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1.
Recurso de Internet en Español | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-49562

RESUMEN

La caja de herramientas para el abordaje integral del uso de sustancias psicoactivas, es un espacio dedicado a aquellas personas que de manera personal han estado o están expuestos al consumo de sustancias psicoactivas (SPA), igualmente, se dirige aquellas personas de la comunidad, familias, colegios, universidades, barrios y grupos sociales que requieran de herramientas prácticas que aporten a la mitigación y prevención de consumo de SPA en su círculo social.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Factores Sociológicos , Atención a la Salud , Salud Mental , Drogas Ilícitas
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1279477, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414902

RESUMEN

Objectives: As part of a larger mixed-methods study into harm reduction in the hospital setting and people with lived experience of methamphetamine use, stigma was found to be a prominent issue. The aim of this secondary analysis was to investigate the issue of stigma. Design: Participants completed a one-time qualitative interview component to assess their experiences in the hospital setting. Setting: The study setting included secondary and tertiary care in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Participants who had received care from these settings were also recruited from an overdose prevention site, a primary healthcare center, a national mental health organization, an affordable housing agency, and six homeless-serving agencies between October 2020 and April 2021. Participants: A total of 104 individuals completed the qualitative component of a mixed-methods interview. Sixty-seven participants identified as male, thirty-six identified as female, and one identified as non-binary. Inclusion criteria included past or current use of methamphetamine, having received services from a hospital, and being able to communicate in English. Methods: Open-ended questions regarding experiences in the hospital setting were asked in relation to the lived experience of methamphetamine. A secondary analysis was conducted post-hoc using a thematic ethnographic approach due to prominent perceptions of stigma. Results: Three themes were identified. The first theme identified that substance use was perceived as a moral and personal choice; the second theme pertained to social stigmas such as income, housing and substance use, and consequences such as being shunned or feeling less worthy than the general patient population; and the third theme highlighted health consequences such as inadequate treatment or pain management. Conclusion: This study revealed that stigma can have consequences that extend beyond the therapeutic relationship and into the healthcare of the individual. Additional training and education for healthcare providers represents a key intervention to ensure care is non-stigmatizing and patient-centered, as well as changing hospital culture.


Asunto(s)
Estigma Social , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Atención a la Salud , Ontario , Hospitales
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(2)2024 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399570

RESUMEN

Background: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a heterogeneous and highly comorbid disorder. Suicidality, aggression and substance abuse are common presentations of BPD. Our case series is the first to highlight the role of brexpiprazole in improving these symptoms in patients with BPD. Case presentation: We describe three cases demonstrating the role of brexpiprazole in improving BPD's prominent features and comorbidities. All cases improved when brexpiprazole was added to their treatment regime. Case 1: A 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with BPD and cyclothymia, presented to the psychiatric emergency unit with impulsive suicidal behaviour. Case 2: A 43-year-old woman suffering from BPD sought help due to her violent behaviour and emotional dysregulation. Case 3: A 22-year-old woman with underlying attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, polysubstance use disorder and BPD presented with dysregulated emotions. Conclusions: Our case series provides anecdotal evidence of the potential role of brexpiprazole in attenuating suicidality, aggression and substance abuse in patients with BPD. We postulate that brexpiprazole's high affinity for the 5HT1A/5HT2A receptors, coupled with its low intrinsic effect on the D2/D3 receptor system, is fundamental in its actions to stabilise the aberrant dopaminergic and serotonergic signalling in BPD. Future research should focus on well-designed clinical trials investigating the efficacy of brexpiprazole in patients with BPD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe , Quinolonas , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Suicidio , Tiofenos , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Ideación Suicida , Agresión/psicología , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/complicaciones , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
4.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297448, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394314

