Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.191
Filtrar
3.
J Anesth Hist ; 7(2): 17-25, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175108

RESUMEN

The complicated history of modified electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) started back before anesthesia was incorporated when unmodified electroconvulsive therapy was not considered humane. When anesthesiologists started working with psychiatrists, ECT gradually regained acceptance by decreasing the obstacles inherent to this therapy despite the complexities of the anesthetics. However, the sociopolitical and medicolegal factors negatively impacted the use of modified ECT leading to a period of time when it was banned from use in the United States. Fortunately, as advances in anesthesia and technology continued to develop, anesthesiologists helped ECT regain widespread usage improving the safety profile, cost effectiveness, quicker onset of seizures, and ease of control despite its stained past. This allowed more accessibility, especially for high-risk medical patients, to a relatively safe and effective treatment for psychiatric diseases.


Asunto(s)
Anestesia/historia , Terapia Electroconvulsiva/historia , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Trastornos Mentales/terapia
4.
Hist Psychol ; 24(3): 228-254, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956463

RESUMEN

In 1948, the motion picture The Snake Pit was released to popular and critical acclaim. Directed by Anatole Litvak, the film told of the mental illness and recovery of one patient, who survived overcrowding and understaffing and was treated by a neo-Freudian psychiatrist known as Dr. Kik. It was based on a novel of the same title by Mary Jane Ward, who had been treated at Rockland State Hospital in New York. Building upon exposés of horrid hospital conditions in the press, The Snake Pit helped motivate reforms in the treatment of the mentally ill. Via unpublished correspondence and drafts of the film's screenplay, this article explores the populist and antifascist themes in The Snake Pit, which came from the director, screenwriters, and the politics of the immediate post-WWII era. It also describes the case history of Mary Jane Ward and her treatment by Gerard Chrzanowski, the real "Dr. Kik." (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Comunismo , Literatura Moderna/historia , Medicina en las Artes/historia , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Películas Cinematográficas/historia , Literatura en Psiquiatría , Psiquiatría/historia , Personajes , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , New York , Estados Unidos
5.
Hist Psychiatry ; 32(3): 350-358, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960229

RESUMEN

At the end of the nineteenth century, recurrent cases of rib fractures were recorded in psychiatric asylums, opening a long chapter of discussions about the application of the 'non-restraint' system. Here we present a brief discussion of an article written by Enrico Morselli about five cases of rib fractures in the mental asylum of Reggio Emilia, in 1874-5. Morselli, a supporter of the ideas of 'non-restraint', suggested a common pathological cause. His analysis proposed the osteomalacic condition as the possible cause of fractured ribs, rejecting the accusations of violence by asylum attendants. The discussion also examines similar cases of the same period, making rib fractures the means through which the issue of management of the insane was addressed.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Psiquiátricos/historia , Restricción Física/efectos adversos , Fracturas de las Costillas/historia , Adulto , Anciano , Autopsia/historia , Causalidad , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Laringe/lesiones , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteomalacia/historia , Fracturas de las Costillas/etiología
6.
Am J Nurs ; 121(6): 34-40, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993135

RESUMEN

Psychedelics are a class of psychoactive substances that were studied extensively between 1943 and 1970 as potential therapies for treating a host of mental health disorders, including addiction. Despite promising early results, U.S. psychedelic research was halted in the early 1970s with the enactment of the Controlled Substances Act. As the field of psychedelic-assisted therapy develops, nurses can decide the role they will play in the continuing clinical and scholarly research of these substances, which may soon be used in controlled settings to treat some of the most widespread mental health disorders. To prepare for this task, this article proposes that nurses * become familiar with the history, relevant language, and scientific findings related to the field of psychedelic research. * learn about existing psychedelic-assisted therapy and research resources. * examine their thoughts, judgments, and opinions about therapeutic psychedelic use. * consider the potential role of nursing in psychedelic-assisted therapies going forward.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/historia , Alucinógenos/historia , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Salud Mental/historia , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/tratamiento farmacológico , Rol de la Enfermera , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/historia
7.
Hist Psychiatry ; 32(3): 270-288, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855893

