulse control disorders (e.g., gambling disorder) when using such tools to measure ADHD, be it for onward referral, or for dimensional research studies.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Juego de Azar , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Tamizaje Masivo , Autoinforme
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578752

RESUMEN

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) have been suggested to lie on a gradient continuum, all resulting from common brain disturbances, but with different degrees of impairment severity. This case-control study aimed to assess postural stability against such hypothesis in 104 children/adolescents aged 5-17, of whom 81 had NDDs and 23 were healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) resulted in the most severely impaired neurodevelopmental condition, followed by Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and Tourette Syndrome (TS). In particular, while ASD children/adolescents performed worse than healthy controls in a number of sensory conditions across all parameters, ADHD children/adolescents performed worse than healthy controls only in the sway area for the most complex sensory conditions, when their vision and somatosensory functions were both compromised, and performance in Tourette Syndrome (TS) was roughly indistinguishable from that of healthy controls. Finally, differences were also observed between clinical groups, with ASD children/adolescents, and to a much lesser extent ADHD children/adolescents, performing worse than TS children/adolescents, especially when sensory systems were not operationally accurate. Evidence from this study indicates that poor postural control may be a useful biomarker for risk assessment during neurodevelopment, in line with predictions from the gradient hypothesis.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Síndrome de Tourette , Adolescente , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Equilibrio Postural
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