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: There is currently inconclusive evidence regarding the relationship between recidivism and mental illness. This retrospective study aimed to use rigorous machine learning methods to understand the unique predictive utility of mental illness for recidivism in a general population (i.e.; not only those with mental illness) prison sample in the United States. METHOD: Participants were adult men (n = 322) and women (n = 72) who were recruited from three prisons in the Midwest region of the United States. Three model comparisons using Bayesian correlated t-tests were conducted to understand the incremental predictive utility of mental illness, substance use, and crime and demographic variables for recidivism prediction. Three classification statistical algorithms were considered while evaluating model configurations for the t-tests: elastic net logistic regression (GLMnet), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), and random forests (RF). RESULTS: Rates of substance use disorders were particularly high in our sample (86.29%). Mental illness variables and substance use variables did not add predictive utility for recidivism prediction over and above crime and demographic variables. Exploratory analyses comparing the crime and demographic, substance use, and mental illness feature sets to null models found that only the crime and demographics model had an increased likelihood of improving recidivism prediction accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Despite not finding a direct relationship between mental illness and recidivism, treatment of mental illness in incarcerated populations is still essential due to the high rates of mental illnesses, the legal imperative, the possibility of decreasing institutional disciplinary burden, the opportunity to increase the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs in prison, and the potential to improve meaningful outcomes beyond recidivism following release.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Prisioneros , Reincidencia , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Estados Unidos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Teorema de Bayes , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Crimen , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 171: 286-295, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335639

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To study whether pain empathy and theory of mind (ToM) are related to pain indices and trauma experience, we studied opioid users receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), a population with a history of traumas and a high prevalence of chronic pain. METHODS: MMT patients (n = 53), substance abuse-free, with no impaired cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) ≥24), were compared to healthy controls (HC) matched by age and gender (n = 66). All participants were assessed using Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RMET) for ToM, empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index [IRI], Empathy Quotient Scale for Adults [EQ60]), and Pain Empathy [PE task]). An algometer was used for pain pressure threshold, and supra-pain threshold was rated using a visual analog scale (VAS). Catastrophizing, McGill pain, Negative life events (NLE), and MoCA questionnaires were administered. Substance abuse was tested in the urine of MMT patients and self-reported by HC. RESULTS: MMT, compared to HC, were less educated with more NLE and a lower RMET (logistic regression). Groups had comparable empathy and pain indices, except for higher supra-threshold VAS rating and catastrophizing in univariate analyses. Pain empathy (PE) correlated with NLE in HC, and in MMT, with catastrophizing, which correlated with NLE, perceived stress, and pain intensity. Higher empathy was observed in 18 participants with a history of sexual abuse (83.3 % belong to the MMT group). CONCLUSIONS: Pain Empathy was found to be associated with personal suffering experience in both groups, as reflected by correlations with NLE in HC and with catastrophizing, which correlates with NLE, stress, and pain intensity, in MMT.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adulto , Humanos , Metadona/uso terapéutico , Empatía , Analgésicos Opioides/efectos adversos , Dolor Crónico/tratamiento farmacológico , Tratamiento de Sustitución de Opiáceos , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/epidemiología
6.
Prev Sci ; 25(2): 291-295, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340235

RESUMEN

The purpose of this commentary on the special issue of Prevention Science, "International Responses to Prevention Intervention Research During Human Ecosystem Disruptions," is to review the six target articles included in this issue, evaluate their results, and highlight the myriad ways in which diverse teams of prevention scientists mobilized to conduct rigorous scientific research during major human ecosystem disruptions (HEDs). The articles included in this issue consider both the etiology of mental and behavioral health challenges (i.e., substance use, mental health, behavioral problems) during HEDs and preventive intervention efforts aimed at addressing these challenges (i.e., adaptation and implementation of evidence-based interventions in novel contexts). This commentary discusses each article with emphasis on the respective contributions that prevention science teams have made to public health during major HEDs. Even in the most challenging contexts, prevention scientists have been at the forefront of public health efforts and have evidenced the vital role of prevention science for public health during HED events. The commentary concludes by highlighting the critical roles that prevention scientists can play in addressing critical public health issues during large-scale HEDs.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Salud Mental , Salud Pública , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud
7.
Med Sci (Basel) ; 12(1)2024 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38390863