RESUMEN

Herodotus's enigmatic Scythian theleia nousos/morbus femininus and its Hippocratic interpretation interested many early modern authors. Its seeming dimension of transgender identification invited various medico-psychological and psychiatric reflections, culminating in nosologist de Sauvages' tentative 1731 term, melancholia Scytharum. This article identifies pertinent discussions and what turn out to have been entangled, tentative psychologizations in late-seventeenth through mid-nineteenth-century mental medicine: of 'effeminacy of manners' (mollities animi such as observed in London's Beaux and mollies) and male homosexuality (amour antiphysique/grec); of the mental masculinity of some women (viragines, Amazones); of ubiquitous attributions of impotence to sorcery (anaphrodisia magica); and lastly, of transfeminine persons encountered throughout the New World and increasingly beyond.


Asunto(s)
Psiquiatría/historia , Personas Transgénero/historia , Transexualidad/historia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/historia
8.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 19(1): 81-92, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678603

RESUMEN

Historiography of IP Pavlov and his description of conditional reflexes has been thoroughly specified by the records collected between 1990-2000 by DP Todes, an American science historian specializing in Russia. The Pavlov's intent was to study the nervous processes underlying psychical activity by the conditional reflexes, not the conditioning theory. In his modeling of the higher nervous activity, he highlighted the dynamic and greatly plastic character of brain functioning as well as the functional character of some long-term behavioral disorders in dogs. Far from the Soviet dogmatic presentation of the "Pavlovian doctrine", the complexity of the Pavlov's thought also paved the way to innovative conceptions in opposition with his former modeling developed by Soviet physiologists such as NA Bernstein and PK Anokhin, and psychologists such as LS Vygotski and AR Luria.


Asunto(s)
Condicionamiento Clásico , Actividad Nerviosa Superior , Modelos Psicológicos , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros , Perros , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Federación de Rusia
9.
Hist Psychol ; 24(1): 22-33, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661679

RESUMEN

Following three turning points in the historical development of psychology this study examines how the relation between mental health and the state of illness is linked to the concept of "passions." The first was the birth of modern psychiatry in 18th century France. The second was the development of the field of inquiry in antiquity about the psuche and its mental activities, and the third was the turn of early Christian thought about mind and soul. A comparison between early modern and ancient concepts of "the passions" reveals the moral and ethical aspects of the concept "mental health," and shows that more than for any other kind of illness, the history of mental illness and mental health is embedded within a moralistic philosophical perspective. Pathology as a field of study of "the passions," whatever their definition was, enabled thinkers to refer to mental illness and health in moral terms. Although "passions" meant different things to different authors in different times, it was used by all as means to link between inner mental activities and the way the body react to the outside world. We can see it as an obligatory element to conceptualize illness, disorder, and health in regards to mental activities. Pagan ancient authors as well as early Christian authors used it to construct new theories and praxes about mental health, while early modern psychiatrists used it to develop corporeal methods of cure. In all currents of thought the concept of "passions" and the definition of the ways in which they affected the mind were used to distinguish mental illness and mental health from any other type of illness and health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental/historia , Principios Morales , Psiquiatría/historia , Psicopatología/historia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Filosofía/historia
10.
Hist Psychiatry ; 32(2): 146-161, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596703

RESUMEN

This paper identifies some of the themes that emerge from a study of official archival records from 1918 to 1934 on the subject of mental health in colonial Lesotho. They include: difficulties experienced by colonial medical doctors in diagnosing and treating mental illnesses, given the state of medical knowledge in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; impact of shortage of financial and other resources on the establishment and operation of medical services, especially mental health care; convergence of social order, financial and medical concerns as influences on colonial approaches to mental health care; and the question of whether Basotho colonial society saw institutionalization of their relatives as 'hospitalization' or 'imprisonment'. Two case studies are presented as preliminary explorations of some of the themes.


Asunto(s)
Colonialismo/historia , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Servicios de Salud Mental/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Lesotho , Trastornos Mentales/terapia
11.
Hist Psychiatry ; 32(2): 210-226, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445972

RESUMEN

This paper investigates the role of admission forms in the regulation of asylum confinement in the second half of the nineteenth century. Taking the Toronto Lunatic Asylum as a case study it traces the evolution of the forms' content and structure during the first decades of this institution. Admission forms provide important material for understanding the medico-legal assessment of lunacy in a certain jurisdiction. First, they show how the description of insanity depended on a plurality of actors. Second, doctors were not necessarily required to indicate symptoms of derangement. Third, patients' relatives played a fundamental role in providing clinical information. From an historiographical perspective, this paper invites scholars to consider the function of standardized documents in shaping the written identity of patients.


