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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730915

RESUMEN

In December 2019, the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19) infection was reported. In only few weeks it has caused a global pandemic, with mortality reaching 3.4%, mostly due to a severe pneumonia. However, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 virus on the central nervous system (CNS) and mental health outcomes remains unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of other types of coronaviruses in the brain, especially in the brainstem. There is evidence that the novel coronavirus can penetrate CNS through the olfactory or circulatory route as well as it can have an indirect impact on the brain by causing cytokine storm. There are also first reports of neurological signs in patients infected by the SARS-Cov-2. They show that COVID-19 patients have neurologic manifestations like acute cerebrovascular disease, conscious disturbance, taste and olfactory disturbances. In addition, there are studies showing that certain psychopathological symptoms might appear in infected patients, including those related to mood and psychotic disorders as well as post-traumatic stress disorder. Accumulating evidence also indicates that the pandemic might have a great impact on mental health from the global perspective, with medical workers being particularly vulnerable. In this article, we provide a review of studies investigating the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 on the CNS and mental health outcomes. We describe neurobiology of the virus, highlighting the relevance to mental disorders. Furthermore, this article summarizes the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 from the public health perspective. Finally, we present a critical appraisal of evidence and indicate future directions for studies in this field.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/complicaciones , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/etiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Resultado del Tratamiento
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771337

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Psychological suffering by health professionals may be associated with the uncertainty of a safe workplace. Front-line professionals exposed and involved in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients are more susceptible. METHOD: This review was conducted based on papers that were published at MEDLINE, BMJ, PsycINFO, and LILACS, the according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA). RESULTS: Health professionals had a higher level of anxiety (13.0 vs. 8.5%, p < 0.01, OR = 1.6152; 95%CI 1.3283 to 1.9641; p < 0.0001) and depression 12.2 vs. 9.5%; p = 0.04; OR = 1.3246; 95%CI 1.0930 to 1.6053; p = 0.0042), besides somatizations and insomnia compared to professionals from other areas. CONCLUSION: Health professionals, regardless of their age, showed significant levels of mental disorders. We observed a prevalence of anxiety and depression. Insomnia was a risk factor for both.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Personal de Salud/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estrés Psicológico
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777327

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health professionals are key personnel to containing infectious diseases like COVID-19. In the face of long work shifts (that reach 16 h per day on average), the risk of getting infected by a high-infectious disease and the lack of enough biological protection measures, mental suffering among health professionals suddenly became evident. METHOD: We carried out an updated meta-analysis to investigate the psychiatric impacts on health professionals in the face of the physical and psychological conditions to which they are subjected due to the high demands of the COVID-19 pandemic. Papers were researched in four databases from December 2019 to April 2020. In total, eight papers were included in the study. RESULTS: Health professionals working to fight COVID-19 are being more severely affected by psychiatric disorders associated with depression, anxiety, distress and insomnia, stress, and indirect traumatization than other occupational groups. No significant differences were observed in the publication bias. CONCLUSION: There is a strong association between health professionals and COVID-19 in terms of psychiatric repercussions. Our meta-analysis showed that health professionals have a higher level of indirect traumatization, in which the level of damage exceeds psychological and emotional tolerance and indirectly results in psychological abnormalities. The incidence of obsessive-compulsive traces and somatizations was higher in situations involving front-line professionals.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/etiología , Depresión/psicología , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Distrés Psicológico , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/etiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 337, 2020 10 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009366