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use disorder (TUD) adversely impacts older patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, CVD risk in chronic habitual cannabis users without the confounding impact of TUD hasn't been explored. We aimed to determine the risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in older non-tobacco smokers with established CVD risk with vs. without cannabis use disorder (CUD). METHODS: We queried the 2019 National Inpatient Sample for hospitalized non-tobacco smokers with established traditional CVD risk factors aged ≥65 years. Relevant ICD-10 codes were used to identify patients with vs. without CUD. Using multivariable logistic regression, we evaluated the odds of MACCE in CUD cohorts compared to non-CUD cohorts. RESULTS: Prevalence of CUD in the sample was 0.3% (28,535/10,708,815, median age 69), predominantly male, black, and non-electively admitted from urban teaching hospitals. Of the older patients with CVD risk with CUD, 13.9% reported MACCE. The CUD cohort reported higher odds of MACCE (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.11-1.29, p < 0.001) compared to the non-CUD cohort. Comorbidities such as hypertension (OR 1.9) and hyperlipidemia (OR 1.3) predicted a higher risk of MACCE in the CUD cohort. The CUD cohort also had higher unadjusted rates of acute myocardial infarction (7.6% vs. 6%) and stroke (5.2% vs. 4.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Among older non tobacco smokers with known CVD risk, chronic cannabis use had a 20% higher likelihood of MACCE compared to those who did not use cannabis.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Hipertensión , Abuso de Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Tabaquismo , Humanos , Masculino , Anciano , Femenino , Abuso de Marihuana/complicaciones , Abuso de Marihuana/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología
8.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 81(6): 585-590, 2024 02 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38391163

RESUMEN

The recreational use of nitrous oxide (N2O) is an emerging public health issue. Chronic N2O abuse may result in various clinical symptoms, encompassing neurological, psychiatric and cardiovascular outcomes. Despite the difficulties for the laboratory investigation of N2O intoxication, there is currently no guidelines in France to help both clinicians and biologists use appropriate biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with clinical symptoms potentially related to N2O intoxication. A multi-disciplinary Working Group, carried out under the auspices of the French Society of Clinical Biology (SFBC) and in collaboration with the French Societies of Emergency Medicine (SFMU), Analytical Toxicology (SFTA), Hemostasis and Thrombosis (SFTH), Vitamins and Biofactors (SFVB), and the French Federation of Neurology (FFN), was recently implemented to elaborate practical guidelines. The methodology of the Working Group is based on the critical analysis of the literature, and raising concerns and objectives are grouped into five working packages. The present manuscript primarily aims to expound upon the methodology and objectives of the ongoing SFBC Working Group on N2O.


Asunto(s)
Óxido Nitroso , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Óxido Nitroso/toxicidad , Biomarcadores , Francia , Vitamina B 12
9.
AIDS Behav ; 28(2): 682-694, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319460

RESUMEN

People with HIV (PWH) with substance use disorders (SUD) have worse health outcomes than PWH without SUD. Our objective was to characterize substance use patterns and their impact on longitudinal HIV RNA trajectories among those enrolled in an observational study of PWH in care in Washington, DC. Substance use by type (alcohol, cannabis, opioid, stimulant, hallucinogen, inhalant, sedative) was used to identify shared patterns of substance use using Latent Class Analysis (LCA). A multinomial logistic regression model evaluated the association between the resulting substance use classes and the membership probability in longitudinal HIV RNA trajectory groups. There were 30.1% of participants with at least one substance reported. LCA resulted in a three-class model: (1) Low-Level Substance Use, (2) Opioid Use, and (3) Polysubstance. The Opioid and Polysubstance Use classes were more likely to have a mental health diagnosis (45.4% and 53.5%; p < 0.0001). Members in the Opioid Use class were older (median age of 54.9 years (IQR 50.3-59.2) than both the Polysubstance and Low-Level Substance Use Classes (p < 0.0001). There were 3 HIV RNA trajectory groups: (1) Undetectable, (2) Suppressed, and (3) Unsuppressed HIV RNA over 18 months of follow-up. The probability of being in the unsuppressed HIV RNA group trajectory when a member of the Opioid Use or Polysubstance Use classes was 2.5 times and 1.5 times greater than the Low-Level Substance Use class, respectively. The Opioid Use and Polysubstance Use classes, with higher-risk drug use, should be approached with more targeted HIV-related care to improve outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Infecciones por VIH , Alucinógenos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Analgésicos Opioides , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(2): 836-851, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305627