Asunto(s)
Documentación/historia , Hospitalización , Hospitales Psiquiátricos/historia , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Canadá , Documentación/normas , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia
12.
Hist Psychiatry ; 32(1): 37-51, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143472

RESUMEN

This paper explores the historical developments of admission registers of psychiatric asylums and hospitals in England and Wales between 1845 and 1950, with illustrative examples (principally from the archives of the Rainhill Asylum, UK). Standardized admission registers have been mandatory elements of the mental health legislative framework since 1845, and procedural changes illustrate the development from what, today, we would characterize as a predominantly psychosocial understanding of mental health problems towards primarily biomedical explanations. Over time, emphasis shifts from the social determinants of admission to an asylum to the diagnosis of an illness requiring treatment in hospital. We discuss the implications of this progressive historical diminution of the social determinants of mental health for current debates in mental health care.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/historia , Salud Mental/historia , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Hospitalización , Hospitales Psiquiátricos/historia , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Reino Unido
13.
Hist Psychiatry ; 32(1): 69-84, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118402

RESUMEN

The nineteenth century witnessed a great shift in how insanity was regarded and treated. Well documented is the emergence of psychiatry as a medical specialization and the role of lunatic asylums in the West. Unclear are the relationships between the heads of institutions and the individuals treated within them. This article uses two cases at either end of the nineteenth century to demonstrate sexual misdemeanours in sites of mental health care, and particularly how they were dealt with, both legally and in the press. They illustrate issues around cultures of complaint and the consequences of these for medical careers. Far from being representative, they highlight the need for further research into the doctor-patient relationship within asylums, and what happened when the boundaries were blurred.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Psiquiátricos/historia , Enfermos Mentales/historia , Relaciones Médico-Paciente/ética , Psiquiatría/historia , Delitos Sexuales/historia , Personal Administrativo/historia , Inglaterra , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Violación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Delitos Sexuales/legislación & jurisprudencia
14.
Hist Psychiatry ; 32(1): 3-19, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124465

RESUMEN

This article offers a brief history and the evolution of mental health policy in Turkey. It aims to analyse how mental health policies were transformed and why certain policies were introduced at specific times. The modern history of mental health policy is divided into three periods: the institutionalization of psychiatry and hospital-based mental health services; the introduction of community-based mental healthcare services; and lastly, the policy of deinstitutionalization after the 1980s. These periods have been categorized in a way that basically coincides with Turkey's modern political history.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud/historia , Hospitales Psiquiátricos/historia , Institucionalización/historia , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Servicios de Salud Mental/historia , Servicios Comunitarios de Salud Mental/historia , Desinstitucionalización/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Hospitales Psiquiátricos/organización & administración , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Turquia
15.
Hist Psychiatry ; 32(2): 127-145, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319624

RESUMEN

After falling into mental illness as a young man, the British artist Richard Dadd (1817-86) spent some 20 years as a patient at Bethlem Hospital in London. A rare example of his writings from these years survives in the form of marginalia in a copy of Lectures on Painting and Design by Benjamin Robert Haydon, held in the Morgan Library & Museum in New York. This article presents a transcription of the notes, along with an introduction setting them in the contexts of Dadd's career and his relationship with the senior staff at Bethlem.


Asunto(s)
Arte/historia , Hospitales Psiquiátricos/historia , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Escritura/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Londres , Trastornos Mentales/terapia
16.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 49(1): 107-114, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246986

RESUMEN

The Spanish Inquisition was founded in 1478 by the Catholic monarchs and operated with the goal of controlling heresy in society. Religion was omnipresent, and Jewish conversos (Jews who had converted to Christianity) who continued to observe Jewish practices were many of the accused. In cases in which the defendant was thought to have mental illness, the Inquisition's physicians were to evaluate the person and provide reports and expert evidence. Those defendants who were found to have genuine mental illness were generally freed or transferred to specific hospitals for those with mental illness. Case examples elucidate the methods used by the Spanish Inquisition physicians to differentiate mental illness from malingering and heresy. Physicians also treated inmates and participated in evaluations regarding the appropriateness of torture. Understanding the events of the Spanish Inquisition and the role of physicians holds relevance for contemporary forensic psychiatry.