RESUMEN

Data are scarce regarding the comorbid mental disorders and their management among COVID-19 patients. This study described the clinical characteristics and management of COVID-19 patients treated in psychiatric inpatient settings due to comorbid first-onset mental disorders in Wuhan, China. This electronic medical records-based study included 25 COVID-19 patients with first-onset mental disorders and 55 patients with first-onset mental disorders without COVID-19 (control group). Data collected included ICD-10 diagnoses of mental disorders, psychiatric and respiratory symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. Adjustment disorder (n = 11, 44.0%) and acute and transient psychotic disorders, with associated acute stress (n = 6, 24.0%) were main clinical diagnoses in the COVID-19 group while serious mental illnesses (i.e., schizophrenia, 24.5%) and alcohol use disorders (10.9%) were overrepresented in the control group. On admission, the most common psychiatric symptom in COVID-19 patients was insomnia symptoms (n = 18, 72.0%), followed by aggressive behaviors (n = 16, 64.0%), delusion (n = 10, 40.0%), and severe anxiety (n = 9, 36.0%). In addition to respiratory treatments, 76.0% COVID-19 patients received antipsychotics, 40.0% sedative-hypnotics, and 24.0% mood stabilizers. At the end of inpatient treatment, 4 (16.0%) COVID-19 patients were transferred to other hospitals to continue respiratory treatment after their psychiatric symptoms were controlled while the remaining 21 (84.0%) all recovered. Compared to the control group, COVID-19 group had significantly shorter length of hospital stay (21.2 vs. 37.4 days, P < 0.001). Adjustment disorder and acute and transient psychotic disorders are the main clinical diagnoses of COVID-19 patients managed in psychiatric inpatient settings. The short-term prognosis of these patients is good after conventional psychotropic treatment.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Psicotrópicos , China/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Registros Electrónicos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/fisiopatología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Manejo de Atención al Paciente/métodos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Pronóstico , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Psicotrópicos/clasificación , Psicotrópicos/uso terapéutico , Evaluación de Síntomas/métodos , Evaluación de Síntomas/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Psychiatr Serv ; 71(10): 1088-1090, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998660

RESUMEN

Specific guidance on how to manage COVID-19 in forensic psychiatric institutions is necessary because these settings differ substantially from both acute-care psychiatric hospitals and correctional institutions. The challenges raised by COVID-19 in these settings are unique, given the nature of the patients treated, length of stay, and need to collaborate with various partners in the criminal justice system during both the admission and discharge planning processes. This column outlines these specific challenges, which are likely to recur in subsequent epidemics, and suggests potential strategies to address them.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Psiquiatría Forense/métodos , Hospitales Psiquiátricos , Trastornos Mentales/complicaciones , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050004

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic potentially increases doctors' work demands and limits their recovery opportunity; this consequently puts them at a high risk of adverse mental health impacts. This study aims to estimate the level of doctors' fatigue, recovery, depression, anxiety, and stress, and exploring their association with work demands and recovery experiences. This was a cross-sectional study among all medical doctors working at all government health facilities in Selangor, Malaysia. Data were collected in May 2020 immediately following the COVID-19 contagion peak in Malaysia by using self-reported questionnaires through an online medium. The total participants were 1050 doctors. The majority of participants were non-resident non-specialist medical officers (55.7%) and work in the hospital setting (76.3%). The highest magnitude of work demands was mental demand (M = 7.54, SD = 1.998) while the lowest magnitude of recovery experiences was detachment (M = 9.22, SD = 5.043). Participants reported a higher acute fatigue level (M = 63.33, SD = 19.025) than chronic fatigue (M = 49.37, SD = 24.473) and intershift recovery (M = 49.97, SD = 19.480). The majority of them had no depression (69.0%), no anxiety (70.3%), and no stress (76.5%). Higher work demands and lower recovery experiences were generally associated with adverse mental health. For instance, emotional demands were positively associated with acute fatigue (adj. b = 2.73), chronic fatigue (adj. b = 3.64), depression (adj. b = 0.57), anxiety (adj. b = 0.47), and stress (adj. b = 0.64), while relaxation experiences were negatively associated with acute fatigue (adj. b = -0.53), chronic fatigue (adj. b = -0.53), depression (adj. b = -0.14), anxiety (adj. b = -0.11), and stress (adj. b = -0.15). However, higher detachment experience was associated with multiple mental health parameters in the opposite of the expected direction such as higher level of chronic fatigue (adj. b = 0.74), depression (adj. b = 0.15), anxiety (adj. b = 0.11), and stress (adj. b = 0.11), and lower level of intershift recovery (adj. b = -0.21). In conclusion, work demands generally worsen, while recovery experiences protect mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic with the caveat of the role of detachment experiences.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Pandemias , Médicos/psicología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Adaptación Psicológica , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Carga de Trabajo/psicología
9.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 502-506, 2020 May.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058634

RESUMEN

Review of the prescription of antipsychotics in children. In France, as in the rest of the world, prescribing of antipsychotic drugs increases in children and adolescentsIndeed, antipsychotics are frequently prescribed in children and adolescents for both psychotic and non-psychotic disorders, with 36 to 93%o fprescriptionsbeingoff-label in this population. In addition, a high number of adverse events have been reported in the literature under antipsychotic treatment. The consequences of these adverse events are still poorly documented. In France, a 12-months national prospective study (ETAPE) observed a high incidence rate, severity and persistence of adverse events during first-time antipsychotic treatment in pediatric patients. Therefore, a careful and continuous clinical and biological monitoring all over the treatment period is required to adapt treatment decisions based on benefice-risk-analysis.