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has hit elderly people the hardest in terms of severity and mortality. However, it is also evident that children and adolescents have been significantly impacted and experienced major disruptions in their lives. The psychological, mental, and developmental repercussions have been major and have led to a reshaping of drug abuse dynamics and substance addiction. The authors have outlined a narrative review of the major issues affecting adolescents and their mental well-being by clarifying the lingering effects and pandemic aftermath, especially on drug abuse, developmental aspects, and behavioral addiction. The unique traits of adolescent risk factors have been outlined, in order to identify areas to be prioritized for future strategies. Possible repercussions on juvenile crime linked to social estrangedness and disrupted interactions have been briefly explored as well. All such aspects are highly meaningful and relevant from a medicolegal perspective as well. The looming mental health crisis involving youngsters will have to be confronted by fine-tuning and optimizing mental health care services, building on current experiences, raising awareness, and eliminating the stigma that often comes with mental issues. Healthcare systems should look at the current scenario as an opportunity to improve care delivery to eliminate access inequalities and stigmatization of mental issues and raise awareness for the benefit and well-being of all. Similarly, law enforcement, lawmakers, and the judiciary will have to account for such factors, too, as will economic policy-makers. In that regard, a set of defining criteria has been framed in order to provide a degree of objectivity when meeting the unique challenges of the pandemic for youth mental health, in a comprehensive and tailored fashion.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Humanos , COVID-19/psicología , Salud Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 94, 2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308259

RESUMEN

Compared to men inmates, women display decreased prevalence of severe mental disorder but increased occurrence of substance use disorders (SUD) and higher rates of previous contacts with mental health services. The group of women in detention is highly heterogeneous according to the status of incarceration (pre-trial detention (PTD), sentence execution (SE) and court ordered treatments (COT)). Studies focusing on the comparison of sociodemographic patterns, detention-related and clinical variables between these groups are still lacking. We explored these parameters in 136 women admitted for acute psychiatric care in the sole Geneva forensic unit during a nine year period (2014-2023). Sociodemographic and detention-related data included age, nationality, marital status, presence of children, education attainment, most frequently speaking language, social support, employment before conviction and type of offenses. Clinical variables included the main ICD-10 diagnosis, presence of concomitant SUD, type of personality disorders, presence of suicidal thoughts and attempts at admission, as well as number and mean duration of stays. PTD and SE women had at least 9 years of formal education in 38.9% and 30.3% of cases. Most women in PTD (77.7%), SE (56.6%) and COT (56.2%) groups were Swiss or European citizens. The level of French knowledge was excellent in most of the cases. 43.8% of COT women had at least one child and this percentage is even higher for PTD and SE cases. The employment rate before conviction was also quite high, mainly for PTD and SE (61.1% and 60.6%) and, in a lesser degree, for COT (43.8%) women. Significant social support was present in the vast majority of women without any significant group difference. The distribution of type of offenses did not differ between the three types of detention with a predominance of physical violence, and drug trafficking. The number of stays during the period of reference was significantly higher in COT compared to both SE and PTD women. History of previous inpatient care was also significantly more frequent in COT that SE and PTD women. Adjustment and affective disorders were more often found in SE and PTD cases, these diagnoses were absent in the COT group. In contrast, a main diagnosis of psychotic disorders was found in 62.5% of COT cases compared to only 21.2% in SE and 24.1% in PTD cases. The number of stays, history of inpatient care and diagnosis of psychosis were independent predictors of COT status. In conclusion, the present data reveal the good social integration and emotional support of women needing acute psychiatric care in prison independently of the type of detention. Clinically, women in PTD and SE display more often emotional distress whereas those in COT suffer from acute psychotic symptoms with previous history of psychiatric care and multiple inpatient stays.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Servicios de Salud Mental , Prisioneros , Trastornos Psicóticos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Femenino , Humanos , Etnicidad , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Prisioneros/psicología
12.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 38, 2024 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351012

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human service settings not specifically focused on supporting people who use drugs (PWUD), especially those with a substance use disorder (SUD), such as probation and parole services, homeless shelters, and work re-entry and job training programs, offer a unique opportunity to assist this population and prevent overdose deaths. During the COVID-19 pandemic (pandemic), building capacity in such settings for overdose prevention, harm reduction, and to address barriers to treatment, recovery, and support services required that training vendors use a virtual format. Post-pandemic, virtual training remains a cost-effective and convenient alternative to in-person training. The Behavioral Health and Racial Equity (BeHERE) Training Initiative of Health Resources in Action, which offers eight training modules on prevention, recovery, and harm reduction, delivered 224 online trainings between April 2020 and June 2022. METHODS: A mixed methods evaluation based upon the Kirkpatrick Training Evaluation Model was employed, which utilized post-training (n = 1272) and follow-up surveys (n = 62), and key informant interviews (n = 35). RESULTS: The findings showed BeHERE's trainings were relevant, engaging, and satisfying to trainees; increased their knowledge, skills, and confidence; and influenced workplace performance. Some participants also indicated that the training influenced the effectiveness of their work with clients and other staff. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation identified aspects of training that make a virtual format effective at improving the capacity of non-SUD settings to address substance use and support PWUD. Findings offer insights for those interested in delivery of virtual training, as well as training to influence the practice of human service providers across different settings to support PWUD.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Sobredosis de Droga , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Creación de Capacidad , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia
13.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0287878, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354165