Asunto(s)
Catolicismo/historia , Simulación de Enfermedad/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Rol del Médico/historia , Médicos/historia , Prisioneros/psicología , Psiquiatría Forense , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Humanos , Simulación de Enfermedad/historia , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Prisioneros/historia , España , Tortura/historia
18.
Ir J Med Sci ; 190(1): 243-250, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506276

RESUMEN

While many countries developed asylums for the mentally ill during the nineteenth century, Ireland's asylum system grew faster than those elsewhere, was larger in size and was slower to decline. This paper focuses on two reports central to this process in the 1850s: the 1854 "Report on the status of disease" and the 1858 "Report of the commissioners of inquiry into the state of the lunatic asylums and other institutions for the custody and treatment of the insane in Ireland." In 1854, the "Report on the status of disease," based on the 1851 census, was published, co-authored by Dr. William Wilde, now best known as father of Oscar. Wilde, however, was also a prominent surgeon and author of works on medicine, archaeology and folklore. He was knighted in 1864 owing in large part to his work on the census, which highlighted an apparently high rate of mental illness with such diverse causes as "dyspepsia," "seduction" and "violent hysteria." Four years later, in 1858, the "Report of the commissioners of inquiry into the state of the lunatic asylums and other institutions for the custody and treatment of the insane in Ireland" added fuel to the fire by reporting that "the lunatic asylums of Ireland wear more the aspect of places merely for the secure detention of lunatics than of curative hospitals for the insane." Reform, it seemed, was urgently needed. This contribution examines these two key reports in the fevered, panicked context of Ireland's perpetual reform and expansion of its nineteenth-century asylums.


Asunto(s)
Dispepsia/psicología , Hospitales Psiquiátricos/historia , Histeria/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Irlanda
19.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 27(4): 1245-1263, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338186

RESUMEN

Our goal is to understand the appearance and spread of forms of puerperal insanity in Argentina and Colombia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, as well as their decline or disappearance around the 1940s. This is a historical and hermeneutical study, which uses the concepts of "field of visibility" and "ecological niche" for a transitory disease. There was no correlation between pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium and the state of delirium that led to commitment, which was attributed to predisposing factors; furthermore, forms of puerperal insanity were nosographically distinct due to their unique etiopathogeneses. As clinical cases of puerperal insanity started to emerge, the disciplinary field of obstetrics converged with psychiatry, with the former exerting more weight.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/historia , Trastornos Puerperales/historia , Infección Puerperal/historia , Argentina , Colombia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Parto/psicología , Infección Puerperal/psicología
20.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(4): 1245-1263, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142993

RESUMEN

Resumen El objetivo es comprender la aparición y propagación de locuras puerperales en Argentina y Colombia, a finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX, así como su decadencia o desvanecimiento hacia la década de 1940-1950. Investigación histórico-hermenéutica, según los conceptos de "campo de visibilidad" y "nicho ecológico" de una enfermedad transitoria. No existió correlación entre embarazo, parto y puerperio con el estado delirante que motivaba la internación, atribuido a factores predisponentes y, asimismo, tuvieron una autonomía nosográfica en virtud de etiopatogenias singulares. Al tiempo que empezó a emerger el tipo clínico locura puerperal, se entrecruzaron el campo disciplinar de la obstetricia con el alienismo, con una mayor preponderancia del primero.


Abstract Our goal is to understand the appearance and spread of forms of puerperal insanity in Argentina and Colombia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, as well as their decline or disappearance around the 1940s. This is a historical and hermeneutical study, which uses the concepts of "field of visibility" and "ecological niche" for a transitory disease. There was no correlation between pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium and the state of delirium that led to commitment, which was attributed to predisposing factors; furthermore, forms of puerperal insanity were nosographically distinct due to their unique etiopathogeneses. As clinical cases of puerperal insanity started to emerge, the disciplinary field of obstetrics converged with psychiatry, with the former exerting more weight.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Trastornos Puerperales/historia , Infección Puerperal/historia , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Argentina , Infección Puerperal/psicología , Colombia , Parto/psicología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...