Asunto(s)
Antipsicóticos , Trastornos Mentales , Adolescente , Antipsicóticos/efectos adversos , Niño , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/tratamiento farmacológico , Prescripciones , Estudios Prospectivos
14.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081457

RESUMEN

The article considers the COVID-19 pandemic impact on the population mental health, the main psychogenic and somatogenic mental disorders associated with COVID-19 are distinguished. The comorbid PTSD clinical features are described. The mental health risk factors for health workers are presented. The psychotherapeutic and psychopharmaceutical approaches are proposed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Trastornos Mentales , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Salud Mental
15.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063746

RESUMEN

The pandemic produced by COVID-19 has a significant impact on society and has also affected childhood and adolescence, which, in general, has been the most silenced group. This article addresses the contents that affect the mental health of children and adolescents in the heart of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is located in the "fourth wave of care" in category F54 of the ICD-10 ("Behavioral and psychological factors in disorders or diseases classified elsewhere"). The presentation mechanism is: reactive-adaptive to the pandemic; triggering factor, before a previous affective-emotional instability; decompensation of a pre-existing process. The clinical features have had their initial phase, fundamentally, in confinement: somatoform disorders, behavioral disorders, emotional symptoms, reactivation of child abuse and dysfunctional grief reactions. The most prevalent symptoms are of the anxious or anxious-depressive type. The response to chronic stress, including that of low profile and intensity but maintained over time, has significant repercussions for childhood and adolescence. Few percentage that present prominent mental disorders, but we must recognize that when projected to the whole the child-adolescent population, there could be a significant number that could be subsidiary of a more specific help. The return to schooling is going to represent another important moment, the repercussions of confinement being of capital importance, especially in terms of addictive behaviors with information and communication technologies. Intervention by professionals trained in childhood and adolescent mental health is a priority to avoid unwanted clinical evolutions or iatrogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Salud del Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Salud Mental , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Salud Pública , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Cuarentena/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Aislamiento Social/psicología , España/epidemiología
20.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 311-315, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030445

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is planned to be published in 2018. So called, "beta version" of the chapter of mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-11) is already available and it is considered that there will be no significant deviations in the final version. The DSM-5 was released in 2013. Changes related to mental disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry have been made in both of these classifications. To identify changes in the classifications of mental disorders in childhood and adolescent age in beta version of ICD-11 and DSM-5. METHODS: Review of mental disorders in childhood and adolescent age and their classification in ICD-11 and DSM-5. RESULTS: For disorders that are classified as "mental retardation" in ICD-10, a new term "intellectual development disorders" has been introduced in ICD-11, ie "intellectual disabilities" in DSM-5. Hyperactivity disorders and attention deficit is a separate entity in relation to ICD-10, in which it is classified as a hyperkinetic disorder. Asperger's syndrome, which is isolated from autism spectrum disorders in DSM-5, does not appear under that name in ICD-11 either. Elimination disorders are in a separate block MKB-11 and DSM-5. Speech and language disorders are classified as communication disorders in the DSM-5 classification. Selective mutism and anxiety separation disorder in childhood are in the block of anxiety and fear-related disorders in ICD-11, and among anxiety disorders in DSM-5, respectively. Reactive emotional disorder and disinhibited attachment disorder of childhood are classified as stress-related disorders in ICD-11 and DSM-5. CONCLUSIONS: The new classifications (ICD-11 and DSM-5) classify mental disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry somewhat differently from their antecedents. New entities have also been formed.


Asunto(s)
Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades , Trastornos Mentales/clasificación , Adolescente , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/clasificación , Niño , Humanos , Trastornos del Habla/clasificación
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