RESUMEN

E-cigarette use among adolescents is a national health epidemic spreading faster than researchers can amass evidence for risk and protective factors and long-term consequences associated with use. New technologies, such as machine learning, may assist prevention programs in identifying at risk youth and potential targets for intervention before adolescents enter developmental periods where e-cigarette use escalates. The present study utilized machine learning algorithms to explore a wide array of individual and socioecological variables in relation to patterns of lifetime e-cigarette use during early adolescence (i.e., exclusive, or with tobacco cigarettes). Extant data was used from 14,346 middle school students (Mage = 12.5, SD = 1.1; 6th and 8th grades) who participated in the Utah Prevention Needs Assessment. Students self-reported their substance use behaviors and related risk and protective factors. Machine learning algorithms examined 112 individual and socioecological factors as potential classifiers of lifetime e-cigarette use outcomes. The elastic net algorithm achieved outstanding classification for lifetime exclusive (AUC = .926) and dual use (AUC = .944) on a validation test set. Six high value classifiers were identified that varied in importance by outcome: Lifetime alcohol or marijuana use, perception of e-cigarette availability and risk, school suspension(s), and perceived risk of smoking marijuana regularly. Specific classifiers were important for lifetime exclusive (parent's attitudes regarding student vaping, best friend[s] tried alcohol or marijuana) and dual use (best friend[s] smoked cigarettes, lifetime inhalant use). Our findings provide specific targets for the adaptation of existing substance use prevention programs to address early adolescent e-cigarette use.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Fumar Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Vapeo , Humanos , Adolescente , Vapeo/epidemiología , Aprendizaje Automático , Etanol
14.
Implement Sci ; 19(1): 13, 2024 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347639

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cross-system interventions that integrate health, behavioral health, and social services can improve client outcomes and expand community impact. Successful implementation of these interventions depends on the extent to which service partners can align frontline services and organizational operations. However, collaboration strategies linking multiple implementation contexts have received limited empirical attention. This study identifies, describes, and specifies multi-level collaboration strategies used during the implementation of Ohio Sobriety Treatment and Reducing Trauma (Ohio START), a cross-system intervention that integrates services across two systems (child welfare and evidence-based behavioral health services) for families that are affected by co-occurring child maltreatment and parental substance use disorders. METHODS: In phase 1, we used a multi-site qualitative design with 17 counties that implemented Ohio START. Qualitative data were gathered from 104 staff from child welfare agencies, behavioral health treatment organizations, and regional behavioral health boards involved in implementation via 48 small group interviews about collaborative approaches to implementation. To examine cross-system collaboration strategies, qualitative data were analyzed using an iterative template approach and content analysis. In phase 2, a 16-member expert panel met to validate and specify the cross-system collaboration strategies identified in the interviews. The panel was comprised of key child welfare and behavioral health partners and scholars. RESULTS: In phase 1, we identified seven cross-system collaboration strategies used for implementation. Three strategies were used to staff the program: (1) contract for expertise, (2) provide joint supervision, and (3) co-locate staff. Two strategies were used to promote service access: (4) referral protocols and (5) expedited access agreements. Two strategies were used to align case plans: (6) shared decision-making meetings, and (7) sharing data. In phase 2, expert panelists specified operational details of the cross-system collaboration strategies, and explained the processes by which strategies were perceived to improve implementation and service system outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a range of cross-system collaboration strategies that show promise for improving staffing, service access, and case planning. Leaders, supervisors, and frontline staff used these strategies during all phases of implementation. These findings lay the foundation for future experimental and quasi-experimental studies that test the effectiveness of cross-system collaboration strategies.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Niño , Humanos , Protección a la Infancia , Investigación Cualitativa , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Servicios de Protección Infantil
15.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 19(1): 11, 2024 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351004

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Non-profit hospitals in the U.S. are required by the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) to conduct a community health needs assessment (CHNA) every three years and to formulate an implementation strategy in response to those needs. Hospitals often identify substance use as a need relevant to their communities in their CHNAs and then must determine whether to create strategies to address such a need within their implementation strategies. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between a hospital's prioritization of substance use within its community benefit documents and its substance use service offerings, while considering other hospital and community characteristics. METHODS: This study of a national sample of U.S. hospitals utilizes data collected from publicly available CHNAs and implementation strategies produced by hospitals from 2018 to 2021. This cross-sectional study employs descriptive statistics and multivariable analysis to assess relationships between prioritization of substance use on hospital implementation strategies and the services offered by hospitals, with consideration of community and hospital characteristics. Hospital CHNA and strategy documents were collected and then coded to identify whether the substance use needs were prioritized by the hospital. The collected data were incorporated into a data set with secondary data sourced from the 2021 AHA Annual Survey. RESULTS: Multivariable analysis found a significant and positive relationship between the prioritization of substance use as a community need on a hospital's implementation strategy and the number of the services included in this analysis offered by the hospital. Significant and positive relationships were also identified for five service categories and for hospital size. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of service offerings is related both to a hospital's prioritization of substance use and to its size, indicating that these factors are likely inter-related regarding a hospital's sense of its ability to address substance use as a community need. Policymakers should consider why a hospital may not prioritize a need that is prevalent within their community; e.g., whether the organization believes it lacks resources to take such steps. This study also highlights the value of the assessment and implementation strategy process as a way for hospitals to engage with community needs.


Asunto(s)
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Hospitales , Organizaciones sin Fines de Lucro , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Hospitales Comunitarios
16.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 70, 2024 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351023

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Substance use problems have a major impact on the physical and mental health of individuals, families and communities. Early intervention may have a positive effect on recovery and treatment outcomes for those with substance use problems, reducing related risk and harm. Separate mental health first aid guidelines on how a member of the public could assist someone experiencing or developing alcohol use and drug use problems in high income Western countries were developed using Delphi expert consensus in 2009 and 2011, respectively. This study aimed to synthesise and update these two original guidelines to reflect current evidence and best practice. METHODS: The Delphi expert consensus method was used to determine the inclusion of statements in the redeveloped guidelines. A questionnaire was developed using previously endorsed helping statements from the original guidelines on alcohol and drug use problems, as well as relevant content identified in systematic searches of academic and grey literature. Three panels of experts (people with lived experience, support people and professionals) rated statements over three consecutive online survey rounds to determine the importance of their inclusion in the guidelines. Statements endorsed by at least 80% of each panel were included. RESULTS: 103 panellists completed all three survey rounds. They rated 469 statements and endorsed 300 of these for inclusion in the redeveloped guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: This study has developed a broader and more comprehensive set of guidelines for how to support a person experiencing or developing a substance use problem. The redeveloped guidelines provide more detail on knowledge about and recognition of substance use problems, approaching and assisting people who want to change or are not ready to change, harm reduction, community-based supports and professional help, but have less on physical first aid actions. Mental Health First Aid International will use these guidelines in future updates of their training courses.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Primeros Auxilios , Técnica Delfos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Consenso , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 15: 21501319241229925, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323431

RESUMEN

AIMS: Children of parents with substance use and/or other mental health (SU/MH) diagnoses are at increased risk for health problems. It is unknown whether these children benefit from receiving primary care at the same clinic as their parents. Thus, among children of parents with >1 SU/MH diagnosis, we examined the association of parent-child clinic concordance with rates of well-child checks (WCCs) and childhood vaccinations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using electronic health record (EHR) data from the OCHIN network of community health organizations (CHOs), 2010-2018. Setting: 280 CHOs across 17 states. PARTICIPANTS/CASES: 41,413 parents with >1 SU/MH diagnosis, linked to 65,417 children aged 0 to 17 years, each with >1 visit to an OCHIN clinic during the study period. MEASUREMENTS: Dependent variables: rates of WCCs during (1) the first 15 months of life, and (2) ages 3 to 17 years; vaccine completeness (3) by the age of 2, and (4) before the age of 18. Estimates were attained using generalized estimating equations Poisson or logistic regression. FINDINGS: Among children utilizing the same clinic as their parent versus children using a different clinic (reference group), we observed greater WCC rates in the first 15 months of life [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.10]; no difference in WCC rates in ages 3 to 17; higher odds for vaccine completion before age 2 [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.03-1.21]; and lower odds for vaccine completion before age 18 (aOR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.81-0.95). CONCLUSION: Among children whose parents have at least one SU/MH diagnosis, parent-child clinic concordance was associated with greater rates of WCCs and higher odds of completed vaccinations for children in the youngest age groups, but not the older children. This suggests the need for greater emphasis on family-oriented healthcare for young children of parents with SU/MH diagnoses; this may be less important for older children.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Vacunas , Humanos , Niño , Adolescente , Preescolar , Salud Mental , Estudios Retrospectivos , Padres , Atención a la Salud
18.
Public Health Res (Southampt) ; 12(2): 1-290, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356404

RESUMEN

Background: Whole-school interventions modify the school environment to promote health. A subset of these interventions promotes student commitment to school to prevent substance (tobacco, alcohol, other drugs) use and/or violence. A previous review identified the theory of human functioning and school organisation as a comprehensive theory of such interventions, and found evidence that these interventions reduce substance use and/or violence. Objectives: The objectives were to search for, appraise and synthesise evidence to address the following questions: (1) What whole-school interventions promoting student commitment to school to prevent substance use and/or violence have been evaluated, what intervention subtypes are apparent and how closely do these align with the theory of human functioning and school organisation? (2) What factors relating to setting, population and intervention affect implementation? (3) What are the effects on student substance use, violence and educational attainment? (4) What is the cost-effectiveness of such interventions? (5) Are intervention effects mediated by student commitment to school or moderated by setting or population? Data sources: A total of 56 information sources were searched (in January 2020), then an updated search of 48 of these was carried out (in May 2021). Reference lists were also searched and experts were contacted. Review methods: Eligible studies were process/outcome evaluations of whole-school interventions to reduce student violence or substance use among students aged 5-18 years attending schools, via actions aligning with the theory of human functioning and school organisation: modifying teaching to increase engagement, enhancing student-staff relationships, revising school policies, encouraging volunteering or increasing parental involvement. Data extraction and quality assessments used existing tools. Theory and process reports were synthesised qualitatively. Outcome and economic data were synthesised narratively; outcome data were meta-analysed. Results: Searches retrieved 63 eligible reports on 27 studies of 22 interventions. We identified four intervention subtypes focused on student participation in school-wide decisions, improving staff-student relationships, increasing engagement in learning and involving parents. The theories of change of most intervention subtypes aligned closely with the theory of human functioning and school organisation, and informed refinement of an intervention theory of change. Theories of change for interventions increasing learning engagement did not align with this theory, aiming instead to increase school commitment primarily via social skills curricula. Factors influencing the implementation included whether or not interventions were tailorable, workable and well explained. Interventions with action groups comprising staff/students, etc. and providing local data were well implemented. Implementation was also affected by whether or not schools accepted the need for change and staff had the resources for delivery. Meta-analyses suggest small, but significant, intervention effects in preventing violence victimisation and perpetration, and substance use. There was sparse and inconsistent evidence of moderation and some evidence of mediation by student commitment to school. Two economic evaluations suggested that there is the potential for the interventions to be cost-effective. Limitations: The quality of the studies was variable and the economic synthesis was limited to two studies. Conclusions: Whole-school interventions aiming to promote student commitment to school share similar theories of change and factors affecting implementation. They have the potential to contribute to preventing violence and substance use among young people. Future trials should aim to optimise intervention effectiveness by better theorisation, and assess implementation and effect moderators and mediators. Study registration: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42019154334. Funding: This award was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Public Health Research programme (NIHR award ref: 17/151/05) and is published in full in Public Health Research; Vol. 12, No. 2. See the NIHR Funding and Awards website for further award information.


Whole-school health interventions aim to modify how schools are run, to promote students' health. Some aim to promote student commitment to school to prevent the important interlinked outcomes of substance (tobacco, alcohol, other drugs) use and violence. We searched for all evaluations of such interventions. We summarised what this research said about the sorts of interventions used, how they are meant to work, what factors affect delivery, whether or not they reduce violence and substance use and whether or not they are worth the money. We found 63 reports on 27 studies of 22 interventions. We identified four subtypes of interventions. These aimed to involve students in school decisions, improve staff­student relationships, increase engagement in learning or involve parents. Most of these interventions were intended to work by making sure schools focused on student needs, or by improving relationships between staff and students, between different areas of learning or between schools and communities. This aimed to make students feel committed to school and therefore avoid violence or substance use. A few aimed to work mostly by teaching students how to avoid violence and substance use. We found that interventions were well implemented if they were tailored for each school and had good materials and support. Interventions were well delivered if they were led by action groups (comprising staff, students, etc.) or provided schools with information on students' needs. Implementation was affected by whether or not schools accepted the need for change and whether or not staff had the necessary time and money to do the work. These interventions appear to have small, but significant, intervention impacts in preventing violence and substance use among young people. There was not consistent evidence of different effects for different students. A small number of studies suggest that such interventions might show economic benefit, but this would need further research. Future research should focus on interventions that are refined to make sure that they can be well delivered.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Adolescente , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes , Violencia/prevención & control , Escolaridad , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control
19.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1046655, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356950

RESUMEN

Background: American Indian youth are disproportionately impacted by substance use compared to White American youth in the United States. This mixed studies review focused on gathering data to examine the similarities and differences between the risk and protective factor profiles for substance use among American Indian and White American youth aged 10-21. Methods: A scan of the existing literature was needed to review substance use related risk and protective factors for American Indian and White American youth. Search phrases were created to ensure maximum relevant results from existing literature through 2021. After deduplication, an appraisal tool was utilized to review 343 records. A total of 19 articles were deemed relevant. Data from relevant articles was recorded and categorized into the levels of the Social Ecological Model. Results: Significant and salient risk and protective factors of substance use for both American Indian and White American youth presented at the individual, interpersonal (family/non-family), and community levels of the Social Ecological Model. A total of 84 factors were found from relevant articles, 55 risk factors and 29 protective factors. When comparing the American Indian and White American youth profiles, a total of 29 unique differences between American Indian (n = 21) and White American youth (n = 8) were identified. Discussion: Results from this review can be utilized to inform Tribal leaders, stakeholders, and policymakers, which will ultimately influence health intervention strategies and prioritizations. Given the limited evidence though, researchers should be responsive to Tribal communities' call to action for utilizing a culturally rooted approach.


Asunto(s)
Indios Norteamericanos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Blanco , Adolescente , Humanos , Factores Protectores , Estados Unidos , Niño , Adulto Joven , Medición de Riesgo
20.
Addict Biol ; 29(2): e13381, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38357782

RESUMEN

Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is a worldwide public health condition that is suggested to induce pathological changes in macrostructure and microstructure. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has gained attention as a potential treatment for CUD symptoms. Here, we sought to elucidate whether rTMS induces changes in white matter (WM) microstructure in frontostriatal circuits after 2 weeks of therapy in patients with CUD and to test whether baseline WM microstructure of the same circuits affects clinical improvement. This study consisted of a 2-week, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial (acute phase) (sham [n = 23] and active [n = 27]), in which patients received two daily sessions of rTMS on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (lDLPFC) as an add-on treatment. T1-weighted and high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI-HARDI) at baseline and 2 weeks after served to evaluate WM microstructure. After active rTMS, results showed a significant increase in neurite density compared with sham rTMS in WM tracts connecting lDLPFC with left and right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Similarly, rTMS showed a reduction in orientation dispersion in WM tracts connecting lDLPFC with the left caudate nucleus, left thalamus, and left vmPFC. Results also showed a greater reduction in craving Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) after rTMS when baseline intra-cellular volume fraction (ICVF) was low in WM tracts connecting left caudate nucleus with substantia nigra and left pallidum, as well as left thalamus with substantia nigra and left pallidum. Our results evidence rTMS-induced WM microstructural changes in fronto-striato-thalamic circuits and support its efficacy as a therapeutic tool in treating CUD. Further, individual clinical improvement may rely on the patient's individual structural connectivity integrity.


Asunto(s)
Cocaína , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Estimulación Magnética Transcraneal/métodos , Corteza Prefrontal/diagnóstico por imagen , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología , Corteza Prefontal Dorsolateral , Método Doble Ciego , Resultado del Tratamiento
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